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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832044

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate differentially expressed genes and their functions in the hippocampus and striatum after heroin administration in cynomolgus macaques of different ages. @*Methods@#Cynomolgus monkeys were divided by age as follows: 1 year (A1, n = 2); 3 to 4 years (A2, n = 2); 6 to 8 years (A3, n = 2); and older than 11 years (A4, n = 2). After heroin was injected intramuscularly into the monkeys (0.6 mg/kg), we performed large-scale transcriptome profiling in the hippocampus (H) and striatum (S) using RNA sequencing technology. Some genes were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. @*Results@#In the hippocampus, the gene expression of A1H was similar to that of A4H, while the gene expression of A2H was similar to that of A3H. Genes associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (STMN1, FGF14, and MAPT) and -aminobutyric acid-ergic synapses (GABBR2 and GAD1) were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. Differential gene expression between A1S and A4S was the least significant, while differential gene expression between A3S and A2S was the most significant. Genes associated with the neurotrophin signaling pathway (NTRK1 and NGFR), autophagy (ATG5), and dopaminergic synapses (AKT1) in the striatum were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that even a single heroin exposure can cause differential gene expression in the hippocampus and striatum of nonhuman primates at different ages.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148742

ABSTRACT

Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Aristolochia , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Fatty Liver , Hepatocytes , Inflammation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipoproteins , Liver , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Therapeutic Uses , Triglycerides
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52402

ABSTRACT

Exercise training can improve strength and lead to adaptations in the skeletal muscle and nervous systems. Skeletal muscles can develop into two types: fast and slow, depending on the expression pattern of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Previous studies reported that exercise altered the distribution of muscle fiber types. It is not currently known what changes in the expression of caveolins and types of muscle fiber occur in response to the intensity of exercise. This study determined the changes in expression of caveolins and MHC type after forced exercise in muscular and non-muscular tissues in rats. A control (Con) group to which forced exercise was not applied and an exercise (Ex) group to which forced exercise was applied. Forced exercise, using a treadmill, was introduced at a speed of 25 m/min for 30 min, 3 times/day (07:00, 15:00, 23:00). Homogenized tissues were applied to extract of total RNA for further gene analysis. The expression of caveolin-3 and MHC2a in the gastrocnemius muscle of female rats significantly increased in the Ex group compared with the Con group (P<0.05). Furthermore, in the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, the expression of MHC2x was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). There was an increased expression in caveolin-3 and a slightly decreased expression in TGFbeta-1 in muscular tissues implicating caveolin-3 influences the expression of MHC isoforms and TGFbeta-1 expression. Eventually, it implicates that caveolin-3 has positive regulatory function in muscle atrophy induced by neural dysfunction with spinal cord injury or stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caveolin 3 , Caveolins , Female , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Myosin Heavy Chains , Myosins , Nervous System , Protein Isoforms , Rats , RNA , Spinal Cord Injuries , Stroke
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145353

ABSTRACT

Muscle atrophy is the result of two opposing conditions that can be found in pathological or diseased muscles: an imbalance in protein synthesis and degradation mechanisms. Thus, we investigated whether exogenous melatonin could regulate muscle components in stroke-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Comparing muscle phenotypes, we found that long-term melatonin administration could influence muscle mass. Muscle atrophy-related genes, including muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were significantly down-regulated in melatonin-administered rats in the gastrocnemius. However, only MAFbx at the mRNA level was attenuated in the soleus of melatonin-administered rats. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was significantly over-expressed in melatonin-administered rats in both the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Comparing myosin heavy chain (MHC) components, in the gastrocnemius, expression of both slow- and fast-type isoforms were significantly enhanced in melatonin-administered rats. These results suggest that long-term exogenous melatonin-administration may have a prophylactic effect on muscle atrophy through the MuRF1/MAFbx signaling pathway, as well as a potential therapeutic effect on muscle atrophy through the IGF-1-mediated hypertrophic signaling pathway in a stroke animal model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fingers , Melatonin , Models, Animal , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Myosin Heavy Chains , Phenotype , Protein Isoforms , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Stroke
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98981

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a major predictor of heart failure, although the mechanisms by which the disease causes cardiomyopathy are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prolonged exposure of cardiomyocytes to high glucose concentrations induces autophagy and contributes to cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, there were no differences in the autophagic activation produced by different glucose concentrations. However, cell viability was decreased by high glucose. In the diabetic rats, we found a higher level of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expression and a reduction in the size of the left ventricle (LV) (P<0.05) caused by growth retardation, suggesting activated autophagy. Our in vitro findings indicate that hyperglycemic oxidative stress induces autophagy, and our in vivo studies reveal that autophagy is involved in the progression of pathophysiological remodeling of the heart. Taken together, the studies suggest that autophagy may play a role in the pathogenesis of juvenile diabetic cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cardiomyopathies , Cell Survival , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Glucose , Heart , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Hyperglycemia , Light , Myocytes, Cardiac , Oxidative Stress , Rats
6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 171-179, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164976

ABSTRACT

Diabetes decreases skeletal muscle mass and induces atrophy. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency modify muscle mass are not well defined. In this study, we evaluated the effects of swimming exercise on muscle mass and intracellular protein degradation in diabetic rats, and proposed that autophagy inhibition induced by swimming exercise serves as a hypercatabolic mechanism in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats, supporting a notion that swimming exercise could efficiently reverse the reduced skeletal muscle mass caused by diabetes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes and then submitted to 1 hr per day of forced swimming exercise, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. We conducted an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test on the animals and measured body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and protein degradation and examined the level of autophagy in the isolated extensor digitorum longus, plantaris, and soleus muscles. Body weight and muscle tissue mass were higher in the exercising diabetic rats than in control diabetic rats that remained sedentary. Compared to control rats, exercising diabetic rats had lower blood glucose levels, increased intracellular contractile protein expression, and decreased autophagic protein expression. We conclude that swimming exercise improves muscle mass in diabetes-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, suggesting the activation of autophagy in diabetes contributes to muscle atrophy through hypercatabolic metabolism and that aerobic exercise, by suppressing autophagy, may modify or reverse skeletal muscle wasting in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Atrophy , Autophagy , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Exercise , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Muscular Atrophy , Proteolysis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Swimming
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 217-221, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164970

ABSTRACT

Acute gastrointestinal dilation is a medical condition in which the stomach and intestine become overstretched by excessive gas content. In laboratory monkeys, cases of bloating involving gastrointestinal dilation are rarely seen, and the cause thereof is not clearly defined. Two rhesus monkeys in the Korea National Primate Research Center were found to suffer from acute gastrointestinal dilation. One of the monkeys showed severe gastric bloating after recovering from general anesthesia with isoflurane, where after it died suddenly. During necropsy, severe congestion of the lung was observed. The other monkey showed gastrointestinal dilation and died after treatment. During necropsy, severe dilation of the large intestine was observed. Severe congestion was detected in small and large intestines. Histopathologically, erythrocytes were found to fill the alveoli and alveolar capillaries of the lung. In stomach, epithelial cells were found to be sloughed from the mucosal layer, and erythrocytes were found to fill the blood vessels of the submucosal and mucosal layers. In small and large intestines, epithelial cells were also found to be sloughed from the mucosal layer, and inflammatory cells were found to have infiltrated in the submucosa (only large intestine) and mucosa. Microbiologically, Enterococcus faecalis and the pathogenic Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which do not form gas in the gastrointestinal tract, were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of both monkeys. These results suggest that the cause of the acute gastrointestinal dilation in these monkeys was not infection by gas-forming bacteria, but rather multiple factors such as diet, anesthesia, and excessive water consumption.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Bacteria , Blood Vessels , Capillaries , Diet , Drinking , Enterococcus faecalis , Epithelial Cells , Erythrocytes , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Gastrointestinal Contents , Gastrointestinal Tract , Haplorhini , Intestine, Large , Intestines , Isoflurane , Korea , Lung , Macaca mulatta , Mucous Membrane , Primates , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Stomach
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 255-263, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192523

ABSTRACT

Gangliosides are ubiquitous components of the membranes of mammalian cells that are thought to play important roles in various cell functions such as cell-cell interaction, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, growth control, and signaling. However, the role that gangliosides play in the immune rejection response after xenotransplantation is not yet clearly understood. In this study, the regulatory effects of human leukocytes on ganglioside expression in primary cultured micro-pig aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) were investigated. To determine the impact of human leukocytes on the expression of gangliosides in PAECs, we performed high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in PAECs incubated with FBS, FBS containing human leukocytes, human serum containing human leukocytes, and FBS containing TNF-alpha. Both HPTLC and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that PAECs incubated with FBS predominantly express the gangliosides GM3, GM1, and GD3. However, the expression of GM1 significantly decreased in PAECs incubated for 5 h with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL), 10% human serum containing human leukocytes, and 10% FBS containing human leukocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that human leukocytes induced changes in the expression profile of ganglioside GM1 similar to those seen upon treatment of PAECs with TNF-alpha. This finding may be relevant for designing future therapeutic strategies intended to prolong xenograft survival.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Endothelial Cells , Gangliosides , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Leukocytes , Membranes , Rejection, Psychology , Transplantation, Heterologous , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102686

ABSTRACT

Gangliosides have been suggested to play important roles in various functions such as adhesion, cell differentiation, growth control, and signaling. Mouse follicular development, ovulation, and luteinization during the estrous cycle are regulated by several hormones and cell-cell interactions. In addition, spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of adult testes is also regulated by several hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and cell-cell interactions. The regulation of these processes by hormones and cell-cell interactions provides evidence for the importance of surface membrane components, including gangliosides. During preimplantation embryo development, a mammalian embryo undergoes a series of cleavage divisions whereby a zygote is converted into a blastocyst that is sufficiently competent to be implanted in the maternal uterus and continue its development. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from mouse embryo, specifically, from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Differentiated neuronal cells are derived from mES cells through the formation of embryonic bodies (EBs). EBs recapitulate many aspects of lineage-specific differentiation and temporal and spatial gene expression patterns during early embryogenesis. Previous studies on ganglioside expression during mouse embryonic development (including during in vitro fertilization, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and embryogenesis) reported that gangliosides were expressed in both undifferentiated and differentiated (or differentiating) mES cells. In this review, we summarize some of the advances in our understanding of the functional roles of gangliosides during the stages of mouse embryonic development, including ovulation, spermatogenesis, and embryogenesis, focusing on undifferentiated and differentiated mES cells (neuronal cells).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Gametogenesis , Gangliosides/metabolism , Mice , Urogenital System/cytology
10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 429-432, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65548

ABSTRACT

Rectal prolapse is a protrusion of one or more layers of the rectum through the anus. A 5-year-old laboratory cynomolgus monkey who had suffered from recurrent diarrhea died after surgical resection of a prolapsed rectum. On examination, the prolapsed rectum was a cylinder-shaped tissue whose surface was moist and dark red with a small amount of hemorrhage. Histologically, the rectum was characterized by a segmental to diffuse cellular infiltration in the submucosa and muscle layers. Inflammation in the rectum resulted in irritation of the myenteric plexus, which could cause hypermotility of the intestines, leading to chronic diarrhea. Rectal prolapse would result in economical loss or death of laboratory animals. However, rectal prolapse in the laboratory monkey could be easily overlooked because diarrhea or other symptoms resulting from rectal prolapse could be sometimes misunderstood as a primary problem. Therefore, researchers should suspect rectal prolapse if intestinal symptoms in the laboratory monkey are untreatable.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Animals, Laboratory , Diarrhea , Haplorhini , Hemorrhage , Inflammation , Intestines , Macaca fascicularis , Muscles , Myenteric Plexus , Child, Preschool , Rectal Prolapse , Rectum
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202554

ABSTRACT

Glycosphingolipids including gangliosides play important regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg) catalyze the initial step in glycosphingolipids biosynthesis pathway. In this study, Ugcg expression was reduced to approximately 80% by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to evaluate the roles of glycosphingolipids in proliferation and neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). HPTLC/immunofluorescence analyses of shRNA-transfected mESCs revealed that treatment with Ugcg-shRNA decreased expression of major gangliosides, GM3 and GD3. Furthermore, MTT and Western blot/immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that inhibition of the Ugcg expression in mESCs resulted in decrease of cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and decrease of activation of the ERK1/2 (P < 0.05), respectively. To further investigate the role of glycosphingolipids in neural differentiation, the embryoid bodies formed from Ugcg-shRNA transfected mESCs were differentiated into neural cells by treatment with retinoic acid. We found that inhibition of Ugcg expression did not affect embryoid body (EB) differentiation, as judged by morphological comparison and expression of early neural precursor cell marker, nestin, in differentiated EBs. However, RT-PCR/immunofluorescence analyses showed that expression of microtubule- associated protein 2 (MAP-2) for neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for glial cells was decreased in neural cells differentiated from the shRNA-transfected mESCs. These results suggest that glycosphingolipids are involved in the proliferation of mESCs through ERK1/2 activation, and that glycosphingolipids play roles in differentiation of neural precursor cells derived from mESCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Down-Regulation , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Glycosphingolipids/genetics , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neurons/cytology , RNA, Messenger/genetics
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