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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919314

ABSTRACT

The pathogenic free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a fatal infection, by penetrating the nasal mucosa and migrating to the brain via the olfactory nerves. N. fowleri can induce host cell death via lytic necrosis. Similar to phosphorylation, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in various cell-signaling processes, including apoptosis and proliferation, with O-GlcNAc addition and removal regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. However, the detailed mechanism of host cell death induced by N. fowleri is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether N. fowleri can induce the modulation of O-GlcNAcylated proteins during cell death in Jurkat T cells. Co-incubation with live N. fowleri trophozoites increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, incubation with N. fowleri induced a dramatic reduction in O-GlcNAcylated protein levels in 30 min. Moreover, pretreatment of Jurkat T cells with the OGA inhibitor PUGNAc prevented N. fowleri–induced O-deGlcNAcylation and DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that O-deGlcNAcylation is an important signaling process that occurs during Jurkat T cell death induced by N. fowleri.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832830

ABSTRACT

A variety of medical devices have evolved throughout the years. Commonly used devices have typical radiological appearances which are familiar to radiologists. However, some new devices, as well as devices that are not commonly used, may be missed or misinterpreted by radiologists. It is even more difficult to identify a certain medical device with limited clinical history. Therefore, accurate identification of medical devices is crucial to diagnose malposition and potential complications. In this article, we provide a pictorial review of medical devices of the abdomen and pelvis according to classifications that include gastrointestinal devices, hepatobiliary devices, genitourinary devices, and miscellaneous. We also comprehensively review the clinical and radiologic features of complications related to these medical devices.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916781

ABSTRACT

Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCOGCs) of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm that contains osteoclast-like giant cells, which are morphologically identical to those seen in giant cell tumors of bones. Histopathologically, it is composed of round to spindle-shaped neoplastic cells and non-neoplastic histiocytic giant cells. Although only limited radiologic findings are available due to the rarity of this tumor, UCOGCs shows variable imaging features in the literature from an inhomogeneous solid mass to a multilocular cystic tumor. Herein, we report an unusual manifestation of UCOGCs of the pancreas mimicking a predominantly calcified mass with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1119-1129, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the image quality of low-tube-voltage and low-iodine-concentration-contrast-medium (LVLC) computed tomography urography (CTU) with iterative reconstruction (IR) with that of conventional CTU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, multi-institutional, randomized controlled trial was performed at 16 hospitals using CT scanners from various vendors. Patients were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) the LVLC-CTU (80 kVp and 240 mgI/mL) with IR group and 2) the conventional CTU (120 kVp and 350 mgI/mL) with filtered-back projection group. The overall diagnostic acceptability, sharpness, and noise were assessed. Additionally, the mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and figure of merit (FOM) in the urinary tract were evaluated. RESULTS: The study included 299 patients (LVLC-CTU group: 150 patients; conventional CTU group: 149 patients). The LVLC-CTU group had a significantly lower effective radiation dose (5.73 ± 4.04 vs. 8.43 ± 4.38 mSv) compared to the conventional CTU group. LVLC-CTU showed at least standard diagnostic acceptability (score ≥ 3), but it was non-inferior when compared to conventional CTU. The mean attenuation value, mean SNR, CNR, and FOM in all pre-defined segments of the urinary tract were significantly higher in the LVLC-CTU group than in the conventional CTU group. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic acceptability and quantitative image quality of LVLC-CTU with IR are not inferior to those of conventional CTU. Additionally, LVLC-CTU with IR is beneficial because both radiation exposure and total iodine load are reduced.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Contrast Media , Humans , Iodine , Noise , Prospective Studies , Radiation Exposure , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Urinary Tract , Urography
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916687

ABSTRACT

Toxocariasis, a parasitic infection, causes hyper eosinophilia resulting in radiological presentation of eosinophilic infiltrations in the involved organs. In the abdomen, toxocariasis has been reported to manifest as infiltrations in the liver or in the gastrointestinal tract, but it is known to be uncommon to manifest as multiple lymphadenopathy. There have been two case reports of toxocariasis presenting as generalized lymphadenopathy in the chest, neck and inguinal regions. To the best of our knowledge, generalized conglomerated lymphadenopathy occurring mostly in the abdomen from toxocariasis has not been published in the English literature. Herein, we report a rare case of toxocariasis presenting as multiple conglomerated lymphadenopathy mimicking lymphoma on CT.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160903

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling.


Subject(s)
Cell Degranulation , Cell Line , Exocytosis , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolism , Virulence Factors/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70517

ABSTRACT

The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Entamoeba histolytica/enzymology , Humans , Hydrolysis , Jurkat Cells , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/parasitology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7401

ABSTRACT

Entamoeba histolytica is a tissue-invasive protozoan parasite causing dysentery in humans. During infection of colonic tissues, amoebic trophozoites are able to kill host cells via apoptosis or necrosis, both of which trigger IL-8-mediated acute inflammatory responses. However, the signaling pathways involved in host cell death induced by E. histolytica have not yet been fully defined. In this study, we examined whether calpain plays a role in the cleavage of pro-survival transcription factors during cell death of colonic epithelial cells, induced by live E. histolytica trophozoites. Incubation with amoebic trophozoites induced activation of m-calpain in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, incubation with amoebae resulted in marked degradation of STAT proteins (STAT3 and STAT5) and NF-kappaB (p65) in Caco-2 cells. However, IkappaB, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, was not cleaved in Caco-2 cells following adherence of E. histolytica. Entamoeba-induced cleavage of STAT proteins and NF-kappaB was partially inhibited by pretreatment of cells with a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. In contrast, E. histolytica did not induce cleavage of caspase-3 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with a calpain inhibitor, calpeptin (but not the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk) or m-calpain siRNA partially reduced Entamoeba-induced DNA fragmentation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that calpain plays an important role in E. histolytica-induced degradation of NF-kappaB and STATs in colonic epithelial cells, which ultimately accelerates cell death.


Subject(s)
Caco-2 Cells , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Calpain/genetics , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspases , Cell Death , Colon/cytology , Entamoeba histolytica/physiology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Humans , I-kappa B Proteins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , NF-kappa B/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT5 Transcription Factor/genetics , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216693

ABSTRACT

Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cell Line , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. RESULTS: Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. CONCLUSIONS: Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Fat , Bile Ducts , Fatty Liver , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Kidney , Liver , Obesity , Spleen , Subcutaneous Fat
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182102

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated lumen-dwelling extracellular protozoan parasite that causes human trichomoniasis via sexual intercourse. Human neutrophils play a crucial role in acute tissue inflammatory responses in T. vaginalis infection. In this study, we investigated the signaling mechanism of neutrophil responses when stimulated with T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP), which were collected from 1x10(7) live trichomonads. Incubation of human neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood with TvSP induced up-regulation of IL-8 protein secretion. In addition, stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and CREB in neutrophils. Moreover, TvSP-induced IL-8 production was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment of neutrophils with ikappaB inhibitor or CREB inhibitor. These results suggest that transcription factors NF-kappaB and CREB are involved in IL-8 production in human neutrophils induced by stimulation with T. vaginalis infection.


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Human Experimentation , Humans , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Phosphorylation , Trichomonas vaginalis/immunology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47943

ABSTRACT

Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that can cause amebic colitis and liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica has the capability to kill colon epithelial cells in vitro; however, information regarding the role of calpain in colon cell death induced by ameba is limited. In this study, we investigated whether calpains are involved in the E. histolytica-induced cell death of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. When HT-29 cells were co-incubated with E. histolytica, the propidium iodide stained dead cells markedly increased compared to that in HT-29 cells incubated with medium alone. This pro-death effect induced by ameba was effectively blocked by pretreatment of HT-29 cells with the calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. Moreover, knockdown of m- and micro-calpain by siRNA significantly reduced E. histolytica-induced HT-29 cell death. These results suggest that m- and micro-calpain may be involved in colon epithelial cell death induced by E. histolytica.


Subject(s)
Calpain/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dipeptides/metabolism , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/parasitology , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65182

ABSTRACT

The cystic lesions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract demonstrate the various pathologic findings. Some lesions may present a diagnostic challenge because of non-specific imaging features; however, other lesions are easily diagnosed using characteristic radiologic features and anatomic locations. Cystic masses from the GI tract can be divided into several categories: congenital lesions, neoplastic lesions (cystic neoplasms, cystic degeneration of solid neoplasms), and other miscellaneous lesions. In this pictorial review, we describe the pathologic findings of various cystic lesions of the GI tract as well as the radiologic features of GI cystic lesions from several imaging modalities including a barium study, transabdominal ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Cysts/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725637

ABSTRACT

Perirenal hematoma after a renal biopsy is a common complication that usually resolves spontaneously, but this rarely requires transfusions or surgical/radiological intervention. We report here on a case of a renal perforating artery that was mistaken for renal arterial bleeding in a 53-year-old woman who was complicated with perirenal hematoma after undergoing a percutaneous renal biopsy. On the color and pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography, linear blood flow was seen in the perirenal hematoma, which extended perpendicularly from the renal parenchyma into the perirenal space, and this linear blood flow exhibited an arterial pulse wave. On CT angiography, the renal perforating artery was demonstrated as a curvilinear vessel coursing tangentially to the renal margin and we decided that it was a pseudolesion caused by the renal perforating artery. A renal perforating artery may be mistaken for renal arterial bleeding after a percutaneous renal biopsy. A renal perforating artery and arterial bleeding can be differentiated by the location and shape seen on a color Doppler examination and the pulse waves characteristics.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Biopsy , Female , Glycosaminoglycans , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Middle Aged , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725633

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli , Fever , Humans , Inflammation , Klebsiella , Liver , Streptococcus , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225357

ABSTRACT

Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the stomach with an incidence ranging from 0.04% to 0.4% of all diagnosed gastric cancers. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach associated with hypertrophic gastropathy and observed as a huge mass and wall thickening on the greater curvature site by a multidetector CT.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Incidence , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34146

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between the radiological non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index (RNHFI), as determined by SPIO-enhanced MRI, and the laboratory non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (99 total: 61 men and 38 women; mean age: 58 years) who underwent SPIO-enhanced MRI (1.5T) during 5 years included. These patients were subdivided into a liver cirrhosis group (LCG) and a non-liver cirrhosis group (non-LCG). Using PACS view, we measured the RNHFI (mean standard deviation of hepatic signal intensity (SD), noise-corrected coefficient of variation (CV)) of three ROIs in the liver parenchyma by SPIO-enhanced MRI. The laboratory non-invasive hepatic fibrosis index (AST-platelet ratio index (APRI)) of all patients was calculated from the laboratory data. We compared the RNHFI and APRI of LCG with those of non-LC group using Student's t-test. A bivariate correlation was performed to investigate the relationship between the RNHFI and APRI in the LCG. RESULTS: For the LCG, mean values of SD and CV by SPIO-enhanced MRI were 10.3 +/-3.7 and 0.19+/-0.08, respectively. For the non-LCG, mean values of SD and CV were 6.5+/-1.6 and 0.08+/-0.05, respectively. The mean APRI of the LCG and the non-LCG were 2.04+/-1.7 and 0.32+/-0.32, respectively. The RNHFI and APRI were significantly different between both groups (p<05). For the LCG, the bivariate correlation between SD and APRI revealed a statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.5, p<0.001). In both groups, there was no statistically significant correlation between CV and APRI. CONCLUSION: A measurement of SD can be a simple and useful method for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Ferric Compounds , Fibrosis , Humans , Iron , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Male
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163640

ABSTRACT

The spontaneous defecation of the surpical retained sponge is very rare. Here, we report a case of migrating surgical sponge that was retained in the colon and it was evacuated by defecation.


Subject(s)
Surgical Sponges/adverse effects , Peritoneal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Foreign-Body Migration/etiology , Female , Diagnosis, Differential , Defecography , Defecation , Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91956

ABSTRACT

Ectopic stomal varices are an unusual cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The term "ectopic stomal varices" means abnormally dilated veins that have developed in the stomal mucosa. We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices.


Subject(s)
Varicose Veins/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Recurrence , Male , Ligation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Colostomy , Aged
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177056

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are important effector cells against protozoan extracellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and liver abscess in human beings. Apoptotic cell death of neutrophils is an important event in the resolution of inflammation and parasite's survival in vivo. This study was undertaken to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of apoptotic cells during neutrophil death triggered by Entamoeba histolytica. Isolated human neutrophils from the peripheral blood were incubated with or without live trophozoites of E. histolytica and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Neutrophils incubated with E. histolytica were observed to show apoptotic characteristics, such as compaction of the nuclear chromatin and swelling of the nuclear envelop. In contrast, neutrophils incubated in the absence of the amoeba had many protrusions of irregular cell surfaces and heterogenous nuclear chromatin. Therefore, it is suggested that Entamoeba-induced neutrophil apoptosis contribute to prevent unwanted tissue inflammation and damage in the amoeba-invaded lesions in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Entamoeba histolytica/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Neutrophils/physiology
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