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Vascular Specialist International ; : 22-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939280


Iatrogenic innominate vein injuries are rare complications associated with internal jugular venous catheters. These complications are accompanied by high morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe underlying medical conditions. Without proper treatment, emergency surgery may be needed due to acute cardiac tamponade or hemothorax. Endovascular repair can be advantageous for patients with significant medical comorbidities. Herein, we report the case of a 62-year-old female with an iatrogenic injury to the innominate vein at the subclavian vein and internal jugular confluence due to a malpositioned left internal jugular catheter. A customized fenestrated endograft was positioned with fenestration oriented to the internal jugular vein and a new tunneled catheter was inserted across the fenestration into the superior vena cava upon removal of the malpositioned catheter. In addition, a brachio-basilic arteriovenous fistula was created. At one month followup, the patient had a palpable thrill over the arteriovenous fistula and a functioning tunneled catheter.

Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 317-324, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927136


Purpose@#The incidence of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism (SSE) has not been properly evaluated in well-anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This study investigated the incidence of SSE according to CHA2DS2-VASc score in contemporary well-anticoagulated Korean AF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#From the prospective multicenter COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation (CODE-AF) registry, we identified 9503 patients with non-valvular AF (mean age, 68±8 years; female 35.5%) enrolled between June 2016 and May 2020 with eligible follow-up visits. Stroke incidence in the CODE-AF registry was compared with that in an oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve AF cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance database. @*Results@#The usage rates of OACs and antiplatelet agents were 73.5% (non-vitamin K OACs, 56.4%; warfarin, 17.1%) and 23.8%, respectively. During a mean follow-up period of 26.3±9.6 months, 163 (0.78 per 100 person-years) patients had SSE. The incidence rate (per 100 person-years) of SSE was 0.77 in the total population, 0.26 in low-risk patients [CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 (male) or 1 (female)], and 0.88 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2). Contemporary AF patients had a stroke rate that was about one-fifth the stroke rate reported in a Korean OAC-naïve AF cohort. In this cohort, most risk factors for CHA2DS2-VASc score showed significant associations with SSE. Female sex was not associated with an increased risk of stroke/SSE in well-anticoagulated AF patients. @*Conclusion@#Contemporary AF patients have a stroke rate about one-fifth that in OAC-naïve AF patients and exhibit different stroke risk factors.

Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 338-358, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337


PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering