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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913976

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening compared to no screening in the Korean population from societal and healthcare system perspectives. @*Methods@#A published decision-tree plus Markov model was used to compare the expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between one-time universal HCV screening and no screening in the population aged 40–65 years using the National Health Examination (NHE) program. Input parameters were obtained from analyses of the National Health Insurance claims data, Korean HCV cohort data, or from the literature review. The population aged 40–65 years was simulated in a model spanning a lifetime from both the healthcare system and societal perspectives, which included the cost of productivity loss due to HCV-related deaths. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between universal screening and no screening was estimated. @*Results@#The HCV screening strategy had an ICER of $2,666/QALY and $431/QALY from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. Both ICERs were far less than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $25,000/QALY, showing that universal screening was highly cost-effective compared to no screening. In various sensitivity analyses, the most influential parameters on cost-effectiveness were the antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence, screening costs, and treatment acceptance; however, all ICERs were consistently less than the threshold. If the anti-HCV prevalence was over 0.18%, screening could be cost-effective. @*Conclusions@#One-time universal HCV screening in the Korean population aged 40–65 years using NHE program would be highly cost-effective from both healthcare system and societal perspectives.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Abeliophyllum distichum is a plant endemic to Korea, containing several beneficial natural compounds. This study investigated the effect of A. distichum leaf extract (ALE) on adipocyte differentiation.MATERIALS/METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of ALE was analyzed using cell viability assay.3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated using induction media in the presence or absence of ALE. Lipid accumulation was confirmed using Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression of adipogenic markers was measured using RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) were measured using western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by calculating the incorporation of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA. @*RESULTS@#ALE reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes, as indicated by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assays. Treatment with ALE decreased the gene expression of adipogenic markers such as Pparγ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/ebpα), lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte protein-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase.Also, the protein expression of PPARγ was reduced by ALE. Treating the cells with ALE at different time points revealed that the inhibitory effect of ALE on adipogenesis is higher in the early period treatment than in the terminal period. Furthermore, ALE inhibited adipocyte differentiation by reducing the early phase of adipogenesis and mitotic clonal expansion. This was indicated by the lower number of cells in the Synthesis phase of the cell cycle (labeled using BrdU assay) and a decrease in the expression of early adipogenic transcription factors such as C/ebpβ and C/ebpδ. ALE suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPK, confirming that the effect of ALE was through the suppression of early phase of adipogenesis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Altogether, the results of the present study revealed that ALE inhibits lipid accumulation and may be a potential agent for managing obesity.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902459

ABSTRACT

Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious medical condition that can result in local pain and gait disturbance. DVT progression can also lead to death or major disability as a result of pulmonary embolism, postthrombotic syndrome, or limb amputation. However, early thrombus removal can rapidly relieve symptoms and prevent disease progression. Various endovascular procedures have been developed in the recent years to treat DVT, and endovascular treatment has been established as one of the major therapeutic methods to treat lower extremity DVT. However, the treatment of lower extremity DVT varies according to the disease duration, location of affected vessels, and the presence of symptoms. This article reviews and discusses effective endovascular treatment methods for lower extremity DVT.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Abeliophyllum distichum is a plant endemic to Korea, containing several beneficial natural compounds. This study investigated the effect of A. distichum leaf extract (ALE) on adipocyte differentiation.MATERIALS/METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of ALE was analyzed using cell viability assay.3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated using induction media in the presence or absence of ALE. Lipid accumulation was confirmed using Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression of adipogenic markers was measured using RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) were measured using western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by calculating the incorporation of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA. @*RESULTS@#ALE reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes, as indicated by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assays. Treatment with ALE decreased the gene expression of adipogenic markers such as Pparγ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/ebpα), lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte protein-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase.Also, the protein expression of PPARγ was reduced by ALE. Treating the cells with ALE at different time points revealed that the inhibitory effect of ALE on adipogenesis is higher in the early period treatment than in the terminal period. Furthermore, ALE inhibited adipocyte differentiation by reducing the early phase of adipogenesis and mitotic clonal expansion. This was indicated by the lower number of cells in the Synthesis phase of the cell cycle (labeled using BrdU assay) and a decrease in the expression of early adipogenic transcription factors such as C/ebpβ and C/ebpδ. ALE suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPK, confirming that the effect of ALE was through the suppression of early phase of adipogenesis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Altogether, the results of the present study revealed that ALE inhibits lipid accumulation and may be a potential agent for managing obesity.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894755

ABSTRACT

Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a serious medical condition that can result in local pain and gait disturbance. DVT progression can also lead to death or major disability as a result of pulmonary embolism, postthrombotic syndrome, or limb amputation. However, early thrombus removal can rapidly relieve symptoms and prevent disease progression. Various endovascular procedures have been developed in the recent years to treat DVT, and endovascular treatment has been established as one of the major therapeutic methods to treat lower extremity DVT. However, the treatment of lower extremity DVT varies according to the disease duration, location of affected vessels, and the presence of symptoms. This article reviews and discusses effective endovascular treatment methods for lower extremity DVT.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875506

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: This study aimed to establish the real-world effectiveness and safety of grazoprevir/elbasvir (EBR/GZR) therapy in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 242 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 or 4 infection who started EBR/GZR were consecutively enrolled from seven tertiary hospitals. Retrospective analysis of the fractions of patients that achieved sustained virological response (SVR) was performed, and the incidence of adverse events was noted. @*Results@#The mean age of enrolled patients was 59.0 ± 12.6 years and 47.5% were males. Patients with HCV genotype 1b accounted for 93.8% (n = 227), and patients with HCV of unspecified genotype 1 accounted for 5.8% (n = 14). Hypertension was the most common comorbid disease (29.8%) followed by diabetes (22.7%) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, 12.4%). SVR rates of treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients were 85.5% (182/213) and 93.1% (27/29), respectively, in the intention-to-treat analyses, whereas in the per-protocol analyses, those were 97.8% (179/183) and 100% (28/28), respectively. Fewer patients with HCV genotype 1 of unspecified subtype achieved SVR (81.8%, n = 11) compared to the patients with SVR infected with genotype 1b (99%, n = 198, p < 0.001). All patients with CKD showed SVR. Itching (12%) and dyspepsia (4.1%) were common adverse events. Of the four patients who discontinued the antiviral therapy, one experienced mild fatigue but neither treatment withdrawal was because of an adverse event. @*Conclusions@#EBR/GZR showed high real-world effectiveness and safety in Korean patients with chronic HCV infection regardless of the previous antiviral treatment, liver cirrhosis, or CKD status.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875484

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk factors for the development of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with PBC in Korea through a questionnaire survey. @*Methods@#Consecutively enrolled 103 PBC patients from six referral hospitals and 100 age- and sex-matched community controls participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire survey including demographics, lifestyle, individual and familial medical history and reproductive history was prospectively collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The PBC patients had a mean age of 58.3 years and a female proportion of 86.4%. The age- and sex-matched controls had a similar educational level and economic status to the PBC patients. Among the lifestyle factors, the multivariable analysis showed smoking including both first-hand and second-hand (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 3.93), history of autoimmune diseases (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06 to 6.35), and family history of PBC (OR, 17.76; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2,418.74) were significantly associated with PBC, whereas alcohol intake was negatively associated with PBC. Among reproductive factors, the number of induced abortions was significantly associated with PBC, while the number of full-term deliveries was negatively associated with PBC. @*Conclusions@#A family history of PBC, accompanying autoimmune diseases, and smoking were significantly associated with PBC. More induced abortions and less full-term deliveries were associated with PBC in women. In contrast, mild to moderate alcohol intake was negatively associated with PBC. Further studies are warranted to validate the results of this study and to search for clues about the pathogenesis of PBC.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 644-651, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833187

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate the epi-demiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Korean general population and the awareness and treatment status of HCV infection among anti-HCV-positive persons. @*Methods@#We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) collected between 2012 and 2016. All the participants aged ≥10 years in the KNHNES were tested for the anti-HCV antibody. Anti-HCV-positive persons were tested for HCV RNA and assessed for their awareness and treatment experience regarding HCV infec-tion. @*Results@# The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.66% (95% confidence interval, 0.56% to 0.78%) among Koreans aged ≥10 years, representing an estimated 278,819 anti-HCV-pos-itive persons, and 0.71% (95% confidence interval, 0.60% to 0.84%) among Koreans aged ≥20 years. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age and had significant geographic variation. The positive rate of HCV RNA in anti-HCV-positive persons was 33.5% and increased with age. The rate of HCV infection awareness was 15.2% (35/250) among antiHCV-positive persons and 30.5% (18/59) among HCV RNApositive persons. Among the participants, 13.5% of HCV RNA-positive persons had been treated for HCV infection. @*Conclusions@# The prevalence of anti-HCV among Koreans aged ≥20 years was 0.71%; one-third of anti-HCV-positive persons tested HCV RNA-positive. The awareness and treat-ment rates of HCV infection were low among HCV-infected persons. Therefore, active measures should be taken to diagnose and treat persons unaware of HCV infection.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 775-782, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833174

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sofosbuvir (SOF)-based therapy has been used in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since January 2016. This study aimed to in-vestigate the real-life effectiveness and safety of SOF-based therapy in genotype 2 HCV infection. @*Methods@#From January to December 2016, 458 genotype 2 HCV-infected patients who received ≥1 dose of SOF-based therapy were consecu-tively enrolled in seven tertiary hospitals. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates and safety were determined by inten-tion-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 61.0 years; 183 (40%) were male, and 13.1% showed a high viral load (>6,000,000 IU/ mL). Among the 378 treatment-naïve patients, the SVR rates were 94.2% (ITT) and 96.7% (PP). Among the 80 treatmentexperienced patients, the SVR rates were 96.3% (ITT) and 98.7% (PP). Patients with a relatively high fibrosis-4 index score (>3.25) had similar SVR rates to those with a relatively low score (p=0.756). A total of 314 patients (68.6%) were treated with a reduced ribavirin dose at the prescriber’s dis-cretion, but they showed similar SVR rates to those treated with the weight-based dose (ITT: 95.5% and 92.3%, PP: 97.4% and 96.3%, respectively). Adverse events were ob-served in 191 patients (41.7%), including 86 (18.8%) with anemia, but only one (0.2%) discontinued antiviral therapy due to nausea. @*Conclusions@#SOF-based therapy showed high real-life efficacy and tolerability in Korean patients with genotype 2 chronic HCV infection, regardless of previous antiviral treatment experience and fibrosis score. A reduced ribavirin dose can be considered in this patient cohort.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Different fatty acids exert different health benefits. This study investigated the potential protective effects of perilla, olive, and safflower oils on high-fat diet-induced obesity and colon inflammation.MATERIALS/METHODS: Five-week old, C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 5 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and high-fat diet supplemented with-perilla oil (HPO), olive oil (HOO), and safflower oil (HSO). After 16 weeks of the experimental period, the mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were collected. The serum was analyzed for obesity- and inflammation-related biomarkers. Gene expression of the biomarkers in the liver, adipose tissue, and colon tissue was analyzed. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed one week before sacrifice. @*RESULTS@#Treatment with all the three oils significantly improved obesity-induced increases in body weight, liver weight, and epididymal fat weight as well as serum triglyceride and leptin levels. Treatment with perilla oil (PO) and safflower oil (SO) increased adiponectin levels. The micro-CT analysis revealed that PO and SO reduced abdominal fat volume considerably. The mRNA expression of lipogenic genes was reduced in all the three oilsupplemented groups and PO upregulated lipid oxidation in the liver. Supplementation of oils improved macroscopic score, increased colon length, and decreased serum endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the colon. The abundance of Bifidobacteria was increased and that of Enterobacteriaceae was reduced in the PO-supplemented group. All three oils reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels, as indicated by the mRNA expression. In addition, PO increased the expression of tight junction proteins. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, our data indicate that the three oils exert similar anti-obesity effects. Interestingly, compared with olive oil and SO, PO provides better protection against high-fat diet-induced colon inflammation, suggesting that PO consumption helps manage inflammation-related diseases and provides omega-3 fatty acids needed by the body.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900456

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effects of Sargassum horneri extracts on palmitic acid (PA)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in HepG2 cells. @*Methods@#HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations of S. horneri extract or PA, and the cell viability was measured by water soluble tetrazolium salts analysis. The effective induction of ER stress and the effects of S. horneri were investigated through an examination of the ER stress-related genes, such as activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), X-box binding protein (XBP1s), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression and activation levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) associated proteins, such as inositolrequiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha submit (eIF2α), and CHOP were examined by western blot analysis. @*Results@#The treatment with PA increased the expression of UPR associated genes significantly and induced ER stress in a 12-hour treatment. Subsequent treatment with S.horneri reduced mRNA expression of ATF4, GRP78, and XBP1s. In addition, the protein levels of phosphate (p)-IRE1α, p-elF2α, and CHOP were also reduced by a treatment with S. horneri.An analysis of sirtuin (SIRT) mRNA expression in the S. horneri and PA-treated HepG2 cells showed that S. horneri increased the levels of SIRT2, SIRT6, and SIRT7, which indicates a possible role in reducing the expression of ER stress-related genes. @*Conclusion@#These data indicate thatS. horneri can exert an inhibitory effect on ER stress caused by PA and highlight its potential as an agent for managing various ER stress-related diseases.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897822

ABSTRACT

The relationship between phase angle (PhA) of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and glycemic parameters in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients has not been well studied. To evaluate the prognostic value of the PhA from BIA as a glycemic marker, we investigated the relationship of PhA with various variables such as age, body mass index (BMI), and glycemic parameters in Korean patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). We evaluated the anthropometric data, body composition, glycemic parameters, and PhA of 321 T2DM patients aged 30–83 years. The patients were classified by sex into men (n = 133) and women (n = 188). General linear models identified the independent effects of PhA after covarying for age, sex and BMI. The PhA, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), lean body mass, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of T2DM Korean patients were significantly higher in men than in women. However, fat mass, ECM/BCM, ECW/ICW, ECW/TBW, and serum insulin were significantly higher in women than in men. Statistically significant independent associations were observed between PhA and age, BCM, ECM, ECM/BCM, ICW, ECW, ECW/ICW, and ECW/TBW for both sexes. There was no significant association between PhA and BMI the patients. Glycemic parameters, such as HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were independently associated with PhA. These results suggest that PhA could be an indicator for assessing ability to control fasting blood glucose in T2DM patients in Korea.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892752

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effects of Sargassum horneri extracts on palmitic acid (PA)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in HepG2 cells. @*Methods@#HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations of S. horneri extract or PA, and the cell viability was measured by water soluble tetrazolium salts analysis. The effective induction of ER stress and the effects of S. horneri were investigated through an examination of the ER stress-related genes, such as activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), X-box binding protein (XBP1s), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression and activation levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) associated proteins, such as inositolrequiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha submit (eIF2α), and CHOP were examined by western blot analysis. @*Results@#The treatment with PA increased the expression of UPR associated genes significantly and induced ER stress in a 12-hour treatment. Subsequent treatment with S.horneri reduced mRNA expression of ATF4, GRP78, and XBP1s. In addition, the protein levels of phosphate (p)-IRE1α, p-elF2α, and CHOP were also reduced by a treatment with S. horneri.An analysis of sirtuin (SIRT) mRNA expression in the S. horneri and PA-treated HepG2 cells showed that S. horneri increased the levels of SIRT2, SIRT6, and SIRT7, which indicates a possible role in reducing the expression of ER stress-related genes. @*Conclusion@#These data indicate thatS. horneri can exert an inhibitory effect on ER stress caused by PA and highlight its potential as an agent for managing various ER stress-related diseases.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890118

ABSTRACT

The relationship between phase angle (PhA) of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and glycemic parameters in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients has not been well studied. To evaluate the prognostic value of the PhA from BIA as a glycemic marker, we investigated the relationship of PhA with various variables such as age, body mass index (BMI), and glycemic parameters in Korean patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). We evaluated the anthropometric data, body composition, glycemic parameters, and PhA of 321 T2DM patients aged 30–83 years. The patients were classified by sex into men (n = 133) and women (n = 188). General linear models identified the independent effects of PhA after covarying for age, sex and BMI. The PhA, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), lean body mass, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of T2DM Korean patients were significantly higher in men than in women. However, fat mass, ECM/BCM, ECW/ICW, ECW/TBW, and serum insulin were significantly higher in women than in men. Statistically significant independent associations were observed between PhA and age, BCM, ECM, ECM/BCM, ICW, ECW, ECW/ICW, and ECW/TBW for both sexes. There was no significant association between PhA and BMI the patients. Glycemic parameters, such as HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were independently associated with PhA. These results suggest that PhA could be an indicator for assessing ability to control fasting blood glucose in T2DM patients in Korea.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare preterm, neurodevelopmentally disordered and healthy full-term children. METHODS: We enrolled 47 children who were born preterm, 40 neurodevelopmentally disordered children, and 80 healthy children as control participants, in order to assess the cognitive functioning and the risk of behavioral problems at the age of 5. Children were assessed using the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-4th edition (K-WPPSI-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). RESULTS: The mean K-WPPSI-IV score of the preterm group was 87.19±17.36, which was significantly higher than that of the neurodevelopmental disorder group (69.98±28.63; p < 0.001) but lower than that of the control group (107.74±14.21; p < 0.001). The cumulative CBCL scores of the preterm children were not significantly different from those of the control group. Additionally, the TCI scores for reward dependence of the preterm children were higher than those of the control group. CONCLUSION: The cognitive performance of preterm infants was lower than that of healthy full-term infants at the age of 5, and there was an association between slower growth and decreased cognitive ability.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Child Behavior , Child , Cognition , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Problem Behavior , Reward , Temperament
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786118

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the immunological activity and optimized the mixture conditions of Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) extracts in vitro and in vivo models.METHODS: S. horneri was extracted using three different methods: hot water extraction (HWE), 50% ethanol extraction (EE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production (Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ) were measured using a WST-1 assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The levels of nitric oxide and T cell activation production were measured using a Griess assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The natural killer (NK) cell activity was determined using an EZ-LDH kit.RESULTS: Among the three different types of extracts, HWE showed the highest levels of splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production in vitro. In the animal model, three different types of extracts were administrated for 14 days (once/day) at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. HWE and SFE showed a high level of splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production in the with and without mitogen-treated groups, whereas EE administration did not induce the splenocyte activation. When RAW264.7 macrophage cells were treated with different mixtures (HWE with 5, 10, 15, 20% of SFE) to determine the optimal mixture ratio of HWE and SFE, the levels of nitric oxide and cytokine production increased strongly in the HWE with 5% and 10% of SFE containing group. In the animal model, HWE with 5% and 10% of SFE mixture administration increased the levels of splenocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and activated CD4⁺ cell population significantly, with the highest level observed in the HWE with 5% of SFE group. Moreover, the NK cell activity was increased significantly in the HWE with 5% of SFE mixture-treated group compared to the control group.CONCLUSION: The optimal mixture condition of S. horneri with immune-enhancing activity is the HWE with 5% of SFE mixture. These results confirmed that the extracts of S. horneri and its mixtures are potential candidate materials for immune enhancement.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ethanol , Flow Cytometry , In Vitro Techniques , Killer Cells, Natural , Macrophages , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide , Sargassum , Water
17.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 48-51, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785679

ABSTRACT

Symmetrical proximal weakness and characteristic dermatologic manifestations are important in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis. We report a case of atypical presentation of dermatomyositis due to previous steroid use and also report steroid-induced myopathy which may occur from steroid administration during the course of treatment. A 77-year-old man, previous steroid user, showed rapidly progressing weakness after abruptly stopped medication. He has presented erythematous papule on face and anterior chest but no heliotrope rash and Gottron's papules were observed. Muscle enzyme (creatine kinase) concentration is increased, and needle electromyography shows increased spontaneous activity on proximal limb muscle. The muscle biopsy confirmed dermatomyositis. During the course of treatment, he revealed persistent weakness despite the continuous steroid use and stable creatine kinase level. Electrodiagnostic study suggests steroid-induced myopathy and after tapering steroid, proximal muscle strength improved. This case reports the effect of steroid use on dermatomyositis patients and a process of diagnosing coexisting steroid induced myopathy during treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Creatine Kinase , Dermatomyositis , Diagnosis , Electromyography , Exanthema , Extremities , Humans , Muscle Strength , Muscular Diseases , Needles , Thorax
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate longitudinal changes in language function in left-hemispheric ischemic stroke patients as well as factors that influence language recovery until 1 year after stroke onset.METHODS: We analyzed data from 235 patients with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke. All patients completed the Korean version of the Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (K-FAST) at 7 days (T1), 3 months (T2), 6 months (T3), and 1 year (T4) after stroke onset. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate changes in language function between time points. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the K-FAST scores at T1. Stroke lesion volume was assessed using diffusion tensor images, and involvement of language-related brain regions was examined. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze factors influencing improvement of K-FAST score.RESULTS: The K-FAST scores at T1, T2, T3, and T4 differed significantly (p < 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, only the severe group showed continuous significant improvement by 1 year. Factors that negatively influenced improvement of language function were the age at onset, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and initial K-FAST score, whereas education level and stroke lesion volume positively affected recovery. Involvement of language-related brain regions did not significantly influence long-term language recovery after ischemic stroke.CONCLUSION: Recovery of language function varied according to the severity of the initial language deficit. The age at stroke onset, education level, initial severity of aphasia, initial NIHSS score, and total stroke lesion volume were found to be important factors for recovery of language function.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Aphasia , Brain , Diffusion , Education , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , Rehabilitation , Stroke Volume , Stroke
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740562

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Protein overloading in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, which exacerbates various disease conditions. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound, is known to have several health benefits. The effect of emodin against palmitic acid (PA) - induced ER stress in HepG2 cells was investigated. METHODS: HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations of palmitic acid to determine the working concentration that induced ER stress. ER stress associated genes such as ATF4, XBP1s, CHOP and GRP78 were checked using RT- PCR. In addition, the expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) associated proteins such as IRE1α, eIF2α and CHOP were checked using immunoblotting to confirm the induction of ER stress. The effect of emodin on ER stress was analyzed by treating HepG2 cells with 750 µM palmitic acid and varying concentrations of emodin, then analyzing the expression of UPR associated genes. RESULTS: It was evident from the mRNA and protein expression results that palmitic acid significantly increased the expression of UPR associated genes and thereby induced ER stress. Subsequent treatment with emodin reduced the mRNA expression of ATF4, GRP78, and XBP1s. Furthermore, the protein levels of p-IRE1α, p-elF2α and CHOP were also reduced by the treatment of emodin. Analysis of sirtuin mRNA expression showed that emodin increased the levels of SIRT4 and SIRT7, indicating a possible role in decreasing the expression of UPR-related genes. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results suggest that emodin could exert a protective effect against fatty acid-induced ER stress and could be an agent for the management of various ER stress related diseases.


Subject(s)
Emodin , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hep G2 Cells , Immunoblotting , Insurance Benefits , Palmitic Acid , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sirtuins , Unfolded Protein Response
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715371

ABSTRACT

With the advent of highly effective direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA), the treatment of hepatitis C virus infections continues to change. The Korean Association for the Study of the Liver updated guidelines for the management of hepatitis C were revised in 2015 in accordance with the introduction of new DAA into practice and a results of domestic and overseas research in late 2017. More effective and convenient DAAs are also recommended for each genotype depending on the presence of cirrhosis and treatment experience. DAA treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease is feasible. The treatment guidelines for DAA failure are also presented. The guidelines need to be revised constantly as new drugs are developed and the results of clinical research and experience accumulate.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Fibrosis , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Liver , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
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