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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938423

ABSTRACT

Appropriate monitoring of intradialytic biosignals is essential to minimize adverse outcomes because intradialytic hypotension and arrhythmia are associated with cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients. However, a continuous monitoring system for intradialytic biosignals has not yet been developed. Methods: This study investigated a cloud system that hosted a prospective, open-source registry to monitor and collect intradialytic biosignals, which was named the CONTINUAL (Continuous mOnitoriNg viTal sIgN dUring hemodiALysis) registry. This registry was based on real-time multimodal data acquisition, such as blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and photoplethysmogram results. Results: We analyzed session information from this system for the initial 8 months, including data for some cases with hemodynamic complications such as intradialytic hypotension and arrhythmia. Conclusion: This biosignal registry provides valuable data that can be applied to conduct epidemiological surveys on hemodynamic complications during hemodialysis and develop artificial intelligence models that predict biosignal changes which can improve patient outcomes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893821

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901525

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917064

ABSTRACT

Background@#Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is improving as a renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We analyzed the main outcomes of PD over the last three decades at a single large-scale PD center with an established high-quality care system. @*Methods@#As a retrospective cohort study, we included participants (n = 1,203) who began PD between 1990 and 2019. Major PD-related outcomes were compared among the three 10-year cohorts. @*Results@#The 1,203 participants were 58.3% male with a mean age of 47.9 ± 13.8 years. The median PD treatment duration was 45 months (interquartile range, 19–77 months); 362 patients (30.1%) transferred to hemodialysis, 289 (24.0%) received kidney transplants, and 224 (18.6%) died. Overall, the 5- and 8-year adjust patient survival rates were 64% and 49%, respectively. Common causes of death included infection (n = 55), cardiac (n = 38), and cerebrovascular (n = 17) events. The 5- and 8-year technique survival rates were 77% and 62%, respectively, with common causes of technique failure being infection (42.3%) and solute/water clearance problems (22.7%). The 5-year patient survival significantly improved over time (64% for the 1990–1999 cohort vs. 93% for the 2010–2019 cohort). The peritonitis rate also substantially decreased over time, from 0.278 episodes/patient-year (2000–2004) to 0.162 episodes/patient-year (2015–2019). @*Conclusion@#PD is an effective treatment option for ESRD patients. There was a substantial improvement in the patient survival and peritonitis rates over time. Establishing adequate infrastructure and an effective system for high-quality PD therapy may be warranted to improve PD outcomes.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1015-1023, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in lung cancer seems to be relatively higher compared with other solid organ malignancies, although its impact on patient outcomes remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#The patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were categorized according to the presence and severity of AKI. We compared all-cause mortality and long-term renal outcome according to AKI stage. @*Results@#A total of 3,202 patients were included in the final analysis. AKI occurred in 1,783 (55.7%) patients during the follow-up period, with the majority having mild AKI stage 1 (75.8%). During the follow-up of 2.6±2.2 years, total 1,251 patients (53.7%) were died and 5-year survival rate was 46.9%. We found that both AKI development and severity were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients, even after adjustment for lung cancer-specific variables including the stage or pathological type. In addition, patients suffered from more severe AKI tend to encounter de novo chronic kidney disease development, worsening kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease progression. @*Conclusion@#In this study, more than half of the lung cancer patients experienced AKI during their diagnosis and treatment period. Moreover, AKI occurrence and more advanced AKI were associated with a higher mortality risk and adverse kidney outcomes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893796

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

7.
Immune Network ; : e18-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835442

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) progresses with an increasingly inflammatory milieu, wherein various immune cells are relevant. Herein, we investigated the levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and their clinical implication in patients with T2DN. A total of 91 subjects (T2DN, n=80; healthy, n=11) were recruited and their PBMCs were used for flow cytometric analysis of polymorphonuclear (PMN-) and monocytic (M-) MDSCs, in addition to other immune cell subsets. The risk of renal progression was evaluated according to the quartiles of MDSC levels using the Cox model. The proportion of MDSCs in T2DN patients was higher than in healthy individuals (median, 6.7% vs. 2.5%). PMN-MDSCs accounted for 96% of MDSCs, and 78% of PMN-MDSCs expressed Lox-1. The expansion of PMN-MDSCs was not related to the stage of T2DN or other kidney disease parameters such as glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. The production of ROS in PMN-MDSCs of patients was higher than in neutrophils of patients or in immune cells of healthy individuals, and this production was augmented under hyperglycemic conditions. The 4th quartile group of PMN-MDSCs had a higher risk of renal progression than the 1st quartile group, irrespective of adjusting for multiple clinical and laboratory variables. In conclusion, PMN-MDSCs are expanded in patients with T2DN, and may represent as an immunological biomarker of renal progression.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834951

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypoalbuminemia reflects several pathological conditions, including nutritional deficiencies and chronic inflammation. However, its relationship with short-term and long-term mortality in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the effect of hypoalbuminemia on mortality in a large cohort of patients undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#The study retrospectively reviewed 1,581 patients who underwent CRRT for the treatment of acute kidney injury from 2010 to 2016. The patients were categorized by tertiles of serum albumin levels at CRRT initiation. The odds ratios and hazard ratios for the risk of all-cause mortality were calculated before and after adjustment for multiple covariates. @*Results@#The mean albumin level was 2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL at CRRT initiation. During a median follow-up period of 14 days (maximum, 4 years), 1,040 patients (65.8%) died. The risk of overall mortality was higher in the first tertile group than in the third tertile group (hazard ratio, 1.9 [1.63-2.21]). When the mortality rate was stratified by timeframe, the risk was steadily higher in the first tertile group than in the third tertile group (odds ratios: 3.0 [2.34-3.87] for 2-week mortality, 2.7 [2.12-3.52] for 1-month mortality, 2.7 [2.08-3.53] for 6-month mortality, and 2.8 [2.11- 3.62] for 1-year mortality). Additionally, the rates of intensive care unit mortality and in-hospital mortality were higher in the first tertile group than in the third tertile group. @*Conclusion@#The initial hypoalbuminemia was independently associated with short-term and long-term mortality in patients undergoing CRRT. Thus, the serum albumin level should be monitored during CRRT.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834935

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to various chronic comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few large studies have addressed whether recovery from MetS is associated with reduction in the risks of such comorbidities. @*Methods@#This nationwide population-based study in Korea screened 10,664,268 people who received national health screening ≥ 3 times between 2012 and 2016. Those with a history of major cardiovascular events or preexisting CKD were excluded. We classified study groups into four, according to the course of MetS state, as defined by the harmonizing criteria. The main study outcome was incidental CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 which was persistent until the last health exams). The study outcomes were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for clinical variables and the previous severity of MetS. @*Results@#Four study groups included 6,315,301 subjects: 4,537,869 people without MetS, 1,034,605 with chronic MetS, 438,287 who developed MetS, and 304,540 who recovered from preexisting MetS. Those who developed MetS demonstrated higher risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.26 [1.23-1.29]) than did those who did not develop MetS. In contrast, MetSrecovery was associated with decreased risk of CKD (adjusted OR, 0.84 [0.82-0.86]) than that in people with chronic MetS. Among the MetS components, change in hypertension was associated with the largest difference in CKD risk. @*Conclusion@#Reducing or preventing MetS may reduce the burden of CKD on a population-scale. Clinicians should consider the clinical importance of altering MetS status for risk of CKD.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831891

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Detailed nationwide information regarding the recent status and time trends of kidney transplantation (KT) in South Korea is limited. @*Methods@#We performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study using the national claims database of Korea. We included KT recipients from 2008 to 2016, and their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The prognostic outcome was graft failure consisted of patient death and death-censored graft failure (DCGF). @*Results@#We studied 14,601 KT recipients with median follow-up duration of 3.96 years. The median age at the time of transplantation consistently increased from the past, and proportion of underlying diabetes mellitus prominently increased, reaching 35.6% in 2016. The preemptive KT accounted for approximately 30% of the total transplantation cases. The recipients showed a 10-year cumulative graft survival rate of 71.8%, consisting of 10-year DCGF free survival of 77.6% and patient survival of 92.8%. Age ≥ 20 and 60,000,000$ in 2016. However, the expansion was mainly burdened by the national insurance service but not by the patients. @*Conclusions@#In South Korea, the number of kidney transplantation in elderly or in patients with comorbidities has been increasing. Complex clinical factors were associated with medication compliance and patient prognosis.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901500

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

12.
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer risk and epidemiology in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) warrant further investigation in a large-scale cohort. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based study using the national health insurance database of Korea. We screened records from 18,936,885 individuals who received a national health examination ≥ 2 times from 2009 to 2016. Pre-dialysis CKD was identified based on serum creatinine and dipstick albuminuria results. Individuals with preexisting cancer history, renal replacement therapy, or transient CKD were excluded. A control group without evidence of kidney function impairment and matched for age, sex, low-income status, and smoking history was included. Risk of cancers, as identified in the claims database, was investigated using a multivariable Cox regression model including matched variables and other unmatched clinical characteristics as covariates. RESULTS: A total of 471,758 people with pre-dialysis CKD and the same number of matched controls were included. Urinary (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.82–2.13) and hematopoietic (adjusted HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.38–1.68) malignancy risk was increased in pre-dialysis CKD and all CKD stages. However, the risk of digestive cancer was lower in the pre-dialysis CKD group (adjusted HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87–0.92). The risk of digestive, respiratory, thyroid, and prostate malignancy demonstrated a non-linear association with CKD stage, with stage 1 or stage 4/5 CKD without dialysis demonstrating relatively lower risk. CONCLUSION: Cancer risk varied in pre-dialysis CKD compared to controls, and the association between cancer risk and CKD stage varied depending on the cancer type.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Creatinine , Dialysis , Epidemiology , Kidney , Korea , National Health Programs , Prostate , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renal Replacement Therapy , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Gland
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758965

ABSTRACT

The authors would like to publish this corrigendum to correct the data in Table 2 of the above article.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Woman kidney donors face obstetric complication risks after kidney donation, such as gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Studies on childbirth-related complications among Asian women donors are scarce. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included woman donors aged 45 years or younger at the time of kidney donation in a single tertiary hospital between 1985 and 2014. Pregnancy associated complications were investigated using medical records and telephone questionnaires for 426 pregnancies among 225 donors. Matched non-donor controls were selected by propensity score and the maternal and fetal outcomes were compared with those of donors. Primary outcomes were differences in maternal complications, and secondary outcomes were fetal outcomes in pregnancies of the donor and control groups. RESULTS: A total of 56 cases had post-donation pregnancies. The post-donation pregnancies group was younger at the time of donation and older at the time of delivery than the pre-donation pregnancies group, and there were no differences in primary outcomes between the groups except the proportion receiving cesarean section. Comparison of the complication risk between post-donation pregnancies and non-donor matched controls showed no significant differences in gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or composite outcomes after propensity score matching including age at delivery, era at pregnancy, systolic blood pressure, body weight, and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.19–2.14; P = 0.724). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that maternal and fetal outcomes between woman kidney donors and non-donor matched controls were comparable. Studies with general population pregnancy controls are warranted to compare pregnancy outcomes for donors.


Subject(s)
Asians , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Female , Filtration , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Kidney , Medical Records , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Telephone , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study compared nutritional parameters in hemodialysis (HD) subjects and controls using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and investigated how BIA components changed before and after HD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 147 subjects on maintenance HD from two hospitals and 298 propensity score-matched controls from one healthcare center. BIA was performed pre- and post-HD at mid-week dialysis sessions. RESULTS: Extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) and waist-hip ratio were higher in the HD patients; the other variables were higher in the control group. The cardiothoracic ratio correlated best with overhydration (r = 0.425, P < 0.01) in HD subjects. Blood pressure, hemoglobin, creatinine, and uric acid positively correlated with the lean tissue index in controls; however, most of these nutritional markers did not show significant correlations in HD subjects. Normal hydrated weight was predicted to be higher in the pre-HD than post-HD measurements. Predicted ultrafiltration (UF) volume difference based on pre- and post-HD ECW/TBW and measured UF volume difference showed a close correlation (r 2 = 0.924, P < 0.01). Remarkably, the leg phase angle increased in the post-HD period. CONCLUSION: The estimated normal hydrated weight using ECW/TBW can be a good marker for determining dry weight. HD subjects had higher ECW/TBW but most nutritional indices were inferior to those of controls. It was possible to predict UF volume differences using BIA, but the post-HD increase in leg phase angle, a nutritional marker, must be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Water , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Dialysis , Humans , Leg , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Renal Dialysis , Ultrafiltration , Uric Acid , Waist-Hip Ratio
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to several comorbidities and mortality, but its relationship with acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term mortality remain undetermined in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Data from 3,018 patients (age ≥ 18 years) who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery from two tertiary referral centers were retrospectively reviewed between 2004 and 2015. Obesity was defined using the body mass index, according to the World Health Organization's recommendation. The odds and hazard ratios in post-surgical, AKI, and all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates. Patients were followed for 90 ± 40.9 months (maximum: 13 years). RESULTS: Among the cohort, 37.4%, 2.4%, 21.1%, 35.1%, and 4.0% of patients were classified as normal weight, underweight, overweight-at-risk, obese I, and obese II, respectively. Post-surgical AKI developed in 799 patients (26.5%). Patients in the obese groups (overweight-at-risk to obese II) had a higher risk of AKI than did those in the normal-weight group. During the follow-up period, 787 patients (26.1%) died. Underweight patients had a higher risk of mortality than did normal-weight patients, whereas overweight-at-risk, obese I, and obese II patients showed better survival rates. CONCLUSION: After coronary artery bypass graft surgery, obese patients encountered a high risk of AKI, and underweight patients exhibited a low chance of survival. Awareness of both obese and underweight statuses should be raised in these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Vessels , Follow-Up Studies , Global Health , Humans , Mortality , Obesity , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers , Thinness , Transplants
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important treatment modality for severe acute kidney injury. As such, the epidemiology of CRRT in Korea needs further investigation. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based study analyzing the claims data from National Health Insurance Service of Korea. All index intensive care unit admission cases of CRRT in government-designated tertiary referral hospitals in Korea from 2005 to 2016 were included. Patients with a history of renal replacement therapy or who were under 20 years old were not considered. In addition to baseline and treatment characteristics, patient outcomes, including all-cause mortality and renal survival rates, were investigated. We stratified the study patients according to 3-year time periods and major regions of the nation. RESULTS: We included 37,337 patients who received CRRT in Korea. The overall use of CRRT increased over time, and more than 80% of cases of acute renal replacement therapy were CRRT after 2014. Seoul was the region in which the majority of CRRT (45.0%) was performed. The clinical characteristics of CRRT patients were significantly different among time-intervals and regions. Both all-cause mortality and renal survival rates after CRRT were prominently improved in the recent time periods (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CRRT is a widely used treatment strategy for severe acute kidney injury in Korea. The prognosis of CRRT patients has improved compared to the past. This epidemiological study of CRRT in Korea revealed notable trends with regard to time period and geographic region.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Critical Care , Dialysis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Seoul , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200236

ABSTRACT

Despite the current knowledge about the risk of stroke and its related factors in general population, this issue in elderly patients receiving dialysis remains unresolved. Firstly, to compare the risk of stroke between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), data on 13,065 incident dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years; 10,675 in HD and 2,390 in PD) were retrieved from the Korean Health Insurance dataset. Secondly, to identify the risk factors of stroke amongst various clinical and laboratory parameters in HD, 980 elderly patients were retrospectively analyzed using an independent prospective cohort from 31 dialysis centers. For a mean duration of 1.8 years (maximum of 5 years), the risk of all cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease and stroke) did not differ between HD and PD. However, when analyses were conducted separately by subtype, the risk of stroke, not ischemic heart disease, was significantly higher in HD patients than in PD patients. When the risk factors of stroke were probed after HD for a mean duration of 2.6 years (maximum of 7 years), the absolute dependence on social support, a previous history of cardiovascular disease, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the use of a high number of anti-hypertensive drugs were identified as being significant. Based on the discrepancy of stroke risk between modalities and the HD-tailored risk factors of stroke, the monitoring and management of these factors may be a key strategy to reduce the risk of stroke in elderly patients receiving dialysis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antihypertensive Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Dialysis , Heart Diseases , Humans , Insurance, Health , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Lipoproteins , Myocardial Ischemia , Peritoneal Dialysis , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL6) is an important regulator of cellular hypertrophy through the gp130/Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that IL6 and its downstream gp130/JAK2/STAT3 pathway participated in high glucose (HG)–induced podocyte hypertrophy. METHODS: IL6 levels in the media and lysates of podocytes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blots were performed to determine the protein expression levels of gp130/JAK2/STAT3 among podocytes cultured with normal glucose (NG), NG + mannitol, NG + recombinant IL6, HG, and HG + IL6-neutralizing antibodies (IL6NAb). Immunoprecipitation was examined to determine whether gp130 interacted with JAK2 in response to HG or IL6. Podocyte hypertrophy was verified using protein/cell counts and flow cytometry. RESULTS: IL6 levels were significantly increased in the media and lysates of podocytes cultured in HG compared with the NG groups. The nuclear phospho-STAT3/STAT3 ratio was increased by HG and NG + IL6 and was attenuated in the HG + IL6NAb groups, indicating that nuclear STAT3 was activated following JAK2 and cytosolic STAT3 activation in response to IL6 secreted by HG-stimulated podocytes. Immunoprecipitation showed increased phospho-JAK2 recruitment to gp130 in the HG and NG + IL6 groups, and the addition of IL6NAb in the HG group significantly abrogated these increases. Podocyte hypertrophy was significantly increased in the HG and NG + IL6 compared with the NG condition and was diminished by the addition of IL6NAbs to the HG group. CONCLUSION: IL6 might play a prominent role in the local activation of JAK2/STAT3 in podocyte hypertrophy under HG conditions. In vivo studies examining this pathway are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Cytosol , Diabetic Nephropathies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Glucose , Hypertrophy , Immunoprecipitation , Interleukin-6 , Mannitol , Phosphotransferases , Podocytes , Transducers
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