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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938268

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rapid increase in the number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients led to the operation of COVID-19 facilities for patients with mild COVID-19 in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation and effect of risk factors associated with the worsening of patients with mild COVID-19 leading to their transfer from a community treatment center to a hospital. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort observational study included 1,208 COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms who were admitted to the Namsan Community Treatment Center between June 2020 and January 2021. A chi-square test was performed to examine the differences in the transfer rate by age, sex, nationality, presence of symptoms at admission, and season, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of variables to the hospitalization rate. @*Results@#Of the 1,208 patients, 212 (17.5%) were transferred to a hospital due to clinical deterioration. Increasing odds of hospital transfer were associated significantly with higher age and presentation in autumn, whereas sex and symptomatic illness at admission did not show a statistically significant association. @*Conclusion@#The findings indicate the importance of the initial risk classification of COVID-19 patients based on thorough assessment and close monitoring, timely allocation of appropriate resources to high-risk groups that are likely to develop severe disease, and reduction of medical resource wastage and limiting of administrative force to ensure that patients receive the best treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Death by suicide is a major public health problem. To provide multidisciplinary support to patients who attempted suicide, emergency department (ED)-based psychiatric screening and intervention programs were offered. We traced the long-term survival outcome of patients visiting the ED after suicide attempts using the national death certificate registration database. @*Methods@#A retrospective observational study was conducted using a database of patients from “Psychiatric Crisis Response Centers” (PCRC) of 27 EDs between January 2013 and August 2015. Patients who visited the ED after attempting suicide were screened and interviewed by social workers from the PCRC. The database was merged with the national death certificate database to trace the death and cause of death of the patients until December 2018. The characteristics and outcomes were compared based on the patient’s compliance with the follow-up case management program. @*Results@#Of the 12,544 interviewed patients, the data of 9,587 patients were successfully matched with data from the death certificate database. Death by suicide was higher in the noncompliance group (4.5% vs. 12.4%, P < 0.001); however, death caused by factors other than suicide did not differ between groups (4.8% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.906). @*Conclusion@#Suicide resulted in a lower long-term mortality rate among patients who complied with the follow-up case management session in the ED-based brief psychiatric intervention and follow-up program.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937300

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study analyzed the association of transport time interval (TTI) with survival rate and neurologic outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the interaction effect of TTI according to prehospital airway management. @*Methods@#A retrospective observational study based on the nationwide OHCA database from January 2013 to December 2017 was designed. Emergency medical service (EMS)-treated OHCA patients aged ≥18 years were included. TTI was categorized into four groups of quartiles (≤4, 5–7, 8–11, ≥12 minutes). The primary outcome was favorable neurologic outcome at discharge. The secondary outcome was survival to discharge from the hospital. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze outcomes according to TTI. A different effect of TTI according to the administration of prehospital EMS advanced airway was evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 83,470 patients were analyzed. Good neurologic recovery decreased as TTI increased (1.0% for TTI ≤4 minutes, 0.9% for TTI 5–7 minutes, 0.6% for TTI 8–11 minutes, and 0.5% for TTI ≥12 minutes; P for trend <0.05). The adjusted odds ratio of prolonged TTI (≥12 minutes) was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.57–0.93; P<0.01) for good neurologic recovery. However, the negative effect of prolonged TTI on neurological outcome was insignificant when advanced airway or entotracheal intubation were performed by EMS providers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.42–3.29; P=0.76). @*Conclusion@#EMS TTI was negatively associated with the neurologic outcome of OHCA without ROSC on scene. When advanced airway was performed on scene, TTI was insignificantly associated with the outcome.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892179

ABSTRACT

Background@#Emergency departments (EDs) generally receive many casualties in disaster or mass casualty incidents (MCI). Some studies have conceptually suggested the surge capacity that ED should have; however, only few studies have investigated measurable numbers in one community. This study investigated the surge capacity of the specific number of accommodatable patients and overall preparedness at EDs in a metropolitan city. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study officially surveyed surge capacity and disaster preparedness for all regional and local emergency medical centers (EMC) in Seoul with the Seoul Metropolitan Government's public health division. This study developed survey items on space, staff, stuff, and systems, which are essential elements of surge capacity. The number of patients acceptable for each ED was investigated by triage level in ordinary and crisis situations. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed on hospital resource variables related to surge capacity. @*Results@#In the second half of 2018, a survey was conducted targeting 31 EMC directors in Seoul. It was found that all regional and local EMCs in Seoul can accommodate 848 emergency patients and 537 non-emergency patients in crisis conditions. In ordinary situations, one EMC could accommodate an average of 1.3 patients with Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) level 1, 3.1 patients with KTAS level 2, and 5.7 patients with KTAS level 3. In situations of crisis, this number increased to 3.4, 7.8, and 16.2, respectively. There are significant differences in surge capacity between ordinary and crisis conditions. The difference in surge capacity between regional and local EMC was not significant. In both ordinary and crisis conditions, only the total number of hospital beds were significantly associated with surge capacity. @*Conclusion@#If the hospital's emergency transport system is ideally accomplished, patients arising from average MCI can be accommodated in Seoul. However, in a huge disaster, it may be challenging to handle the current surge capacity. More detailed follow-up studies are needed to prepare a surge capacity protocol in the community.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889841

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Delivery of prehospital defibrillation for shockable rhythms by emergency medical service providers is crucial for successful resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. The optimal range of prehospital defibrillation attempts for refractory shockable rhythms is unknown. This study evaluated the association between the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts and neurologic outcomes in OHCA patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective observational study was conducted using the nationwide OHCA registry. Adult OHCA patients who were treated by emergency medical service providers due to presumed cardiac origin with initial shockable rhythm were enrolled from 2013 to 2016. The final analysis was performed on patients without on-scene return of spontaneous circulation. The number of prehospital defibrillation attempts was categorized as follows: 2–3, 4–5, and ≥6 attempts. The primary outcome was a good neurologic recovery at hospital discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between neurologic outcomes and the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts. @*Results@#A total of 4,513 patients were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients for whom 2–3, 4–5, and ≥6 defibrillation attempts were made were 2,720 (60.3%), 1,090 (24.2%), and 703 (15.5%), respectively. Poorer outcomes were associated with ≥6 defibrillation attempts: survival to hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.65) and good neurologic recovery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.84). @*Conclusion@#Six or more prehospital defibrillation attempts were associated with poorer neurologic outcomes in OHCA patients with an initial shockable rhythm who were unresponsive to on-scene defibrillation and resuscitation.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1145-1154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919587

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to modify and validate an emergency department (ED) triage system with improved prediction performance on hospital outcomes by modifying the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS). @*Materials and Methods@#We performed a retrospective observational study at three academic universities in South Korea. The KTAS code, determined by the chief complaint and the selected modifier of a patient, was used to derive the Modified KTAS (MKTAS). We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and the test characteristics to evaluate the performance of MKTAS to predict hospital mortality, critical outcome, and admission. @*Results@#A total of 272402 and 128831 ED visits were used for the derivation and validation of MKTAS, respectively. Compared to KTAS, MKTAS had significantly higher AUC values for the prediction of hospital mortality [MKTAS 0.826 (0.818–0.835) vs. KTAS 0.794 (0.784–0.803)], critical outcome [MKTAS 0.836 (0.830–0.841) vs. 0.798 (0.792–0.804)], and admission [MKTAS 0.725 (0.723– 0.728) vs. KTAS 0.685 (0.682–0.688)]. The sensitivity for predicting hospital mortality and critical outcome, as well as the specificity for predicting admission, were significantly improved. @*Conclusion@#MKTAS was derived by modifying the KTAS, and then validated. Compared with KTAS, MKTAS showed better discriminating ability to predict hospital outcomes. Continuous efforts to evaluate and modify widely used triage systems are required to improve their performance.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899883

ABSTRACT

Background@#Emergency departments (EDs) generally receive many casualties in disaster or mass casualty incidents (MCI). Some studies have conceptually suggested the surge capacity that ED should have; however, only few studies have investigated measurable numbers in one community. This study investigated the surge capacity of the specific number of accommodatable patients and overall preparedness at EDs in a metropolitan city. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study officially surveyed surge capacity and disaster preparedness for all regional and local emergency medical centers (EMC) in Seoul with the Seoul Metropolitan Government's public health division. This study developed survey items on space, staff, stuff, and systems, which are essential elements of surge capacity. The number of patients acceptable for each ED was investigated by triage level in ordinary and crisis situations. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed on hospital resource variables related to surge capacity. @*Results@#In the second half of 2018, a survey was conducted targeting 31 EMC directors in Seoul. It was found that all regional and local EMCs in Seoul can accommodate 848 emergency patients and 537 non-emergency patients in crisis conditions. In ordinary situations, one EMC could accommodate an average of 1.3 patients with Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) level 1, 3.1 patients with KTAS level 2, and 5.7 patients with KTAS level 3. In situations of crisis, this number increased to 3.4, 7.8, and 16.2, respectively. There are significant differences in surge capacity between ordinary and crisis conditions. The difference in surge capacity between regional and local EMC was not significant. In both ordinary and crisis conditions, only the total number of hospital beds were significantly associated with surge capacity. @*Conclusion@#If the hospital's emergency transport system is ideally accomplished, patients arising from average MCI can be accommodated in Seoul. However, in a huge disaster, it may be challenging to handle the current surge capacity. More detailed follow-up studies are needed to prepare a surge capacity protocol in the community.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897545

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Delivery of prehospital defibrillation for shockable rhythms by emergency medical service providers is crucial for successful resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. The optimal range of prehospital defibrillation attempts for refractory shockable rhythms is unknown. This study evaluated the association between the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts and neurologic outcomes in OHCA patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective observational study was conducted using the nationwide OHCA registry. Adult OHCA patients who were treated by emergency medical service providers due to presumed cardiac origin with initial shockable rhythm were enrolled from 2013 to 2016. The final analysis was performed on patients without on-scene return of spontaneous circulation. The number of prehospital defibrillation attempts was categorized as follows: 2–3, 4–5, and ≥6 attempts. The primary outcome was a good neurologic recovery at hospital discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between neurologic outcomes and the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts. @*Results@#A total of 4,513 patients were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients for whom 2–3, 4–5, and ≥6 defibrillation attempts were made were 2,720 (60.3%), 1,090 (24.2%), and 703 (15.5%), respectively. Poorer outcomes were associated with ≥6 defibrillation attempts: survival to hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.65) and good neurologic recovery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.84). @*Conclusion@#Six or more prehospital defibrillation attempts were associated with poorer neurologic outcomes in OHCA patients with an initial shockable rhythm who were unresponsive to on-scene defibrillation and resuscitation.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831702

ABSTRACT

Background@#In response to the disaster of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) established a patient facility for mild condition patients other than hospital. This study was conducted to investigate the operation and necessary resources of a community treatment center (CTC) operated in Seoul, a metropolitan city with a population of 10 million. @*Methods@#To respond COVID-19 epidemic, the SMG designated 5 municipal hospitals as dedicated COVID-19 hospitals and implemented one CTC cooperated with the Boramae Municipal Hospital for COVID-19 patients in Seoul. As a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, retrospective medical records review was conducted for patients admitted to the Seoul CTC. The admission and discharge route of CTC patients were investigated. The patient characteristics were compared according to route of discharge whether the patient was discharged to home or transferred to hospital. To report the operation of CTC, the daily mean number of tests (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and chest X-ray) and consultations by medical staffs were calculated per week. The list of frequent used medications and who used medication most frequently were investigated. @*Results@#Until May 27 when the Seoul CTC was closed, 26.5% (n = 213) of total 803 COVID-19 patients in Seoul were admitted to the CTC. It was 35.7% (n = 213) of 597 newly diagnosed patients in Seoul during the 11 weeks of operation. The median length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range, 12–29 days). A total of 191 patients (89.7%) were discharged to home after virologic remission and 22 (10.3%) were transferred to hospital for further treatment.Fifty percent of transferred patients were within a week since CTC admission. Daily 2.5–3.6consultations by doctors or nurses and 0.4–0.9 tests were provided to one patient. The most frequently prescribed medication was symptomatic medication for COVID-19 (cough/ sputum and rhinorrhea). The next ranking was psychiatric medication for sleep problem and depression/anxiety, which was prescribed more than digestive drug. @*Conclusion@#In the time of an infectious disease disaster, a metropolitan city can operate a temporary patient facility such as CTC to make a surge capacity and appropriately allocate scarce medical resource.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889816

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been used to predict trauma patient mortality and to assess the quality of trauma care systems. The goal of this investigation was to develop a modified trauma-related injury severity score (termed the TRISS-D) for predicting disability in acute trauma patients. @*Methods@#We used data collected by emergency medical services and entered into the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention severe trauma database. The TRISS-D was based on age category (0–14, 15–54, ≥55 years), the Revised Trauma Score, and the Injury Severity Score. The outcome measures were severe disability and worsening disability. Worsening disability was defined as a lower Glasgow Outcome Scale score at hospital discharge than before the traumatic incident. Two types of cases were examined: those with penetrating or blunt injuries (group 1) and those with severe head injuries (group 2). We assessed the discriminatory power of the TRISS-D by calculating the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). @*Results@#The database comprised 14,791 patients; overall, 3,757 (25%) had severe disability and 6,018 (41%) had worsening disability. For severe disability, the AUROC (95% confidence interval) for the TRISS-D was 0.948 (0.944–0.952) in group 1 and 0.950 (0.946–0.954) in group 2. The corresponding values for worsening disability were 0.810 (0.803–0.817) and 0.816 (0.809–0.823), respectively. @*Conclusion@#The TRISS-D showed excellent discriminatory power for severe disability and very good discriminatory power for worsening disability.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897520

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been used to predict trauma patient mortality and to assess the quality of trauma care systems. The goal of this investigation was to develop a modified trauma-related injury severity score (termed the TRISS-D) for predicting disability in acute trauma patients. @*Methods@#We used data collected by emergency medical services and entered into the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention severe trauma database. The TRISS-D was based on age category (0–14, 15–54, ≥55 years), the Revised Trauma Score, and the Injury Severity Score. The outcome measures were severe disability and worsening disability. Worsening disability was defined as a lower Glasgow Outcome Scale score at hospital discharge than before the traumatic incident. Two types of cases were examined: those with penetrating or blunt injuries (group 1) and those with severe head injuries (group 2). We assessed the discriminatory power of the TRISS-D by calculating the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). @*Results@#The database comprised 14,791 patients; overall, 3,757 (25%) had severe disability and 6,018 (41%) had worsening disability. For severe disability, the AUROC (95% confidence interval) for the TRISS-D was 0.948 (0.944–0.952) in group 1 and 0.950 (0.946–0.954) in group 2. The corresponding values for worsening disability were 0.810 (0.803–0.817) and 0.816 (0.809–0.823), respectively. @*Conclusion@#The TRISS-D showed excellent discriminatory power for severe disability and very good discriminatory power for worsening disability.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to achieve expert consensus for the evaluation of Emergency medical system operation fund (EMSOF) support projects using the Delphi method in Korea. METHODS: The Delphi study was performed in June 2018. Experts who are members of the policy committee of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine (KSEM) participated in the study. Respondents were asked to express their level of agreement of appropriateness for the following 6 categories for 21 projects: project contents, amount of support, indicators, performance, overall evaluation, and need to maintain. With a possible score of 9 points, the project categories were classified into 3 groups, inappropriate, moderate and appropriate, based on the median score of the respondents' ratings in each question. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 18 policy committee members participated in the survey. Their average professional work years were 8.2 years. All 21 projects were evaluated as appropriate for content. Amount of support and indicators were evaluated as moderate. Only 5 out of the 21 projects were evaluated as having appropriate indicators. No projects were evaluated as ineffective. Comprehensive evaluation of the projects was evaluated as moderate, and no project was evaluated as inappropriate in fund support. CONCLUSION: Overall, the contents of the EMSOF assistance project were rated high; however, there was a disagreement on the amount of support and evaluation indicators for each project. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic data to improve the use of EMSOF.


Subject(s)
Committee Membership , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Financial Management , Korea , Methods , Resource Allocation , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of pediatric disability that results in many emergency department visits. The risk of TBI is high while playing sports. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics and clinical characteristics of sports-related TBI. METHODS: We performed a multicenter observational study using the Emergency Department–Based Injury In-Depth Surveillance database in Korea. Patients aged 5 to 18 years old, who sustained unintentional, sports-related head injuries between January 2011 and December 2016 were included. The type of sports was the main variable of interest, and it was classified into 6 categories. The primary outcome was TBI, and the secondary outcome was intracranial injury and hospital admission. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals for the outcomes by sports type. RESULTS: Of the 1,537,617 injured patients, 10,717 (0.7%) patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male (87.5%), and the most prevalent sports type was field sports (51.2%). The proportion of TBI, intracranial injury, and admission were 15.7%, 1.2%, and 3.5%, respectively. The aORs of TBI, intracranial injury, and admission in bicycle and street sports compared to field sports were 1.77 (1.37–2.28), 4.99 (2.62–9.50), and 2.27 (1.42–3.61) respectively. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide epidemiologic study of pediatric sports-related TBI in Korea. The ratios of TBI, intracranial injury and admission were highest in bicycle and street sports. Prevention strategies for pediatric sports-related TBI can be developed according to sports types.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Child , Craniocerebral Trauma , Demography , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Sports
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), there has been no convinced data on the necessity of routine invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in OHCA. We investigated clinical factors associated with obstructive CAD in OHCA. METHODS: Data from 516 OHCA patients (mean age 58 years, 83% men) who underwent ICA after resuscitation was obtained from a nation-wide OHCA registry. Obstructive CAD was defined as the lesions with diameter stenosis ≥ 50% on ICA. Independent clinical predictors for obstructive CAD were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis, and their prediction performance was compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with 10,000 repeated random permutations. RESULTS: Among study patients, 254 (49%) had obstructive CAD. Those with obstructive CAD were older (61 vs. 55 years, P < 0.001) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (54% vs. 36%, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (29% vs. 21%, P = 0.032), positive cardiac enzyme (84% vs. 74%, P = 0.010) and initial shockable rhythm (70% vs. 61%, P = 0.033). In multiple logistic regression analysis, old age (≥ 60 years) (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–3.00; P = 0.001), hypertension (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.18–2.57; P = 0.005), positive cardiac enzyme (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09–2.70; P = 0.019), and initial shockable rhythm (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16–2.54; P = 0.007) were associated with obstructive CAD. Prediction ability for obstructive CAD increased proportionally when these 4 factors were sequentially combined (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with OHCA, those with old age, hypertension, positive cardiac enzyme and initial shockable rhythm were associated with obstructive CAD. Early ICA should be considered in these patients.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prevalence , Resuscitation , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics and trauma service structures and processes of hospitals in 15 countries across the Asia Pacific, and to provide baseline data for the integrated trauma database: the Pan-Asian Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS).METHODS: Medical directors and emergency physicians at PATOS-participating hospitals in countries across the Asia Pacific were surveyed through a standardized questionnaire. General information, trauma care system data, and trauma emergency department (ED) outcomes at each hospital were collected by email and analyzed using descriptive statistics.RESULTS: Survey data from 35 hospitals across 15 countries were collected from archived data between June 2014 and July 2015. Designated trauma centers were identified as the highest hospital level for trauma patients in 70% of surveyed countries. Half of the hospitals surveyed had special teams for trauma care, and almost all prepared activation protocol documents for these teams. Most hospitals offered specialized trauma education programs, and 72.7% of hospitals had a hospital-based trauma registry. The total number of trauma patients visiting the ED across 25 of the hospitals was 300,376. The overall survival-to-discharge rate was 97.2%; however, it varied greatly between 85.1% and 99.7%. The difference between survival-to-discharge rates of moderate and severe injury groups was highest in Taiwan (41.8%) and lowest in Thailand (18.6%).CONCLUSION: Trauma care systems and ED outcomes vary widely among surveyed hospitals and countries. This information is useful to build further detailed, systematic platforms for trauma surveillance and evidence-based trauma care policies.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education , Electronic Mail , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Humans , Physician Executives , Taiwan , Thailand , Trauma Centers
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Head elevation at an angle of 30° during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was hemodynamically beneficial compared to supine position in a previous porcine cardiac arrest experimental study. However, survival benefit of head-up elevation during CPR has not been clarified. This study aimed to assess the effect of head-up tilt position during CPR on 24-hour survival in a porcine cardiac arrest experimental model.METHODS: This was a randomized experimental trial using female farm pigs (n=18, 42±3 kg) sedated, intubated, and paralyzed on a tilting surgical table. After surgical preparation, 15 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation was induced. Then, 6 minutes of basic life support was performed in a position randomly assigned to either head-up tilt at 30° or supine with a mechanical CPR device, LUCAS-2, and an impedance threshold device, followed by 20 minutes of advanced cardiac life support in the same position. Primary outcome was 24-hour survival, analyzed by Fisher exact test.RESULTS: In the 8 pigs from the head-up tilt position group, one showed return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); all eight pigs expired within 24 hours. In the eight pigs from the supine position group, six had the ROSC; six pigs survived for 24 hours and two expired. The head-up position group showed lower 24-hour survival rate and lower ROSC rate than supine position group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The use of head-up tilt position with 30 degrees during CPR showed lower 24-hour survival than the supine position.


Subject(s)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Agriculture , Animal Experimentation , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electric Impedance , Female , Head , Heart Arrest , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Supine Position , Survival Rate , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessing the severity of injury and predicting outcomes are essential in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the respiratory rate and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) are difficult to use in the prehospital setting. This investigation aimed to develop a new prehospital trauma score for TBI (NTS-TBI) to predict mortality and disability.METHODS: We used a nationwide trauma database on severe trauma cases transported by fire departments across Korea in 2013 and 2015. NTS-TBI model 1 used systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation < 90% measured via pulse oximeter, and motor component of GCS. Model 2 comprised variables of model 1 and age >65 years. We assessed discriminative power via area under the curve (AUC) value for in-hospital mortality and disability defined according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale with scores of 2 or 3. We then compared AUC values of NTS-TBI with those of RTS.RESULTS: In total, 3,642 patients were enrolled. AUC values of NTS-TBI models 1 and 2 for mortality were 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.815 to 0.852) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.835 to 0.869), respectively, while AUC values for disability were 0.772 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.796) and 0.784 (95% CI, 0.761 to 0.807), respectively. AUC values of NTS-TBI model 2 for mortality and disability were higher than those of RTS (0.819 and 0.761, respectively) (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Our NTS-TBI model using systolic blood pressure, motor component of GCS, oxygen saturation, and age was feasible for prehospital care and showed outstanding discriminative power for mortality.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Area Under Curve , Blood Pressure , Brain Injuries , Capillaries , Fires , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypotension , Korea , Mortality , Observational Study , Oxygen , Quality Improvement , Respiratory Rate
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the emergency medical services (EMS) response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed the integrated data of the EMS rescue records and EMS-treated severe trauma registry from January 2012 to December 2013. Two databases were integrated using the unique accident identification number. Chemical incidents were defined by an in-depth review of the EMS rescue records according to a previous study. Mass casualty incidents were defined as more than 6 injured individuals. The rescue, EMS, and hospital variables of mass casualty chemical incidents were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 8 mass casualty chemical incidents and 73 patients were included. The mean responded rescue vehicles and EMS vehicles were 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. The 4 incidents were an oil spill due to traffic accidents and most patients suffered minor trauma. A carbon monoxide leak caused the largest number of patients (23 people). The explosion caused by flammable polyethylene leaks showed the highest severity. In that explosion, the mortality rate was 40% and 8 patients had a disability at discharge. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the characteristics of the EMS response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Carbon Monoxide , Chemical Hazard Release , Emergency Medical Services , Explosions , Humans , Korea , Mass Casualty Incidents , Mortality , Observational Study , Petroleum Pollution , Polyethylene , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In cardiac arrest, the survival rate increases with the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), of which the initial response and treatment are critical. Telephone CPR is among the effective methods that might increase the provision of bystander CPR. This study aimed to describe and examine the improvement of neurological outcomes in individuals with out-of-hospital acute cardiac arrest by implementing the nationwide, standardized telephone CPR program. METHODS: Data from the emergency medical service-based cardiac arrest registry that were collected between 2009 and 2014 were used. The effectiveness of the intervention in the interrupted time-series study was determined via a segmented regression analysis, which showed the risk ratio and risk difference in good neurological outcomes before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Of 164,221 patients, 148,403 were analyzed. However, patients with unknown sex and limited data on treatment outcomes were excluded. Approximately 64.3% patients were men, with an average age of 63.7 years. The number of bystander CPR increased by 3.3 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–3.5) after the intervention, whereas the rate of good neurological outcomes increased by 2.6 times (95% CI, 2.3–2.9 [1.6%]; 1.4–1.7). The excess number was identified based on the differences between the observed and predicted trends. In total, 2,127 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) after the intervention period received additional bystander CPR, and 339 cases of OHCA had good neurological outcomes. CONCLUSION: The nationwide implementation of the standardized telephone CPR program increased the number of bystander CPR and improved good neurological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergencies , Heart Arrest , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Survival Rate , Telephone
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Injury is a major public health problem and accounts for 10% of the global burden of disease. This study intends to present the temporal trend in the injury burden in Korea and to compare the burden size by injury mechanism and age group. METHODS: This study was a nationwide population-based observational study. We used two data sets, the death certificates statistics and the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey data (2004–2012). We calculated age-standardized disability-adjusted life year (DALY) from years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) and trend analysis. RESULTS: The DALYs of road injury decreased (P = 0.002), falls did not exhibit a trend (P = 0.108), and self-harm increased overall (P = 0.045). In the road injury, the YLLs decreased across all 4 age groups (0–14, 15–49, 50–79, ≥ 80) and the YLDs decreased in the 0–14-year-old group. In total, the DALYs of road injuries decreased in the 0–14-year-old group. In the fall injury, although the YLLs decreased in the over 80-year-old group, the YLDs increased in the 50–79-year-old group and the over 80-year-old group. The burden of self-harm injury was high in the age group 15 years and over, especially in the 15–49-year-old group. CONCLUSION: The leading causes of the injury burden were road injuries, falls, and self-harm. The burden of road injury and self-harm have recently shown a gradual decreasing tendency. On the other hands, that of fall injuries are continually high in the age group over 50 years of age.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic , Aged, 80 and over , Dataset , Death Certificates , Hand , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Korea , Observational Study , Public Health , Suicide
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