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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831714

ABSTRACT

Background@#To track triage, routing, and treatment status regarding access to endovascular treatment (EVT) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at a national level. @*Methods@#From national stroke audit data, potential candidates for EVT arriving within 6 hours with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥ 7 were identified. Acute care hospitals were classified as thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs, ≥ 15 EVT cases/year) or primary stroke hospital (PSH, < 15 cases/year), and patients' initial routes and subsequent inter-hospital transfer were described. Impact of initial routing to TCHs vs. PSHs on EVT and clinical outcomes were analyzed using multilevel generalized mixed effect models. @*Results@#Out of 14,902 AIS patients, 2,180 (14.6%) were EVT candidates. Eighty-one percent of EVT candidates were transported by ambulance, but only one-third were taken initially to TCHs. Initial routing to TCHs was associated with greater chances of receiving EVT compared to initial routing to PSHs (33.3% vs 12.1%, P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.92) and favorable outcome (38.5% vs. 28.2%, P < 0.001; aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16–2.00). Inter-hospital transfers to TCHs occurred in 17.4% of those initially routed to a PSH and was associated with the greater chance of EVT compared to remaining at PSHs (34.8% vs. 7.5%, P < 0.001), but not with better outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Two-thirds of EVT candidates were initially routed to PSHs despite greater chance of receiving EVT and having favorable outcomes if routed to a TCH in Korea. Process improvement is needed to direct appropriate patients to TCHs.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831656

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. @*Methods@#The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. @*Results@#A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. @*Conclusion@#This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) has been considered a terminal condition and cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIEPC) is regarded as an alternative therapeutic option. This study aimed to evaluate the 30-day clinical outcomes of CRS/HIPEC and the feasibility of the surgery by investigating the morbidity and mortality in Inje University Hospital.METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from 19 patients with PC who underwent CRS/HIPEC at Inje University Hospital in 2018. We evaluated pre-, intra-operative parameters and postoperative clinical outcomes and early complications.RESULTS: The mean operating time was 506.95 minutes and the mean blood loss was 837.11 mL. Six cases (31.58%) had morbidity of grade III or above. A longer operating time (≥560 minutes, P=0.038) and large blood loss (≥700 mL, P=0.060) were positively correlated with grade III or worse postoperative complications.CONCLUSION: Our early experience with CRS/HIPEC resulted in a 31.58% morbidity rate of grade III and above, with risk factors being longer operating time and greater intraoperative blood loss. As the surgical team's skills improve, a shorter operating time with less intraoperative blood loss could result in better short-term outcomes of CRS/HIPEC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
10.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761389

ABSTRACT

With increasing sensitivity, availability, and use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past three decades, there is also an increase in incidental abnormal findings. The most common findings of these incidental abnormalities are white matter lesions that are interpreted as demyelinating based on radiological criteria. MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients without typical MS symptoms and with normal neurologic findings are now defined as a radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) which reported relatively low incidence, especially hard to find case report in Korea. The natural history and pathophysiologic processes of RIS remain largely unknown. The nature, prevalence, and long-term prognosis of RIS, as well as the role of disease-modifying therapy should be established in the future.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Natural History , Neurologic Manifestations , Prevalence , Prognosis , White Matter
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760644

ABSTRACT

Angiomatoid Spitz nevus is a variant of melanocytic nevus with prominent vasculature. Due to its pathologic features, angiomatoid Spitz nevus in the vaginal wall is extremely rare. A 42-year-old woman presented to the hospital with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a 2×2-cm well-demarcated tumor on the posterior wall of the vagina. The mass was successfully removed by complete excision and was diagnosed as angiomatoid Spitz nevus on pathologic examination. We present the first reported case of vaginal angiomatoid Spitz nevus, which caused vaginal bleeding. Although angiomatoid Spitz nevus has many histopathological similarities with malignant melanoma, precise histopathological diagnosis is important for preventing overtreatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Female , Gynecological Examination , Humans , Medical Overuse , Melanoma , Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell , Nevus, Pigmented , Uterine Hemorrhage , Vagina
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1148-1156, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is controversial that decreased left ventricular function could predict poststroke outcomes. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can predict cardiovascular events and mortality in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) without atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was conducted consecutively in patients with AIS or transient ischemic attack at Soonchunhyang University Hospital between January 2008 and July 2016. The clinical data and echocardiographic LVEF of 1,465 patients were reviewed after excluding AF and CHD. Poststroke disability, major adverse cardiac events (MACE; nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality during 1 year after index stroke were prospectively captured. Cox proportional hazards regressions analysis were applied adjusting traditional risk factors and potential determinants. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 259.9±148.8 days with a total of 29 non-fatal strokes, 3 myocardial infarctions, 33 cardiovascular deaths, and 53 all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of MACE and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in the lowest LVEF ( < 55) group compared with the others (p=0.022 and 0.009). In prediction models, LVEF (per 10%) had hazards ratios of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.80, p=0.002) for MACE and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.39–0.97, p=0.037) for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: LVEF could be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality after AIS in the absence of AF and CHD.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Disease , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization rate in pregnant Korean women using selective culture media for GBS and to identify obstetrical complications and GBS-induced early-onset neonatal sepsis. METHODS: We evaluated 1,014 pregnant women who delivered at Busan Paik Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016. GBS colonization was assessed using chromID Strepto B agar. We evaluated GBS colonization in pregnant women, as well as the obstetrical complication and GBS-induced neonatal sepsis rates. RESULTS: The total GBS colonization rate was 11.6% (117/1,014). No significant increase was observed in the rate of pregnancy-related complications between the GBS-positive and the GBS-negative groups. Among the 134 neonates born to colonized mothers, early neonatal sepsis was reported in 2 neonates (1.5%); however, these were cases of non-GBS-induced sepsis. CONCLUSION: The GBS colonization rate (using selective culture media) in this study involving pregnant Korean women showed a higher colonization rate than that previously reported in Korea. Therefore, based on this study, we recommend GBS screening and the administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant Korean women.


Subject(s)
Agar , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Colon , Culture Media , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Mass Screening , Mothers , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Sepsis , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742481

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diabetic foot wound (DFW) is known as a major contributor of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. We aimed to evaluate overall amputation rates and risk factors for amputation in patients with DFW. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2017, 141 patients with DFW were enrolled. We determined rates and risk factors of major amputation in DFW and in DFW with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). In addition, we investigated rates and predictors for amputation in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). RESULTS: The overall rate of major amputation was 26.2% in patients with DFW. Among 141 DFWs, 76 patients (53.9%) had PAOD and 29 patients (38.2%) of 76 DFWs with PAOD underwent major amputation. Wound state according to Wagner classification, congestive heart failure, leukocytosis, dementia, and PAOD were the significant risk factors for major amputation. In DFW with PAOD, Wagner classification grades and leukocytosis were the predictors for major amputation. In addition, amputation was performed for 28 patients (38.4%) while major amputation was performed for 5 patients (6.8%) of 73 DFUs. Only the presence of osteomyelitis (OM) showed significant difference for amputation in DFU. CONCLUSION: This study represented that approximately a quarter of DFWs underwent major amputation. Moreover, over half of DFW patients had PAOD and about 38.2% of them underwent major amputation. Wound state and PAOD was major predictors for major amputation in DFW. Systemic factors, such as CHF, leukocytosis, and dementia were identified as risk factors for major amputation. In terms of DFU, 38.4% underwent amputation and the presence of OM was a determinant for amputation.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , Classification , Dementia , Diabetic Foot , Heart Failure , Humans , Leukocytosis , Lower Extremity , Osteomyelitis , Risk Factors , Ulcer , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 131-139, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following the positive results from recent trials on endovascular therapy (EVT), bridging therapy (intravenous alteplase plus EVT) is increasingly being used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, the optimal dose of intravenous alteplase remains unknown in centers where bridging therapy is actively performed. The optimal dose for eventual recanalization and positive clinical outcomes in patients receiving bridging therapy also remains unknown. METHODS: In this prospective Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED) sub-study, we explored the outcomes following treatment with two different doses (low- [0.6 mg/kg] or standard-dose [0.9 mg/kg]) of intravenous alteplase across 12 Korean centers where EVT is actively performed. The primary endpoint was a favorable outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale scores 0 to 1). Secondary endpoints included symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in all patients, and the recanalization rate and favorable outcome in patients who underwent cerebral angiography for EVT (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01422616). RESULTS: Of 351 patients, the primary outcome occurred in 46% of patients in both the standard-(80/173) and low-dose (81/178) groups (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.81; P=0.582), although ICHs tended to occur more frequently in the standard-dose group (8% vs. 3%, P=0.056). Of the 67 patients who underwent cerebral angiography, there was no significant difference in favorable functional outcome between the standard- and low-dose groups (39% vs. 21%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.73 to 7.78; P=0.149). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in functional outcome between the patients receiving different doses of alteplase in centers actively performing bridging therapy.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178685

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease presented with general weakness and a confused mentality. Two days before admission she had been diagnosed as Bell's palsy at an outpatient clinic, and started to take oral prednisolone and acyclovir. A blood test at admission revealed hyponatremia (128 mmol/L). After withdrawing acyclovir, her plasma sodium levels began to increase, returning to normal 2 weeks later. This case could provide further evidence for a causal relationship between acyclovir and hyponatremia.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Bell Palsy , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hyponatremia , Middle Aged , Plasma , Prednisolone , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sodium
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The quality of anticoagulation is critical for ensuring the benefit of warfarin, but this has been less well studied in Korean ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who had an AF-related ischemic stroke and were treated with long-term warfarin therapy in 16 Korean centers. The quality of warfarin therapy was primarily assessed by the time in therapeutic range [TTR; international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0–3.0] and additionally by the proportion of INR values within the therapeutic range. RESULTS: The long-term warfarin-treated cohort comprised 1,230 patients. They were aged 70.1±9.7 years (mean±SD), 42.5% were female, and their CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was 4.75±1.41. The TTR analysis included 33,941 INR measurements for 27,487 months: per patients, 27.6 (SD, 22.4) INR measurements for 22.4 (SD, 12.9) months. The mean TTR of individual patients was 49.1% (95% confidence interval, 47.9–50.3%), and the TTR quartiles were 64.5%. None of the 16 centers achieved a mean TTR of >60%. Of all INR measurements, 44.6% were within the therapeutic range, 41.7% were 3.0. CONCLUSIONS: In Korean ischemic stroke patients who had AF, the quality of warfarin therapy was low and might be inadequate to effectively prevent recurrent stroke or systemic embolism.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Warfarin
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