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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875503

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The present study aimed to investigate whether tocotrienol regulates interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). @*Methods@#We evaluated the effect of tocotrienol on IL-17-induced receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) production using RA fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS), together with real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Osteoclast differentiation was confirmed after culturing IL-17-treated RA FLS and Th17 cells with tocotrienol and monocytes. We analyzed the suppressive effect of tocotrienol on Th17 cells percentage or Th17-cytokine levels among peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry. @*Results@#We found that IL-17 stimulated FLS to produce RANKL and tocotrienol decreased this IL-17-induced RANKL production. Tocotrienol decreased the IL-17-induced activation of mammalian target of rapamycin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of kappa B-alpha. When monocytes were incubated with IL-17, RANKL, IL-17-treated FLS or Th17 cells, osteoclasts were differentiated and tocotrienol decreased this osteoclast differentiation. Tocotrienol reduced Th17 cell differentiation and the production of IL-17 and sRANKL; however, tocotrienol did not affect Treg cell differentiation. @*Conclusions@#Tocotrienol inhibited IL-17- activated RANKL production in RA FLS and IL-17-activated osteoclast formation. In addition, tocotrienol reduced Th17 differentiation. Therefore, tocotrienol could be a new therapeutic choice to treat bone destructive processes in RA.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831759

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis, and the complex interaction and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in RA pathogenesis. Mast cells (MCs) are one of the tissue-resident innate immune cells, and they contribute to RA pathogenesis. In the present review, the evidence of the pathologic role of MC in RA is discussed based on human and animal data. In addition, the potential role of MC in RA pathogenesis and the research area that should be focused on in the future are suggested.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to determine the regulatory role of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, in interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced osteoclast differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: After RA synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by IL-17, the expression and production of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Osteoclastogenesis was also determined after co-cultures of IL-17-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts, Th17 cells and various concentrations of NAC with monocytes. After human peripheral CD4⁺ T cells were cultured with NAC under Th17 condition, IL-17, interferon γ, IL-4, Foxp3, RANKL, and IL-2 expression and production was determined by flow cytometry or ELISA. RESULTS: When RA synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by IL-17, IL-17 stimulated the production of RANKL, and NAC reduced the IL-17-induced RANKL production in a dose-dependent manner. NAC decreased IL-17-activated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of κB. When human peripheral blood CD14⁺ monocytes were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-17 or RANKL, osteoclasts were differentiated, and NAC reduced the osteoclastogenesis. After human peripheral CD4⁺ T cells were co-cultured with IL-17-pretreated RA synovial fibroblasts or Th17 cells, NAC reduced their osteoclastogenesis. Under Th17 polarizing condition, NAC decreased Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 and RANKL production. CONCLUSIONS: NAC inhibits the IL-17-induced RANKL production in RA synovial fibroblasts and IL-17-induced osteoclast differentiation. NAC also reduced Th17 polarization. NAC could be a supplementary therapeutic option for inflammatory and bony destructive processes in RA.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Coculture Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Monocytes , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Phosphorylation , RANK Ligand , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sirolimus , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells
4.
Immune Network ; : e27-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764019

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the regulatory role of intravenous Ig (IVIg) in Th17 cytokine–induced RANK ligand (RANKL) expression and osteoclast (OC) differentiation from OC precursors (pre-OC). Human CD14⁺ monocytes were isolated and stimulated by Th17 cytokines (IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22) and RANKL expression was investigated using a real-time PCR. CD14⁺ monocytes were incubated with RANKL, Th17 cytokines, and M-CSF, with/without IVIg, and OC differentiation was determined by counting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. OC differentiation was investigated after monocytes were cocultured with Th17 cells in the presence of IVIg. Th17 cell differentiation was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry after CD4⁺ T cells were cultured with IVIg under Th17 condition. Th17 cytokines stimulated monocytes to express RANKL and IVIg suppressed the Th17 cytokine-induced RANKL expression. OCs were differentiated when pre-OC were cocultured with RANKL or Th17 cytokines and IVIg reduced the osteoclastogenesis. IVIg also decreased osteoclastogenesis when pre-OC were cocultured with Th17 cells. IVIg decreased both Th17 and Th1 cell differentiation while it did not affect Treg cell differentiation. In summary, IVIg inhibited Th17 cytokine-induced RANKL expression and OC differentiation. IVIg reduced osteoclastogenesis when monocytes were cocultured with Th17 cells. IVIg also reduced Th17 polarization. IVIg could be a new therapeutic option for Th17 cell–mediated osteoclastogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin-17 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Monocytes , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells
5.
Immune Network ; : e36-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717667

ABSTRACT

Operational tolerance (OT), defined as maintaining stable graft function without immunosuppression after transplant surgery, is an ideal goal for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Recent investigations have demonstrated the distinctive features of B cells, T cells, and dendritic cell-related gene signatures and the distributions of circulating lymphocytes in these patients; nonetheless, substantial heterogeneities exist across studies. This study was conducted to determine whether previously reported candidate gene biomarkers and the profiles of lymphocyte subsets of OT could be applied in Korean KTRs. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 153 patients, including 7 operationally tolerant patients. Quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate gene expression and lymphocyte subsets, respectively. Patients with OT showed significantly higher levels of B cell-related gene signatures (IGKV1D-13 and IGKV4-1), while T cell-related genes (TOAG-1) and dendritic cell-related genes (BNC2, KLF6, and CYP1B1) were not differentially expressed across groups. Lymphocyte subset analyses also revealed a higher proportion of immature B cells in this group. In contrast, the distributions of CD4⁺ T cells, CD8⁺ T cells, mature B cells, and memory B cells showed no differences across diagnostic groups. An OT signature, generated by the integration of IGKV1D-13, IGKV4-1, and immature B cells, effectively discriminated patients with OT from those in other diagnostic groups. Finally, the OT signature was observed among 5.6% of patients who had stable graft function for more than 10 years while on immunosuppression. In conclusion, we validated an association of B cells and their related signature with OT in Korean KTRs.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Biomarkers , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunosuppression , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphocytes , Memory , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes , Transplant Recipients , Transplants
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67619

ABSTRACT

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is originally identified in the culture medium of activated T lymphocytes as a soluble factor that inhibits the random migration of macrophages. MIF is now recognized as a multipotent cytokine involved in the regulation of immune and inf lammatory responses. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), MIF promotes inf lammatory responses by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and tissue-degrading molecules, promoting the proliferation and survival of synovial fibroblasts, stimulating neutrophil chemotaxis, and regulating angiogenesis and osteoclast differentiation. Expression of MIF in synovial tissue and synovial fluid levels of MIF are elevated in RA patients. Specifically, MIF levels correlate with RA disease activity and high levels are associated with bone erosion. In animal models of RA, the genetic and therapeutic inhibition of MIF has been shown to control inflammation and bone destruction. Based on the role of MIF in RA pathogenesis, small molecular inhibitors targeting it or its receptor pathways could provide a new therapeutic option for RA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Chemotaxis , Cytokines , Fibroblasts , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors , Macrophages , Models, Animal , Neutrophils , Osteoclasts , Synovial Fluid , T-Lymphocytes
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sirolimus (SRL) is a promising immunosuppressant replacingcalcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). This study was performed to evaluate the safetyand immunologic benefits of conversion to SRL in stable kidney transplant (KT)recipients exposed to CNIs for long periods. METHODS: Fourteen CNI-treated KT recipients with stable renal function for morethan 10 years were included. Either 2 or 3 mg per day of SRL was administeredwhile CNIs were reduced by half starting on day 1, and then stopped 2 weeks afterSRL introduction. The safety of SRL conversion was assessed considering thegraft function, acute rejection, and graft loss. Immunologic alterations were measuredvia serial changes of T cell and B cell subsets after SRL conversion. Adverseeffects of SRL conversion were also evaluated. RESULTS: Conversion to SRL was successful in nine patients (64.2%). Conversionto SRL preserved graft function as compared to the baseline value (p = 0.115). Noacute rejection or allograft loss was observed during the follow-up period. Immunemonitoring of T and B cells revealed a regulatory T cells increase after SRL conversion (p = 0.028). Most adverse events developed within 6 weeks after SRLconversion, and oral mucositis was the main cause of SRL withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion to SRL can be safe and has immunologic benefits in KTrecipients with long-term CNI exposure. Close monitoring of mucocutaneous adverseevents is, however, required in the early period after SRL conversion.


Subject(s)
Allografts , B-Lymphocyte Subsets , B-Lymphocytes , Calcineurin , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Sirolimus , Stomatitis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transplantation , Transplants
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192556

ABSTRACT

Most of the previous studies on immune dysregulation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have focused on T cell immunity. We investigated B cell subpopulations in ESRD patients and the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on B cell-associated immune profiles in these patients. Forty-four ESRD [maintenance HD patients (n = 27) and pre-dialysis patients (n = 17)] and 27 healthy volunteers were included in this study. We determined the percentage of B cell subtypes, such as mature and immature B cells, memory B cells, and interleukin (IL)-10+ cells, as well as B cell-producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) by florescent activated cell sorting (FACS). B cell-associated gene expression was examined using real-time PCR and B cell producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percentage of total B cells and mature B cells did not differ significantly among the three groups. The percentages of memory B cells were significantly higher in the pre-dialysis group than in the HD group (P 0.05) between the two subgroups within the ESRD group, but the serum IL-10 concentration was significantly lower in the pre-dialysis group (P < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrate significantly altered B cell-associated immunity. Specifically, an imbalance of immature and memory B cells in ESRD patients was observed, with this finding predominating in pre-dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adult , Antigens, CD19/metabolism , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes after total hip arthroplasty using the S-ROM modular system for osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and to compare the results between the groups using metal-on-metal articulation and ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six patients (78 hips) with osteonecrosis of the femoral head were evaluated after primary total hip arthroplasty between January 2001 and December 2004, using an S-ROM proximal modular femoral stem. The average follow-up was 77 months (range, 60 to 122 months) and all patients were followed for more than five years. RESULTS: The average Harris hip score improved from 53 points to 88.5 points at the final follow-up. At the latest radiologic evaluation, sixty-seven stems had bony ingrowth stability, and 10 stems had stable fibrous ingrowth. However, one stem had diffuse extensive osteolysis and loosening, which was revised at 9 years. Postoperative complications included 4 cases of heterotrophic ossificiation, 1 case of linear fracture after insertion of the femoral stem, 1 case of dislocation, 2 cases of infection, and 1 case of extensive osteolysis and loosening. There were 3 cases of revision and Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis with revision estimated at a 95.7% chance of survival for the femoral component during 122 months. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that total hip arthroplasty using the S-ROM modular system with metal-on-metal articulation or ceramic-on-ceramic articulation had favorable clinical and radiological mid- to long-term results.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Joint Dislocations , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Hip , Humans , Osteolysis , Osteonecrosis , Postoperative Complications , Survival Rate
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118732

ABSTRACT

Although alendronate was considered generally safe and effective to osteoporosis in short-long term studies, it remains the potential risk of severely suppressed bone turnover that causes insufficient fracture of femur. In this report, we describe a patient of atypical subtrochanteric fracture who treated with prolonged alendronate. A 68-years old woman who had a history of medication of alendronate for 12 years was presented to the outpatient clinic with right thigh pain. The radiographs revealed thickening and fracture line of the lateral side of subtrochanteric area of the right femur. She discontinued taking the medicine and follow up closely. After 1 month later, she sustained atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture after simple fall, and underwent an internal fixation with compression hip screw. After operation, bone biopsy was done with tetracycline staining for valuation of bone metabolism and severe osteoporosis was observed. Although long-term use of bisphosphonate could increase bone mineral density, this case showed that it could lead insufficient fracture by decreasing bone strength through severely suppressed bone turnover, inhibition of normal bone formation and decreased bone quality.


Subject(s)
Alendronate , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Biopsy , Bone Density , Diphosphonates , Female , Femoral Fractures , Femur , Follow-Up Studies , Hip , Humans , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Tetracycline , Thigh
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161047

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum pro-hepcidin concentration and the anemia profiles of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate the pro-hepcidin could reflect the disease activity of RA. RA disease activities were measured using Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), tender/swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anemia profiles such as hemoglobin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and transferrin levels were measured. Serum concentration of pro-hepcidin, the prohormone of hepcidin, was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean concentration of serum pro-hepcidin was 237.6+/-67.9 ng/mL in 40 RA patients. The pro-hepcidin concentration was correlated with rheumatoid factor, CRP, ESR, and DAS28. There was a significant correlation between pro-hepcidin with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6. The pro-hepcidin concentration was significantly higher in the patients with active RA (DAS28>5.1) than those with inactive to moderate RA (DAS28< or =5.1). However, the pro-hepcidin concentration did not correlate with the anemia profiles except hemoglobin level. There was no difference of pro-hepcidin concentration between the patients with anemia of chronic disease and those without. In conclusion, serum concentration of pro-hepcidin reflects the disease activity, regardless of the anemia states in RA patients, thus it may be another potential marker for disease activity of RA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anemia/blood , Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Precursors/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was undertaken to identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved in induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts. METHODS: Human RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with concanavalin A (ConA), various cytokines, and inhibitors of signal transduction molecules. The production of MIF by synovial fibroblasts was measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. The expression of MIF mRNA was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in synovial fibroblasts was confirmed using Western blotting. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase in RA synovium was determined using dual immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts increased in a dose-dependent manner after ConA stimulation. MIF was also induced by interferon-gamma, CD40 ligand, interleukin-15, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta. The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts was significantly reduced after inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase was upregulated in the RA synovium compared with the osteoarthritis synovium. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MIF production was induced through a p38 MAP-kinase-dependent pathway in RA synovial fibroblasts.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Base Sequence , Cells, Cultured , Concanavalin A/pharmacology , Cytokines/pharmacology , DNA Primers/genetics , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Synovial Membrane/drug effects , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether stimulation of recombinant IL-17, TLR2 and TLR4 by their specific ligands induces the production of RANKL and IL-6 in the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients. METHODS: FLSs were isolated from RA synovial tissues and they were stimulated with the IL-17, TLR2 ligand bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The RANKL levels were assessed by RT-PCR and western blotting. The expressions of IL-17, TLR2, TLR4, RANKL and IL-6 in the RA synovium were quantified by immunohistochemistry and these values were compared with the values obtained in the osteoarthritis synovium. The increased IL-6 production in the culture supernatants of the RA FLSs was quantified by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein levels of RANKL and IL-6 increased in the RA FLSs stimulated with PGN, LPS and IL-17, or PGN plus IL-17 or LPS plus IL-17. The expressions of IL-17, TLR2, TLR4, RANKL and IL-6 were much higher in the RA synovium than those in the osteoarthritis (OA) synovium. CONCLUSION: We observed synergistic effects of TLR-2, TLR-4 and IL-17 upon the induction of RANKL. In conclusion, our data supports the previous evidence of an important role of TLR-2, TLR-4 and IL-17 in the pathogenesis of RA.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Fibroblasts , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Ligands , Osteoarthritis , Peptidoglycan , RNA, Messenger , Synovial Membrane , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52231

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-16 in the rheumatoid synovium and the role of inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in IL-16 production by fibroblast- like synoviocytes (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody to IL-16 in synovial tissues from patients with RA and likewise in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). FLS were isolated from RA synovial tissues and stimulated with IL-15, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-17. The IL-16 mRNA level was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time (RT) PCR and a comparison was made between IL-16 mRNA levels produced by RA-FLS and OA-FLS. Production of IL-16 was identified by a western blot assay, and IL-16 production after stimulation by specific ligands of TLR2 and TLR4 was assessed by RT-PCR. While immunohistochemical staining demonstrated strong expression of IL-16 mRNA in synovial tissues from patients with RA, similar findings were not present in the OA group. Moreover, mRNA expression of IL-16 by RA-FLS increased after treatment with IL-17 but not with IL-15, IL-1beta, and IFN-gamma. Specifically, IL-17 increased IL-16 mRNA level by RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-17 did not stimulate IL-16 production in OA-FLS. Peptidoglycan, a selective TLR2 ligand, also increased production of IL-16 by RA-FLS dose- dependently, whereas LPS, a selective TLR4 ligand, had no such stimulatory effect. The results from our data demonstrate that IL-17 and TLR2 ligands stimulate the production of IL-16 by RA-FLS.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Base Sequence , Blotting, Western , DNA Primers , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-16/biosynthesis , Interleukin-17/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
15.
Immune Network ; : 39-47, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 is a potent chemoattractant for activated T cells into the inflamed Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. To determine the effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on the production of SDF-1 in the inflamed RA synovium. METHODS: The expression of SDF-1 and MIF in RA and Osteoarthritis (OA) synovium was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The SDF-1 was quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA after RA fibroblast like synoviocyte (FLS) were treated with MIF in the presence and absence of inhibitors of intracellular signal molecules. The synovial fluid (SF) and serum levels of MIF and SDF-1 in RA, OA and healthy control were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Expression of SDF-1 and MIF in synovium was higher in RA patients than in OA patients. The production of SDF-1 was enhanced in RA FLS by MIF stimulation. Such effect of MIF was blocked by the inhibitors of NF-kappaB. Concentrations of SDF-1 in the serum and SF were higher in RA patients than in OA patients and healthy control. SDF-1 and MIF was overexpressed in RA FLS, and MIF could up-regulate the production of SDF-1 in RA FLS via NF-kappaB- mediated pathways. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an inhibition of interaction between MIF from T cells and SDF-1 of FLS may provide a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Chemokine CXCL12 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibroblasts , Humans , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Osteoarthritis , Synovial Fluid , Synovial Membrane , T-Lymphocytes
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: CD27 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and is expressed on T, B, and NK cells. The signaling via CD27 plays pivotal roles in T-T and T-B interaction. CD27 is a useful marker in assessing the number of circulation B cells and B cell subsets because it permits one step identification of the major B cell compartments, CD27- naive and CD27+ memory B cells as well as CD27high plasma cells. We have analyzed the mechanisms underlying the regulation of CD27 expression. METHODS: Isolation B cells and Raji cells were cultured with PMA. The levels of cell surface CD27 and CD 27 mRNA were analyzed by FACs staining and RT-PCR. Raji cells were cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), with or without pretreated shedding inhibitor BB3103 and TAPI-1. sCD27 was measured in culture supernatant by ELISA. Cell lysates were analyzed for PKC isotype activation by Western blot. We used PKC inhibitor Ly379196 and rottlen. RESULTS: Membrane expression of CD27 was down-regulated after PMA stimulation without cytotoxic effect in B cells. Furthermore, PMA treatment could directly reduce CD27 mRNA without intermediate protein synthesis in B cells. In contrast, PMA treatment induced soluble form of CD27 (sCD27), which was shed from the cell surface and was found in PMA treatment B cell culture supernatant. PMA-induced sCD27 proteins were decreased with shedding inhibitor BB3103 and TAPI-1. PMA-induced down regulation of CD27 expressions were quenched with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Staurosporin, PKC-beta inhibitor rottlerin and PKC-delta inhibitor Ly379196. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that PMA-induced activation of PKC plays a crucial role in down-regulation of the expression of the CD27 and up-regulation of the shedding of the CD27 in human B cells.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets , B-Lymphocytes , Blotting, Western , Cell Culture Techniques , Down-Regulation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Membranes , Memory , Plasma Cells , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinase C-delta , Protein Kinases , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor , RNA, Messenger , Up-Regulation
17.
Immune Network ; : 310-319, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197485

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory mediators has been recognized as an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-17 is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses, including induction of proinflammatory cytokines and osteoclastic bone resorption. Evidence of the expression and proinflammatory activity of IL-17 has been demonstrated in RA synovium and in animal models of RA. However, the signaling pathways that regulate IL-17 production remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway in the regulation of IL-17 production in RA. PBMC were separated from RA (n=24) patients, and stimulated with various agents (anti CD3, anti CD28, PHA, ConA, IL-15). IL-17 levels were determined by sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR. The production of IL-17 was significantly increased in cells treated with anti-CD3 antibody, PHA, IL-15 or MCP-1 (P<0.05). ConA also strongly induced IL-17 production (P<0.001), whereas TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-18 or TGF-beta did not. IL-17 was detected in the PBMC of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) but their expression levels were much lower than those of RA PBMC. Anti-CD3 antibody activated the PI3K-Akt pathway and activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway resulted in a pronounced augmentation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). IL-17 production by activated PBMC in RA is completely or partially blocked in the presence of NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC and PI3K- Akt inhibitor, wortmannin and LY294002, respectively. Whereas the inhibition of AP-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 did not affect IL-17 production. These results provide new insight into that PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB dependent signal transduction pathway could be involved in the overproduction of key inflammatory cytokine, IL-17 in rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Bone Resorption , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-18 , Models, Animal , NF-kappa B , Osteoarthritis , Osteoclasts , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphotransferases , Signal Transduction , Synovial Membrane , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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