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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874893

ABSTRACT

The use of biomarkers to guide patient and therapy selection has gained much attention to increase the scope and complexity of targeted therapy options and immunotherapy. Clinical trials provide a basis for discovery of biomarkers, which can then aid in development of new drugs. To that end, samples from cancer patients, including DNA, RNA, protein, and the metabolome isolated from cancer tissues and blood or urine, are analyzed in various ways to identify relevant biomarkers. In conjunction with nucleotide-based, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing techniques, therapy-guided biomarker assays relying on protein-based immunohistochemistry play a pivotal role in cancer care. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding DNA and protein biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy

2.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 368-378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914978

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) undergo non-curative endoscopic submucosal dissection requiring gastrectomy (NC-ESD-RG), additional medical resources and expenses are required for surgery. To reduce this burden, predictive model for NC-ESDRG is required. @*Materials and Methods@#Data from 2,997 patients undergoing ESD for 3,127 forceps biopsyproven differentiated-type EGCs (2,345 and 782 in training and validation sets, respectively) were reviewed. Using the training set, the logistic stepwise regression analysis determined the independent predictors of NC-ESD-RG (NC-ESD other than cases with lateral resection margin involvement or piecemeal resection as the only non-curative factor). Using these predictors, a risk-scoring system for predicting NC-ESD-RG was developed. Performance of the predictive model was examined internally with the validation set. @*Results@#Rate of NC-ESD-RG was 17.3%. Independent pre-ESD predictors for NC-ESD-RG included moderately differentiated or papillary EGC, large tumor size, proximal tumor location, lesion at greater curvature, elevated or depressed morphology, and presence of ulcers. A risk-score was assigned to each predictor of NC-ESD-RG. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting NC-ESD-RG was 0.672 in both training and validation sets. A risk-score of 5 points was the optimal cut-off value for predicting NCESD-RG, and the overall accuracy was 72.7%. As the total risk score increased, the predicted risk for NC-ESD-RG increased from 3.8% to 72.6%. @*Conclusions@#We developed and validated a risk-scoring system for predicting NC-ESD-RG based on pre-ESD variables. Our risk-scoring system can facilitate informed consent and decision-making for preoperative treatment selection between ESD and surgery in patients with EGC.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1153-1161, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831147

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#High microsatellite instability (MSI) is related to good prognosis in gastric cancer. We aimed to identify the prognostic factors of patients with recurrent gastric cancer and investigate the role of MSI as a prognostic and predictive biomarker of survival after tumor recurrence. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients treated for stage II/III gastric cancer who developed tumor recurrence and in whom the MSI status or mismatch repair (MMR) status of the tumor was known. MSI status and the expression of MMR proteins were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. @*Results@#Of the 790 patients included, 64 (8.1%) had high MSI status or MMR deficiency. The tumor-node-metastasis stage, type of recurrence, Lauren classification, chemotherapy after recurrence, and interval to recurrence were independently associated with survival after tumor recurrence. The MSI/MMR status and receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with survival after recurrence. In a subgroup analysis of patients with high MSI or MMR-deficient gastric cancer, those who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy had better treatment response to chemotherapy after recurrence than those who received adjuvant chemotherapy. @*Conclusion@#Patients with high MSI/MMR-deficient gastric cancer should be spared from adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery, but aggressive chemotherapy after recurrence should be considered. Higher tumor-node-metastasis stage, Lauren classification, interval to recurrence, and type of recurrence are associated with survival after tumor recurrence and should thus be considered when establishing a treatment plan and designing clinical trials targeting recurrent gastric cancer.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1568-1577, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763204

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The diagnostic criteria of gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) are controversial across the world. We investigated how many discrepancies occur in the pathologic diagnosis of IEN and early gastric carcinoma in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) specimens, and evaluated the reasons of the discordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,202 ESD specimens that were originally diagnosed as gastric IEN and early carcinoma at 12 institutions. RESULTS: The final consensus diagnosis of carcinoma were 756 cases, which were originally 692 carcinomas (91.5%), 43 high-grade dysplasias (5.7%), 20 low-grade dysplasias (2.6%), and 1 others (0.1%), respectively. High- and low-grade dysplasia were finally made in 63 and 342 cases, respectively. The diagnostic concordance with the consensus diagnosis was the highest for carcinoma (91.5%), followed by low-grade dysplasia (86.3%), others (63.4%) and high-grade dysplasia (50.8%). The general kappa value was 0.83, indicating excellent concordance. The kappa values of individual institutions ranged from 0.74 to 1 and correlated with the proportion of carcinoma cases. The cases revised to a final diagnosis of carcinoma exhibited both architectural abnormalities and cytologic atypia. The main differential points between low- and high-grade dysplasias were the glandular distribution and glandular shape. Additional features such as the glandular axis, surface maturation, nuclear stratification and nuclear polarity were also important. CONCLUSION: The overall concordance of the diagnosis of gastric IEN and early carcinoma in ESD specimens was excellent. It correlated with the proportion of carcinoma cases, demonstrating that the diagnostic criteria for carcinoma are more reproducible than those for dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
5.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 348-355, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719162

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to discuss the roles of radiation and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with staged IB GC who were enrolled in the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in stomach tumors (ARTIST) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 458 patients who were enrolled in the ARTIST trial, 99 had stage IB disease. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP, n=50) or chemoradiotherapy (XPRT, n=49). Survival analyses were performed in accordance with the AJCC 2010 staging system. RESULTS: According to the AJCC 2010 system, stage migration from IB to II occurred in 71% of the patients; 98% of the T2 N0 cases were reclassified as T3 N0, and 42% of the T1 N1 cases were reclassified as T1 N2. When comparing survival outcomes between the XPRT and XP arms for stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002), no significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 arms was found. (median 5-year DFS, not reached, P=0.256). The patients classified as having stage IB cancer (AJCC 2002) and reclassified as having stage II cancer (AJCC 2010) exhibited worse prognoses than those who remained in stage IB, although the difference was not statistically significant (5-year DFS rate, 83% vs. 93%). When we compared 5-year DFS in 70 patients with stage II (AJCC 2010), the addition of radiotherapy to XP chemotherapy did not show better outcome than XP alone (P=0.137). CONCLUSIONS: The role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of stage IB GC (AJCC 2002) warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Arm , Capecitabine , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach
6.
Gut and Liver ; : 263-270, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (EGC) need to be further evaluated. We aimed to simulate the outcomes of ESD for undifferentiated-type EGC from a surgical database. METHODS: Among 802 patients who underwent gastrectomy with endoscopic biopsy for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PD-type) or signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC-type), ESD candidates meeting the expanded indication (n=280) were selected by reviewing the endoscopic images. According to the surgical pathologic results, the outcomes of the ESD simulation were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the candidates, 104 (37.1%) were PD-type and 176 (62.9%) were SRC-type. The curative resection (CR) rate was 42.1%. Among the patients with CR, three patients (2.5%) showed lymph node metastasis (LNM). Three EGCs with CR and LNM were mucosal cancers ≥1.0 cm in size. The CR rate was higher in the SRC-type than in the PD-type (48.3% vs 31.7%, respectively, p=0.007). In the SRC-type, the CR rate was increased, with a smaller size criterion for the ESD indication, but was similar between the 1.0 cm and 0.6 cm criteria (63.3% and 63.6%, respectively), whereas the CR rate was below 50% in all of the different tumor size criteria (2.0 to 0.6 cm) in the PD-type. CONCLUSIONS: In undifferentiated-type EGC, ESD should be considered in selected patients with tumor sizes < 1 cm and SRC histology.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell , Cohort Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Stomach Neoplasms
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to suggest optimal anticancer drugs for patient-tailored chemotherapy, we developed a colorectal cancer (CRC)-liver metastasis patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) model. METHODS: Tissue obtained from a patient with CRC-liver metastasis (F0) was transplanted in a nonobese female mouse with diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency (F1) and the tumor tissue was retransplanted into nude mice (F2). When tumor volumes reached ~500 mm³, the F2 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 4/group) of doxorubicin, cisplatin, docetaxel, and nontreated control groups. The tumor tissues were investigated using H&E staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, and immunohistochemistry. To determine where the mutant allele frequencies varied across the different passages, we isolated genomic DNA from the primary tumor, liver metastasis, and PDTX models (F1/F2). RESULTS: The physiological properties of the tumor were in accord with those of the patient's tumors. Anticancer drugs delayed tumor growth, inhibited proliferation, and caused apoptosis. Histological assessments revealed no observable heterogeneity among the intragenerational PDTX models. Target exon sequencing analysis without high-quality filter conditions revealed some genetic variations in the 83 cancer-related genes across the generations. However, when de novo mutations were defined as a total count of zero in F0 and ≥5 in F2, exactly prognostic impact of clone cancer profiling (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, APC and TP53) were detected in the paired. CONCLUSION: A CRC liver metastasis PDTX model was established for the evaluation of chemotherapeutic efficacy. This model retained the physiological characters of the patient tumors and potentially provides a powerful means of assessing chemotherapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cisplatin , Clone Cells , Colorectal Neoplasms , DNA , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Exons , Family Characteristics , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Heterografts , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , Sequence Analysis , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225050

ABSTRACT

With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1155-1166, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98818

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors originating in the gastrointestinal tract. With the introduction of molecular-targeted therapy for GISTs which has yielded remarkable outcomes, these tumors have become a model of multidisciplinary oncological treatment. Although Western clinical guidelines are available for GISTs, such as those published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), the clinical situations in Asian countries are different from those in Western countries in terms of diagnostic methods, surgical approach, and availability of new targeted agents. Accordingly, we have reviewed current versions of several GIST guidelines published by Asian countries (Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan) and the NCCN and ESMO and discussed the areas of dissensus. We here present the first version of the Asian GIST consensus guidelines that were prepared through a series of meetings involving multidisciplinary experts in the four countries. These guidelines provide an optimal approach to the diagnosis and management of GIST patients in Asian countries.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Consensus , Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Korea , Medical Oncology
10.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 105-110, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors (ARTIST) trial, we investigated whether chemoradiotherapy after D2 gastrectomy reduces the rate of recurrence. Recently, the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes to examined lymph nodes (N ratio) has been proposed as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the metastatic N ratio and prognosis of GC after curative D2 surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 458 ARTIST patients who underwent D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (XP, n=228) or chemoradiotherapy (XPRT, n=230). The disease-free survival (DFS) rates of patients were used to evaluate the influence of N ratio on the treatment outcome. To achieve this, 4 different N ratio categories (0%, 1%~9%, 10%~25%, and >25%) were compared on the basis of their influence on the treatment outcome. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, the N ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for DFS. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the N ratio categories of 0%, 1%~9%, 10%~25%, and >25% were 1, 1.061, 1.202, and 3.571, respectively. In patients having N ratio >25%, the 5-year DFS rates were 55% and 28% for the XPRT and XP arms, respectively (HR, 0.527; 95% confidence interval, 0.307~0.904; P=0.020). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with curatively resected GC, the N ratio was independently associated with DFS. Although this finding warrants further investigation in future prospective studies, the benefit of chemoradiotherapy for D2 resected GC appears to be more beneficial in cancers having N ratios >25%.


Subject(s)
Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main limitation of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria is the biological and prognostic heterogeneity of tumors while the utility of the newly proposed UICC TNM staging system has not yet been validated. Our object is to compare the overall and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) using the UICC TNM staging system and the NIH consensus criteria and to determine the optimal risk stratification system for GIST.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 164 patients who underwent operative management for primary gastric GIST between 1994 and 2004.RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate was 89.6%. In the 149 patients who underwent an R0 resection, the five-year DFS rate was 86.3%. According to the NIH consensus criteria, the five-year survival rate after resection was 100% for patients in the very low-, low-, and intermediate-risk groups and 71.9% for patients in the high-risk group. The UICC TNM stages IA, IB, and II had the same survival rates (100%) and stage IIIA (75.0%) and stage IIIB (69.5%) showed no significant difference in survival compared to the NIH criteria, which precluded better risk stratification. The patients who were included in the high-risk group by NIH consensus criteria (>10 cm, ≤5/50 high power field) and were stage II by the UICC TNM staging system had a 100% five-year survival rate.CONCLUSION: Using the current schemes, one system does not demonstrate superior prognostic ability over the other. However, the high-risk group (T4/low mitotic rate) and stage II patients appear to be appropriately classified.


Subject(s)
Classification , Consensus , Disease-Free Survival , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Neoplasm Staging , Population Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 63-68, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/statistics & numerical data , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Stomach/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100607

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is one of the four subtypes of gastric carcinoma (GC), as defined by the novel classification recently proposed by The Cancer Genome Atlas. EBVaGC has several clinicopathological features such as longer survival and higher frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) and carcinoma with Crohn's disease-like lymphoid reaction that distinguish it from EBV-negative GC. The intensity and pattern of host cellular immune response in GC have been found to significantly correlate with the prognosis of patients with GC, suggesting that immune reaction and tumor microenvironment have critical roles in the progression of GC, and in particular, EBVaGC. Here, we reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prominent immune reactions in patients with EBVaGC. In EBVaGC, deregulation of the expression of immune response-related genes promotes marked intra- or peritumoral immune cell infiltration. The expression of programmed death receptor-ligand 1 is known to be increased in EBVaGC, and therefore, it has been proposed as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with EBVaGC, albeit some data supporting this claim are controversial. Overall, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of the host cellular immune response in patients with EBVaGC have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, further research is necessary to better understand the role of tumor microenvironment in EBVaGC.


Subject(s)
Classification , Genome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138257

ABSTRACT

Recently, several new endoscopic imaging techniques have been developed, including endoscopic ultrasonography, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Preliminary studies have reported promising results in diagnosing gastric cancer with these new endoscopic imaging techniques. For wider clinical application, however, more evidence is required to show the clinical efficacy of these advanced endoscopic techniques in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. For the treatment of early gastric cancer, endoscopic submucosal dissection methods have recently been developed. Endoscopic submucosal dissection enables en bloc resection of large lesions and lesions with accompanying ulcerations, as the lesion is directly dissected along the submucosal layer using a high-frequency electrosurgical knife. With the development of the endoscopic submucosal dissection technique and the accumulation of long-term outcome data, the applications for endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer are expanding.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endosonography , Narrow Band Imaging , Optical Imaging , Stomach Neoplasms , Ulcer
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138256

ABSTRACT

Recently, several new endoscopic imaging techniques have been developed, including endoscopic ultrasonography, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Preliminary studies have reported promising results in diagnosing gastric cancer with these new endoscopic imaging techniques. For wider clinical application, however, more evidence is required to show the clinical efficacy of these advanced endoscopic techniques in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. For the treatment of early gastric cancer, endoscopic submucosal dissection methods have recently been developed. Endoscopic submucosal dissection enables en bloc resection of large lesions and lesions with accompanying ulcerations, as the lesion is directly dissected along the submucosal layer using a high-frequency electrosurgical knife. With the development of the endoscopic submucosal dissection technique and the accumulation of long-term outcome data, the applications for endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer are expanding.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endosonography , Narrow Band Imaging , Optical Imaging , Stomach Neoplasms , Ulcer
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 202-207, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)- high colorectal cancers (CRCs) have distinct clinicopathological features from their CIMP-low/negative CRC counterparts. However, controversy exists regarding the prognosis of CRC according to the CIMP status. Therefore, this study examined the prognosis of Korean patients with colon cancer according to the CIMP status. METHODS: Among a previous cohort population with CRC, a total of 154 patients with colon cancer who had available tissue for DNA extraction were included in the study. CIMP-high was defined as 3/5 methylated markers using the five-marker panel (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). RESULTS: CIMP-high and CIMP-low/negative cancers were observed in 27 patients (17.5%) and 127 patients (82.5%), respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage and CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI) statuses indicated that CIMP-high colon cancers were associated with a significant increase in colon cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 8.69; p=0.02). In microsatellite stable cancers, CIMP-high cancer had a poor survival outcome compared to CIMP-low/negative cancer (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.02 to 8.27; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the MSI status, CIMP-high cancers had poor survival outcomes in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , CpG Islands/physiology , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Male , Microsatellite Instability , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Phenotype , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 202-207, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)- high colorectal cancers (CRCs) have distinct clinicopathological features from their CIMP-low/negative CRC counterparts. However, controversy exists regarding the prognosis of CRC according to the CIMP status. Therefore, this study examined the prognosis of Korean patients with colon cancer according to the CIMP status. METHODS: Among a previous cohort population with CRC, a total of 154 patients with colon cancer who had available tissue for DNA extraction were included in the study. CIMP-high was defined as 3/5 methylated markers using the five-marker panel (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). RESULTS: CIMP-high and CIMP-low/negative cancers were observed in 27 patients (17.5%) and 127 patients (82.5%), respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage and CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI) statuses indicated that CIMP-high colon cancers were associated with a significant increase in colon cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 8.69; p=0.02). In microsatellite stable cancers, CIMP-high cancer had a poor survival outcome compared to CIMP-low/negative cancer (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.02 to 8.27; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the MSI status, CIMP-high cancers had poor survival outcomes in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , CpG Islands/physiology , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Male , Microsatellite Instability , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Phenotype , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Management of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastases (NETLM) presents many clinical challenges. Assessment of the extent of disease and primary tumor site is crucial for management. In this study, we investigated the primary tumor sites and prognostic factors in GEP NETLM among Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 72 Korean patients diagnosed with GEP NETLM between January 1999 and May 2013, focusing on their clinical and pathologic characteristics. RESULTS: The most frequently encountered primary tumor sites were the pancreas (n=25, 35%), stomach (n=8, 11%), gall bladder (n=4, 6%) and rectum (n=3, 4%). Twenty-five patients (35%) had occult primary tumor. Twelve patients (17%) had histological grade G1 tumors, 30 patients (42%) had G2 tumors, and 30 patients (42%) had G3 tumors. The mean follow-up period after histological confirmation of hepatic metastases was 11.30+/-2.44 months for G3 tumors, 19.67+/-4.09 months for G2 tumors, and 30.67+/-6.51 months for G1 tumors. Multivariate analyses revealed that an unknown primary tumor site (p=0.001) and higher histological grade (p 24 months) had received antitumor treatment. CONCLUSION: The primary tumor site most frequently associated with GEP NETLM was the pancreas. Unknown primary tumor and higher histological grade were independent prognostic indicators for shorter OS. Patients identified as being at a risk of shorter OS should be followed up closely.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Liver , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pathology , Prognosis , Rectum , Stomach , Survivors , Urinary Bladder
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100413

ABSTRACT

Despite improvements in treatment modalities, gastric cancer is the second cause of mortality among Korean men and third among females in Korea. Korea implemented a gastric cancer screening program for the general population in 1999. However, the effectiveness and harms of gastric cancer screening using gastric endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series have not been fully evaluated. In an effort to evaluate the screening program, the Korean multidisciplinary expert committee for developing a gastric cancer screening guideline systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of gastric cancer screening, and developed an evidence-based clinical guideline. There is 'low' level evidence that gastric cancer screening using gastric endoscopy or UGI series can reduce gastric cancer mortality for asymptomatic adults aged between 40 to 74 years. The benefits of gastric cancer screening using gastric endoscopy are substantially higher than its harms, while the benefits of screening with UGI series are moderately higher. We recommend that asymptomatic adults from 40 to 75 years of age undergo biannual gastric cancer screening using gastric endoscopy (recommendation B). Gastric cancer screening using UGI series in asymptomatic adults aged between 40 to 74 years may be recommended based on clinicians' judgment regarding the patient's risk and the patient's preference (recommendation C). There is insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of gastric cancer screening for adults aged between 75 to 84 years (recommendation I). We recommend against gastric cancer screening for adults older than 85 years (recommendation D).


Subject(s)
Adult , Early Detection of Cancer , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Judgment , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Mortality , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In 2010, the World Health Organization categorized L-cell type neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) as tumors of uncertain malignancy, while all others were classified as malignant. However, the diagnostic necessity of L-cell immunophenotyping is unclear, as are tumor stage and grade that may guide diagnosis and management. To clarify the predictive markers of rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) was analyzed by pathological parameters including L-cell phenotype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,385 rectal NENs were analyzed from our previous multicenter study and a subset of 170 rectal NENs was immunophenotyped. RESULTS: In univariate survival analysis, tumor grade (p 10, is useful in defining L-Cell type. In this study, an L-cell immunophenotype was found in 83.5% of all rectal NENs and most, but not all L-cell type tumors were NET G1, small (< 10 mm) and confined to the mucosa/submucosa. CONCLUSION: From these results, the biological behavior of rectal NENs does not appear to be determined by L-cell type alone but instead by a combination of pathological parameters.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Glucagon , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , International Classification of Diseases , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Phenotype , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms , World Health Organization
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