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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925508

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Postoperative adhesions after thyroidectomy adversely affect patients’ quality of life. This study assessed the anti-adhesive effect and safety of thermosensitive sol-gel agents for patients undergoing thyroidectomy. @*Methods@#A double-blind parallel-group randomized clinical trial involving patients aged 20–70 years undergoing thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules was conducted. From August 2017 to April 2020, 90 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 45, thermosensitive sol-gel agent applied to the surgical site) and control (n = 45, no treatment) groups in a 1:1 ratio. All patients were assessed using a questionnaire for swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problems, and inflammation at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after thyroid surgery. For reoperated patients, the degree of adhesion was evaluated according to the adhesion-evaluation score system (range, 0–4). @*Results@#During the follow-up period of 6.50 ± 1.38 months, the swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problem, and inflammation were improved in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups related to swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problems, and inflammation. Two patients in the control group and 1 in the experimental group who underwent reoperation had an adhesion-evaluation score of 3 points. There were no adverse effects or allergic reactions. @*Conclusion@#A thermosensitive sol-gel agent can be safely used as an anti-adhesive barrier. However, this study did not reveal its efficacy for postoperative adhesions. A more objective and systematic study is required in the future.

3.
Article in KO | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925254

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship among calling, nurse’s image, satisfaction in major, self-efficacy and nursing professionalism and to identify the predictors of nursing professionalism among nursing students. @*Methods@#The research design for this study was a descriptive survey using convenience sampling. Data collection was done using online questionnaires completed by 358 nursing students in G city. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple regression with the SPSS Win 25.0 Program. @*Results@#The mean score of nursing professionalism was 3.56±0.55 out of a possible 5. Nursing professionalism showed a significantly positive correlation with calling (r=.51, p<.001), nurse’s image (r=.53, p<.001), satisfaction in major (r=.65, p<.001) and self-efficacy (r=.20, p<.001). In the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, satisfaction in major (β=.44, p<.001), nurse’s image (β=.26, p<.001), calling (β=.21, p<.001), self-efficacy (β=.14, p=.002) and servable occupation (β=.15, p=.020) were significant predictors and explained 51% of nursing professionalism. @*Conclusions@#The results of the study show factors that influence nursing professionalism in nursing students. Based on the results of the study, nursing professionalism education programs need to include factors that improve calling, nursing image, satisfaction in major and self-efficacy.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1287-1297, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914245

ABSTRACT

Background@#An activating mutation (c.617A>C/p.Lys206Arg, L206R) in protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) has been reported in 35% to 65% of cases of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and transcriptome analysis between PRKACA L206R mutants and wild-type CPAs in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 57 subjects with CPAs who underwent adrenalectomy at Seoul National University Hospital. Sanger sequencing for PRKACA was conducted in 57 CPA tumor tissues. RNA sequencing was performed in 13 fresh-frozen tumor tissues. @*Results@#The prevalence of the PRKACA L206R mutation was 51% (29/57). The mean age of the study subjects was 42±12 years, and 87.7% (50/57) of the patients were female. Subjects with PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs showed smaller adenoma size (3.3±0.7 cm vs. 3.8±1.2 cm, P=0.059) and lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (218±180 ng/mL vs. 1,511±3,307 ng/mL, P=0.001) than those with PRKACA wild-type CPAs. Transcriptome profiling identified 244 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PRKACA L206R mutant (n=8) and wild-type CPAs (n=5), including five upregulated and 239 downregulated genes in PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs (|fold change| ≥2, P<0.05). Among the upstream regulators of DEGs, CTNNB1 was the most significant transcription regulator. In several pathway analyses, the Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated and the steroid biosynthesis pathway was upregulated in PRKACA mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis also showed that PRKACA downregulates Wnt signaling and upregulates steroid biosynthesis. @*Conclusion@#The PRKACA L206R mutation in CPAs causes high hormonal activity with a limited proliferative capacity, as supported by transcriptome profiling.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This paper proposes a method for computer-assisted diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through chest X-ray imaging using a deep learning model without writing a single line of code using the Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) analytics platform. @*Methods@#We obtained 155 samples of posteroanterior chest X-ray images from COVID-19 open dataset repositories to develop a classification model using a simple convolutional neural network (CNN). All of the images contained diagnostic information for COVID-19 and other diseases. The model would classify whether a patient was infected with COVID-19 or not. Eighty percent of the images were used for model training, and the rest were used for testing. The graphic user interface-based programming in the KNIME enabled class label annotation, data preprocessing, CNN model training and testing, performance evaluation, and so on. @*Results@#1,000 epochs training were performed to test the simple CNN model. The lower and upper bounds of positive predictive value (precision), sensitivity (recall), specificity, and f-measure are 92.3% and 94.4%. Both bounds of the model’s accuracies were equal to 93.5% and 96.6% of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the test set. @*Conclusions@#In this study, a researcher who does not have basic knowledge of python programming successfully performed deep learning analysis of chest x-ray image dataset using the KNIME independently. The KNIME will reduce the time spent and lower the threshold for deep learning research applied to healthcare.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898200

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890496

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831178

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to test a model for intention to discontinuation drinking high caffeinated beverages among undergraduate students. This model was based on the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior and Becker’s health belief model. @*Methods@#Participants consisted of 201 undergraduate students. Data were collected by questionnaires from March 11 to May 24, 2019. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 22.0, AMOS 22.0 program. @*Results@#The assessment of the model indicated an acceptable fit (normed x2=1.65, goodness-of-fit index [GFI]=.83, adjusted GFI=.79, comparative fit index [CFI]=.92, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR]=.05, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]=.91, normed fit index [NFI]=.87, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.07). Perceived behavior control, subjective norm, the subjective attitude was found to have a significant direct effect on the intention to discontinuation of drinking a high caffeinated beverage. The variances of this model explained 45.3% of the variance in intention to discontinuation of drinking a high caffeinated beverage. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that a need to increase awareness of adverse effects and potential risks of high caffeinated beverage consumption in undergraduate students. Besides, the university and government should provide education and campaigns to prevent excessive high-caffeinated beverage consumption.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898136

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the main treatment option for adrenal masses. Various studies have reported that laparoscopic adrenalectomy showed fewer postoperative complications and faster recovery than conventional open adrenalectomy. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be performed through either the transperitoneal approach or the retroperitoneoscopic approach, which are widely used in most adrenal surgical procedures. Furthermore, with the development of minimally invasive surgery, organ-sparing adrenalectomy has recently emerged as a way to conserve functional adrenal gland tissue. According to recent data, organ-sparing adrenalectomy shows promising surgical, functional, and oncological outcomes including less intraoperative blood loss, maintenance of adrenal function, and low recurrence. Partial adrenalectomy was initially proposed for bilateral adrenal tumors in patients with hereditary disease to avoid chronic adrenal insufficiency. However, it has also gained popularity for the treatment of unilateral adrenal disease involving a small adrenal tumor because even patients with a unilateral adrenal gland may develop adrenal insufficiency in stressful situations. Therefore, partial adrenalectomy has become increasingly common to avoid lifelong steroid replacement and recurrence in most cases, especially in bilateral adrenal disease. This review article evaluates the current evidence on minimally invasive adrenalectomy and organ-preserving partial adrenalectomy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898131

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898130

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery to preserve recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) function has been widely accepted. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of IONM in reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer patients to help identify the RLN and prevent vocal cord palsy (VCP). @*Methods@#We analyzed 121 consecutive patients (with IONM group, 48 patients; without IONM group, 73 patients) who underwent reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy from January 2009 to March 2019 in our institution without VCP due to previous operations. Data including age, sex, number of previous operations, histologic subtype of the malignancy at the initial operation, operation time, RLNs at risk, difficulty of RLN identification, surgical procedure, VCP, and other postoperative complications were reviewed. Vocal cord movement evaluations were performed preoperatively and at 2 weeks postoperatively to evaluate RLN function. In patients with VCP, additional evaluations were performed. VCP exceeding 12 months after surgery was considered permanent VCP. @*Results@#VCP was observed in six (12.5%) and 16 (21.9%) patients with and without IONM (P=0.189). Transient and permanent VCP were found in three (6.3%) and three (6.3%) patients with IONM (P=0.098 and P=0.982, respectively) versus in 12 (16.4%) and four (5.5%) patients without IONM. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of transient VCP seems to be lower in reoperations with IONM; however, there was no statistical significances. Further study will be needed to ascertain the efficacy of IONM in reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer patients.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896966

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to compare the large multi-institutional data of surgical outcomes of bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic (RT) and endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) and to evaluate the merits of robotic thyroidectomy. @*Methods@#From 2004 to 2015, 1,029 patients underwent BABA ET, and from 2008 to 2015, 2003 patients underwent BABA RT in 3 large volume centers in Korea. Two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of clinicopathologic characteristics, complications, surgical completeness, and long-term outcomes using propensity score matching analysis. @*Results@#Both groups had similar demographic characteristics including age, sex, tumor size, pathologic stage, and hospital stay after matching. Each group had similar rate of transient hypoparathyroidism, however, ET showed significantly higher rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism (ET 5.2% vs. RT 2.3%, P = 0.05), and transient vocal cord palsy (ET 14.4% vs. RT 9.1%, P = 0.006). Total operation time was longer in the ET group irrespective of surgical extents, including lobectomy (P = 0.016), total thyroidectomy (P = 0.031), and total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection (P = 0.019). The rate of patients with off-Tg under 1.0 ng/mL after 1st ablation was significantly higher in RT than ET group (ET 64.6% vs. RT 92.7%, P < 0.001). In long-term follow-up of cancer patients, 1.4% experienced recurrence after ET (10 cases), while 0.3% cases experienced recurrence after RT (5 cases) (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Both ET and RT can be safe and effective methods to treat thyroid diseases. However, the application of robotic system may help to overcome the limitations of the instruments and surgeon’s skills.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890432

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the main treatment option for adrenal masses. Various studies have reported that laparoscopic adrenalectomy showed fewer postoperative complications and faster recovery than conventional open adrenalectomy. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be performed through either the transperitoneal approach or the retroperitoneoscopic approach, which are widely used in most adrenal surgical procedures. Furthermore, with the development of minimally invasive surgery, organ-sparing adrenalectomy has recently emerged as a way to conserve functional adrenal gland tissue. According to recent data, organ-sparing adrenalectomy shows promising surgical, functional, and oncological outcomes including less intraoperative blood loss, maintenance of adrenal function, and low recurrence. Partial adrenalectomy was initially proposed for bilateral adrenal tumors in patients with hereditary disease to avoid chronic adrenal insufficiency. However, it has also gained popularity for the treatment of unilateral adrenal disease involving a small adrenal tumor because even patients with a unilateral adrenal gland may develop adrenal insufficiency in stressful situations. Therefore, partial adrenalectomy has become increasingly common to avoid lifelong steroid replacement and recurrence in most cases, especially in bilateral adrenal disease. This review article evaluates the current evidence on minimally invasive adrenalectomy and organ-preserving partial adrenalectomy.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890427

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890426

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery to preserve recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) function has been widely accepted. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of IONM in reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer patients to help identify the RLN and prevent vocal cord palsy (VCP). @*Methods@#We analyzed 121 consecutive patients (with IONM group, 48 patients; without IONM group, 73 patients) who underwent reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy from January 2009 to March 2019 in our institution without VCP due to previous operations. Data including age, sex, number of previous operations, histologic subtype of the malignancy at the initial operation, operation time, RLNs at risk, difficulty of RLN identification, surgical procedure, VCP, and other postoperative complications were reviewed. Vocal cord movement evaluations were performed preoperatively and at 2 weeks postoperatively to evaluate RLN function. In patients with VCP, additional evaluations were performed. VCP exceeding 12 months after surgery was considered permanent VCP. @*Results@#VCP was observed in six (12.5%) and 16 (21.9%) patients with and without IONM (P=0.189). Transient and permanent VCP were found in three (6.3%) and three (6.3%) patients with IONM (P=0.098 and P=0.982, respectively) versus in 12 (16.4%) and four (5.5%) patients without IONM. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of transient VCP seems to be lower in reoperations with IONM; however, there was no statistical significances. Further study will be needed to ascertain the efficacy of IONM in reoperation for recurrent thyroid cancer patients.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889262

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to compare the large multi-institutional data of surgical outcomes of bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic (RT) and endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) and to evaluate the merits of robotic thyroidectomy. @*Methods@#From 2004 to 2015, 1,029 patients underwent BABA ET, and from 2008 to 2015, 2003 patients underwent BABA RT in 3 large volume centers in Korea. Two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of clinicopathologic characteristics, complications, surgical completeness, and long-term outcomes using propensity score matching analysis. @*Results@#Both groups had similar demographic characteristics including age, sex, tumor size, pathologic stage, and hospital stay after matching. Each group had similar rate of transient hypoparathyroidism, however, ET showed significantly higher rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism (ET 5.2% vs. RT 2.3%, P = 0.05), and transient vocal cord palsy (ET 14.4% vs. RT 9.1%, P = 0.006). Total operation time was longer in the ET group irrespective of surgical extents, including lobectomy (P = 0.016), total thyroidectomy (P = 0.031), and total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection (P = 0.019). The rate of patients with off-Tg under 1.0 ng/mL after 1st ablation was significantly higher in RT than ET group (ET 64.6% vs. RT 92.7%, P < 0.001). In long-term follow-up of cancer patients, 1.4% experienced recurrence after ET (10 cases), while 0.3% cases experienced recurrence after RT (5 cases) (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Both ET and RT can be safe and effective methods to treat thyroid diseases. However, the application of robotic system may help to overcome the limitations of the instruments and surgeon’s skills.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739583

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the biocompatibility of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in the cervical deep tissues of rats to assess its biocompatibility. METHODS: A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with NBCA. After 30, 90, 180, and 360 days, cubes of tissue (1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm) surrounding the NBCA and normal tissue from the other side of the neck were excised from each rat. The adhesion of NBCA to adjacent structures was examined histologically. Cells were counted per high-power field (HPF), and fibrosis was graded with the measurement of fibrotic thickening. RESULTS: All animals displayed normal behavior without any symptoms of distress throughout the study. There was no recognizable inflammatory reaction, foreign body reaction, or fibrosis in the 30 control samples. The analyses of experimental samples showed significantly decreased inflammatory cell counts over time (lymphoplasma cell count decreased from 100 (range, 70–100) to 30 (range, 30–50) per HPF, P = 0.010; neutrophil count decreased from 2 (range, 2–30) to 0 (range, 0–2) per HPF, P = 0.017). However, there was no significant difference in the number of multinuclear giant cells throughout the study period (a decrease from 22 [range, 16–34] to 16 [range, 12–22] per HPF, P = 0.287). The level of fibrosis was Common Toxicity Criteria ver. 4.0 Grade 1 without further thickening (P = 0.600). However, maturation of fibrosis progressed gradually. CONCLUSION: NBCA was biologically tolerable in the cervical deep tissues of rats. However, precautions are needed with respect to preventing a sustained foreign body reaction and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Cell Count , Chyle , Cyanoacrylates , Enbucrilate , Fibrosis , Foreign-Body Reaction , Giant Cells , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neutrophils , Prospective Studies , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1392-1399, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The association between tobacco smoking and thyroid cancer remains uncertain. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smokingwith the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer, and with the BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common oncogenic mutation in PTC related to poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted this study with newly diagnosed PTC patients (n=2,142) and community controls (n=21,420) individually matched to cases for age and sex. Information on active and passive smoking and potential confounders were obtained from structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and medical records. BRAF(V600E) mutation status was assessed in PTC patients. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smoking with PTC and BRAF(V600E) mutation risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively. RESULTS: We did not find associations between exposure indices of active and passive smoking and PTC risk in both men and women, except for the association between current smoking and lower PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥ 20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAF(V600E) mutation risk in male PTC patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 1.00). The CI for the association was wider in female PTC patients (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.02 to 2.62), possibly owing to a smaller sample size in this stratum. CONCLUSION: We did not find consistent associations between active and passive smoking and PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥ 20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAF(V600E) mutation risk in male PTC patients.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Medical Records , Prognosis , Sample Size , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
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