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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914207

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is unclear whether glycemic variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and whether control of GV is beneficial for DPN. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GV on peripheral nerve damage by inducing glucose fluctuation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. @*Methods@#Rats were divided into four groups: normal (normal glucose group [NOR]), diabetes without treatment (sustained severe hyperglycemia group; diabetes mellitus [DM]), diabetes+once daily insulin glargine (stable hyperglycemia group; DM+LAN), and diabetes+once daily insulin glargine with twice daily insulin glulisine (unstable glucose fluctuation group; DM+Lantus [LAN]+Apidra [API]). We measured anti-oxidant enzyme levels and behavioral responses against tactile, thermal, and pressure stimuli in the plasma of rats. We also performed a quantitative comparison of cutaneous and sciatic nerves according to glucose fluctuation. @*Results@#At week 24, intraepidermal nerve fiber density was less reduced in the insulin-administered groups compared to the DM group (P0.05; 16.2±1.6, 12.4±2.0, 14.3±0.9, and 13.9±0.6 for NOR, DM, DM+LAN, and DM+LAN+API, respectively). The DM group exhibited significantly decreased glutathione levels compared to the insulin-administered groups (2.64±0.10 μmol/mL, DM+LAN; 1.93±0.0 μmol/mL, DM+LAN+API vs. 1.25±0.04 μmol/mL, DM; P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Our study suggests that glucose control itself is more important than glucose fluctuation in the prevention of peripheral nerve damage, and intra-day glucose fluctuation has a limited effect on the progression of peripheral neuropathy in rats with diabetes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900063

ABSTRACT

Background@#Real-world data analysis is useful for identifying treatment patterns.Understanding drug prescription patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus may facilitate diabetes management. We aimed to analyze treatment patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model based on electronic health records. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational study employed electronic health records of patients who visited Jeonbuk National University Hospital in Korea during January 2000– December 2019. Data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model and analyzed using R version 4.0.3 and ATLAS ver. 2.7.6. Prescription frequency for each anti-diabetic drug, combination therapy pattern, and prescription pattern according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were analyzed. @*Results@#The number of adults treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus increased from 1,867 (2.0%) in 2000 to 9,972 (5.9%) in 2019. In the early 2000s, sulfonylurea was most commonly prescribed (73%), and in the recent years, metformin has been most commonly prescribed (64%). Prescription rates for DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitors have increased gradually over the past few years. Monotherapy prescription rates decreased, whereas triple and quadruple combination prescription rates increased steadily. Different drug prescription patterns according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were observed. The proportion of patients with HbA1c ≤ 7% increased from 31.1% in 2000 to 45.6% in 2019, but that of patients visiting the emergency room for severe hypoglycemia did not change over time. @*Conclusion@#Medication utilization patterns have changed significantly over the past 20 years with an increase in the use of newer drugs and a shift to combination therapies. In addition, various prescription patterns were demonstrated according to the patient characteristics in actual practice. Although glycemic control has improved, the proportion within the target is still low, underscoring the need to improve diabetes management.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892359

ABSTRACT

Background@#Real-world data analysis is useful for identifying treatment patterns.Understanding drug prescription patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus may facilitate diabetes management. We aimed to analyze treatment patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model based on electronic health records. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational study employed electronic health records of patients who visited Jeonbuk National University Hospital in Korea during January 2000– December 2019. Data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model and analyzed using R version 4.0.3 and ATLAS ver. 2.7.6. Prescription frequency for each anti-diabetic drug, combination therapy pattern, and prescription pattern according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were analyzed. @*Results@#The number of adults treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus increased from 1,867 (2.0%) in 2000 to 9,972 (5.9%) in 2019. In the early 2000s, sulfonylurea was most commonly prescribed (73%), and in the recent years, metformin has been most commonly prescribed (64%). Prescription rates for DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitors have increased gradually over the past few years. Monotherapy prescription rates decreased, whereas triple and quadruple combination prescription rates increased steadily. Different drug prescription patterns according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were observed. The proportion of patients with HbA1c ≤ 7% increased from 31.1% in 2000 to 45.6% in 2019, but that of patients visiting the emergency room for severe hypoglycemia did not change over time. @*Conclusion@#Medication utilization patterns have changed significantly over the past 20 years with an increase in the use of newer drugs and a shift to combination therapies. In addition, various prescription patterns were demonstrated according to the patient characteristics in actual practice. Although glycemic control has improved, the proportion within the target is still low, underscoring the need to improve diabetes management.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903522

ABSTRACT

Although type 1 diabetes remains more common among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes among children, adolescents, and young adults is dramatically increasing. Young-onset type 2 diabetes exhibits a stronger family history, a greater association with obesity, early loss of insulin secretion capacity with insulin resistance, early onset and rapid progression of chronic complications, and frequent need for early introduction of insulin. Therefore, the management of type 2 diabetes in this age group is challenging and there are age-specific concerns. Young-onset type 2 diabetes affects more individuals of working age, increasing the adverse societal effects of the disease. This article describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young adults.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895818

ABSTRACT

Although type 1 diabetes remains more common among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes among children, adolescents, and young adults is dramatically increasing. Young-onset type 2 diabetes exhibits a stronger family history, a greater association with obesity, early loss of insulin secretion capacity with insulin resistance, early onset and rapid progression of chronic complications, and frequent need for early introduction of insulin. Therefore, the management of type 2 diabetes in this age group is challenging and there are age-specific concerns. Young-onset type 2 diabetes affects more individuals of working age, increasing the adverse societal effects of the disease. This article describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young adults.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832406

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714209

ABSTRACT

Present study investigated the morphologic changes of autonomic nerves in the adipose tissue in diabetic animal model. Male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice and age matched non-diabetic db/m control mice were used. Epididymal adipose tissue from diabetic db/db mice with that from control heterozygous db/m mice was compared using confocal microscopy-based method to visualize intact whole adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase for sympathetic (SP), choline acetyltransferase for parasympathetic (PSP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) for whole autonomic nerves was performed. The quantity of immunostained portion of SP, PSP, and PGP 9.5 stained nerve fibers showed decreased trend in diabetic group; however, the ratio of SP/PSP of adipose tissue was higher in diabetic group compared with control group as follows (0.70±0.30 vs. 0.95±0.25, P < 0.05; normal vs. diabetic, respectively). Both SP and PSP nerve fibers were observed in white adipose tissue and PSP nerve fibers were suggested as more decreased in diabetes based on our observation.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716313

ABSTRACT

The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on peripheral nerves and kidneys in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of empagliflozin in diabetic rats. DM in rats was induced by streptozotocin injection, and diabetic rats were treated with empagliflozin 3 or 10 mg/kg. Following 24-week treatment, response thresholds to four different stimuli were tested and found to be lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. Empagliflozin significantly prevented hypersensitivity (P < 0.05) and the loss of skin intraepidermal nerve fibers, and mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic rats. Results of this study demonstrate the potential therapeutic effects of empagliflozin for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diabetic Neuropathies , Hypersensitivity , Kidney , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Rats , Skin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Streptozocin , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29549

ABSTRACT

Coexistence of moyamoya disease and Graves' disease is rare. A 41-year-old woman presented with symptoms of left-sided hemiparesis and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed acute infarction of the right thalamus and occipital lobe with complete obstruction of the distal internal carotid arteries and obstruction of the right P2. Free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and TSH receptor antibody levels were 79.33 pmol/L, 0.007 uIU/mL, and 151.5 u/L, respectively. She received antiplatelet therapy and standard antithyroid drug dose. After admission, seizure and unexplained fever occurred. The thyroid storm score (Burch and Wartofsky scale) was 90 points. After intensive treatment, mental status and thyrotoxicosis-related symptoms ameliorated and vital signs stabilized. We describe a case of thyroid storm following cerebrovascular ischemic events in a Korean woman with moyamoya disease and Graves' disease. Thyroid storm combined with cerebrovascular events can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition and strict management are crucial.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Infarction , Dysarthria , Female , Fever , Graves Disease , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Moyamoya Disease , Occipital Lobe , Paresis , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Seizures , Thalamus , Thyroid Crisis , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Vital Signs
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84358

ABSTRACT

Tuberculous meningitis is a well-known cause of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction. However, deficiencies of anterior pituitary hormones may only become evident years after recovery because symptoms are of insidious-onset and nonspecific. Pituitary hormones are essential for normal growth and sexual development in childhood, and for maintenance of healthy body composition. In addition, pituitary hormones and vitamin D are important for cardiovascular and bone health. Although evidence of the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and hypopituitarism is limited, some studies suggested that the incidence of vitamin D deficiency increased in hypopituitarism. We describe herein an unusual case of hypopituitarism and severe hypovitaminosis D presenting as osteoporotic fracture after cured tuberculous meningitis.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Hypopituitarism , Incidence , Osteoporotic Fractures , Pituitary Hormones , Pituitary Hormones, Anterior , Sexual Development , Tuberculosis, Meningeal , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
20.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 168-173, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726776

ABSTRACT

Both diabetes mellitus and cancer are common diseases whose incidence is increasing globally. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the prevalence of cancer is increasing in diabetic patients, and both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia may lead to poor prognosis and complications in such patients undergoing cancer therapy. Nevertheless, managing glucose in patients with diabetes and cancer can pose a significant clinical challenge. As there are no evidence-based guidelines for treating diabetes in patients with cancer, an individualized approach is required. Diabetes self-management education is a critical element of care for cancer patients with diabetes. We discuss the management of diabetes in relation to cancer surgery, chemotherapy including glucocorticoids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. We also discuss management of hyperglycemia in patients with advanced cancer approaching end of life care.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Education , Glucocorticoids , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Parenteral Nutrition , Prevalence , Prognosis , Self Care , Terminal Care
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