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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924928

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the influence of pre-pregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), comparing underweight patients with GDM with normal weight patients with GDM. Maternal baseline characteristics, ultrasonographic results, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were reviewed in 946 women with GDM with singleton pregnancies. Underweight patients with GDM showed a benign course in most aspects during pregnancy, except for developing a higher risk of giving birth to small for gestational age neonates. Underweight women with GDM required less insulin treatment, had a higher rate of vaginal delivery, and had a lower rate of cesarean delivery. In addition, their neonates were more likely to have fetal abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight below the 10th percentile both at the time of GDM diagnosis and before delivery. Notably, their risk for preeclampsia and macrosomia were lower. Collectively, our data suggest that underweight women with GDM may require a different approach in terms of diagnosis and management throughout their pregnancy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924912

ABSTRACT

Background@#Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an emerging consequence of increased insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia is one of the few correctable risk factors of LVDD. This study evaluated the role of mean and visit-to-visit variability of lipid measurements in risk of LVDD in a healthy population. @*Methods@#This was a 3.7-year (interquartile range, 2.1 to 4.9) longitudinal cohort study including 2,817 adults (median age 55 years) with left ventricular ejection fraction >50% who underwent an annual or biannual health screening between January 2008 and July 2016. The mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides were obtained from three to six measurements during the 5 years preceding the first echocardiogram. @*Results@#Among the 2,817 patients, 560 (19.9%) developed LVDD. The mean of no component of lipid measurements was associated with risk of LVDD. CV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.67), SD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.57), and VIM (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.55) of LDL-C and all the variability parameters of apoB were significantly associated with development of LVDD. The association between CV-LDL and risk of LVDD did not have significant interaction with sex, increasing/decreasing trend at baseline, or use of stain and/or lipid-modifying agents. @*Conclusion@#The variability of LDL-C and apoB, rather than their mean, was associated with risk for LVDD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898227

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) is diagnosed through biochemical confirmation of excessive catecholamines in urine and plasma. Recent technological developments have allowed us to measure urinary free metanephrines; however, the diagnostic accuracy of these new methods and the diagnostic cutoff values have not been evaluated. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study of 595 subjects, including 71 PPGL cases and 524 controls. PPGL was based on pathological confirmation. Subjects with no evidence of PPGL over 2 years were included in the control group. @*Results@#Urinary free metanephrines yielded similar area under the curve (AUC) to urinary fractionated metanephrines and plasma free metanephrines. However, urinary free normetanephrine yielded a better AUC than did urinary fractionated normetanephrine. The optimal cutoff for urinary free metanephrine and normetanephrine corrected for urinary creatinine yielded 97.2% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. @*Conclusion@#Urinary free metanephrines are a reliable method for diagnosing PPGL in Asian populations compared with existing biochemical methods.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898091

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890523

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) is diagnosed through biochemical confirmation of excessive catecholamines in urine and plasma. Recent technological developments have allowed us to measure urinary free metanephrines; however, the diagnostic accuracy of these new methods and the diagnostic cutoff values have not been evaluated. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study of 595 subjects, including 71 PPGL cases and 524 controls. PPGL was based on pathological confirmation. Subjects with no evidence of PPGL over 2 years were included in the control group. @*Results@#Urinary free metanephrines yielded similar area under the curve (AUC) to urinary fractionated metanephrines and plasma free metanephrines. However, urinary free normetanephrine yielded a better AUC than did urinary fractionated normetanephrine. The optimal cutoff for urinary free metanephrine and normetanephrine corrected for urinary creatinine yielded 97.2% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. @*Conclusion@#Urinary free metanephrines are a reliable method for diagnosing PPGL in Asian populations compared with existing biochemical methods.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890387

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and related to albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) is a renal tubular injury marker which has been reported as an early marker of DN even in patients with normoalbuminuria. This study evaluated whether uNAG is associated with the presence and severity of CAN in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without nephropathy. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study comprised 247 subjects with T1DM without chronic kidney disease and albuminuria who had results for both uNAG and autonomic function tests within 3 months. The presence of CAN was assessed by age-dependent reference values for four autonomic function tests. Total CAN score was assessed as the sum of the partial points of five cardiovascular reflex tests and was used to estimatethe severity of CAN. The correlations between uNAG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#The association between log-uNAG and presence of CAN was significant in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 5.28; P=0.031). Total CAN score was positively associated with loguNAG (β=0.261, P=0.026) in the multivariate linear regression model. Log-uNAG was inversely correlated with frequency-domain and time-domain indices of HRV. @*Conclusion@#This study verified the association of uNAG with presence and severity of CAN and changes in HRV in T1DM patients without nephropathy. The potential role of uNAG should be further assessed for high-risk patients for CAN in T1DM patients without nephropathy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

9.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 250-258, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918902

ABSTRACT

The most important change introduced in the pharmacotherapy session for the 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes is the recommendation of two different strategies according to the patient’s condition. One approach is to optimize the blood glucose levels, while the other approach is to reduce adverse cardiovascular events or mortality, especially in patients with comorbidities (e.g., heart failure, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, or chronic kidney disease). We suggest four algorithms that take into account the patient’s condition (algorithms 1 to 4). The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) developed a web-based clinical decision support system, known as the KDA support system (KDASS), which helps with the diagnosis of diabetes or gestational diabetes and whether to use glucose-lowering agents according to the patient’s condition.

10.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903533

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 236-243, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836650

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease is developed commonly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care including optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for death and complications from cardiorenal causes. The recent studies using sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effect, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and a lowering cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitor slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may be also associated with improved renal outcomes with long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in the patients with T2DM using meta-analysis. (Korean J Med 2020;95:236-243)

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834961

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodiumglucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2-inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend long-term use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendations due to the lack of long-term clinical trials testing the reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after the publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834953

ABSTRACT

The safety of metformin use for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and advanced kidney disease is controversial, and more recent guidelines have suggested that metformin be used cautiously in this group until more definitive evidence concerning its safety is available. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology have agreed on consensus statements concerning metformin use for patients with T2DM and renal dysfunction, particularly when these patients undergo imaging studies using iodinated contrast media (ICM). Metformin can be used safely when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. If the eGFR is between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m2, metformin treatment should not be started. If metformin is already in use, a daily dose of ≤ 1,000 mg is recommended. Metformin is contraindicated when the eGFR is < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Renal function should be evaluated prior to any ICM-related procedures. During procedures involving intravenous administration of ICM, metformin should be discontinued starting the day of the procedures and up to 48 hours postprocedures if the eGFR is < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811152

ABSTRACT

The safety of metformin use for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and advanced kidney disease is controversial, and more recent guidelines have suggested that metformin be used cautiously in this group until more definitive evidence concerning its safety is available. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology have agreed on consensus statements concerning metformin use for patients with T2DM and renal dysfunction, particularly when these patients undergo imaging studies using iodinated contrast media (ICM). Metformin can be used safely when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m². If the eGFR is between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m², metformin treatment should not be started. If metformin is already in use, a daily dose of ≤1,000 mg is recommended. Metformin is contraindicated when the eGFR is <30 mL/min/1.73 m². Renal function should be evaluated prior to any ICM-related procedures. During procedures involving intravenous administration of ICM, metformin should be discontinued starting the day of the procedures and up to 48 hours post-procedures if the eGFR is <60 mL/min/1.73 m².


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Consensus , Contrast Media , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Metformin , Nephrology , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the outcome of a computerized intravenous insulin infusion (CII) protocol integrated to the electronic health record (EHR) system and to improve the CII protocol in silico using the EHR-based predictors of the outcome.METHODS: Clinical outcomes of the patients who underwent the CII protocol between July 2016 and February 2017 and their matched controls were evaluated. In the CII protocol group (n=91), multivariable binary logistic regression analysis models were used to determine the independent associates with a delayed response (taking ≥6.0 hours for entering a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL). The CII protocol was adjusted in silico according to the EHR-based parameters obtained in the first 3 hours of CII.RESULTS: Use of the CII protocol was associated with fewer subjects with hypoglycemia alert values (P=0.003), earlier (P=0.002), and more stable (P=0.017) achievement of a glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL. Initial glucose level (P=0.001), change in glucose during the first 2 hours (P=0.026), and change in insulin infusion rate during the first 3 hours (P=0.029) were independently associated with delayed responses. Increasing the insulin infusion rate temporarily according to these parameters in silico significantly reduced delayed responses (P<0.0001) without hypoglycemia, especially in refractory patients.CONCLUSION: Our CII protocol enabled faster and more stable glycemic control than conventional care with minimized risk of hypoglycemia. An EHR-based adjustment was simulated to reduce delayed responses without increased incidence of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Electronic Health Records , Glucose , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Logistic Models , Medical Records Systems, Computerized
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 105-115, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895829

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease commonly develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and related cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, despite the current standard of care that includes optimized glucose control and the use of single-agent blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), patients with T2DM remain at increased risk for premature death and complications due to cardiorenal causes. Recent studies using sodiumglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown not only glucose lowering effects, but also a reduction in blood pressure, weight loss, and lower cardiovascular risk. Regarding renal outcomes, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors slows the progression of kidney disease compared to placebo when added to standard care. However, concern has been raised that currently available SGLT2 inhibitors in Korea may also be associated with improved renal outcomes during long-term treatment. As a result, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term SGLT2 inhibitor treatment on renal function in patients with T2DM using meta-analysis.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832391

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most important sequelae of obesity and the leading cause of death. We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes, CVD, and all-cause mortality in a prospective study of a Korean population. @*Methods@#The shapes of the associations were modeled by restricted cubic splines regression analysis. After categorizing all subjects (n=8,900) into octiles based on their BMI levels, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of categorized BMI levels with the risk of incident CVD and type 2 diabetes using a Cox’s proportional hazard analysis. @*Results@#The mean age of participants was 52 years and 48% were men. Of the subjects at baseline, 39.0% of men and 45.6% of women were classified as obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, CVD events occurred in 509 participants; 436 died; and 1,258 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of incident diabetes began to be significant at BMI 23 to 24 kg/m2 in both sexes (HR, 1.8). For CVD events, the risk began to increase significantly at BMI 26 to 28 kg/m2 (HR, 1.6). We found a reverse J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality, with an increased risk among individuals with BMI values in lower range (BMI <21 kg/m2). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the BMI cut-off points for observed risk were varied depending on the diseases and that the BMI classification of obesity need to be revised to reflect differential risk of obesity-related diseases.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832329

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2 inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend the long-term use SGLT2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendation due to lack of long-term clinical trials testing reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Removal of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate by AST-120 is known to improve renal function and delay the initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. However, it is unclear whether the addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments is effective in delaying the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine levels ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dL) were recruited from eight centers in Korea and treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in renal function measured as the gradient of the reciprocal serum creatinine level (1/sCr) over time (i.e., the ratio of 1/sCr time slope for post- to pre-AST-120 therapy). A response was defined as a ratio change of the regression coefficient of 1/sCr ≤ 0.90. RESULTS: Renal function improved in 80.3% of patients (61/76) after 24 weeks of AST-120 treatment. There were no differences between responder and non-responder groups in baseline characteristics except for diastolic blood pressure (73.5 ± 9.5 mmHg in the responder group vs. 79.3 ± 11.1 mmHg in the non-responder group; P = 0.046). Serum lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in the responder group (from 2.25 ± 0.56 μmol/L to 1.91 ± 0.72 μmol/L; P = 0.002) but not in the non-responder group. CONCLUSION: The addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments may delay the progression of renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effect of AST-120 might contribute to improvement in renal function.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dialysis , Humans , Indican , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
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