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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913827

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains controversy about relationship between obesity and gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the association using obesity-persistence. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort which underwent health check-up between 2009 and 2012. Among them, those who had annual examinations during the last 5 years were selected. Gastric cancer risk was compared between those without obesity during the 5 years (never-obesity group) and those with obesity diagnosis during the 5 years (non-persistent obesity group; persistent obesity group). @*Results@#Among 2,757,017 individuals, 13,441 developed gastric cancer after median 6.78 years of follow-up. Gastric cancer risk was the highest in persistent obesity group (incidence rate [IR], 0.89/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.197; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.117 to 1.284), followed by non-persistent obesity group (IR, 0.83/1,000 person-years; HR, 1.113; 95% CI, 1.056 to 1.172) compared with never-obesity group. In subgroup analysis, this positive relationship was true among those < 65 years old and male. Among heavy-drinkers, the impact of obesity-persistence on the gastric cancer risk far increased (non-persistent obesity: HR, 1.297; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.538; persistent obesity: HR, 1.351; 95% CI, 1.076 to 1.698). @*Conclusion@#Obesity-persistence is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a dose-response manner, especially among male < 65 years old. The risk raising effect was much stronger among heavy-drinkers.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938093

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, the product of fasting triglycerides and glucose, is a useful and cost-effective marker of insulin resistance (IR). Furthermore, the TyG index is a known IR screening tool in healthy young adults but not in those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the TyG index as a predictor of CVD in healthy young adults. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 6,675,424 adults aged 20–39 years without CVD from the National Health Information Database. We categorized them by TyG index quartile from 2009–2017. The study outcomes were stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and mortality. All outcomes were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis while controlling for baseline covariates. @*Results@#During a mean 7.4 years of follow-up, 8,506 cases of stroke, 12,312 cases of MI, and 22,667 deaths were recorded. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for participants in the highest TyG index quartile demonstrated that they were at higher risk for stroke (HR, 1.253; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.167–1.346), MI (HR, 1.258; 95% CI, 1.187–1.334), and mortality (HR, 1.151; 95% CI, 1.104–1.200) than those in the lowest TyG index quartile independent of age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, body mass index, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The HRs for outcomes in the highest quartiles were higher when the TyG index was applied than when triglyceride or fasting glucose alone was applied. @*Conclusion@#TyG index, a simple measure reflecting IR, can predict CVD and mortality in young and healthy populations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927027

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The obesity paradox has been known in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the effect of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the development of ESRD is not clear. @*Methods@#Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance System, we enrolled 140,164 subjects without ESRD at enrolment who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2015, and were followed-up until 2017. Patients were stratified into five levels based on their baseline BMI and six levels based on their WC with 5-cm increments. BMI and WC were measured at least 2 years prior to PCI. The primary outcome was the development of ESRD. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 2,082 (1.49%) participants developed ESRD. The underweight group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.331; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.955 to 1.856) and low WC (< 80/< 75) (HR, 1.589; 95% CI, 1.379 to 1.831) showed the highest ESRD risk and the BMI 25 to 30 group showed the lowest ESRD risk (HR, 0.604; 95% CI, 0542 to 0.673) in all participants after adjusting for all covariates. In the subgroup analysis for diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, WC < 85/80 cm (men/women) increased ESRD risk in only the DM group (DM < 5 years and DM ≥ 5 years) compared to the reference group (85–90/80–85 of WC), but not the normal or impaired fasting glucose group. @*Conclusions@#Low WC prior to PCI showed an increased ESRD risk in patients with DM undergoing PCI as compared to those without DM.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924918

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018. @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924911

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exercise is recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of physical activity (PA) for reducing the risk of heart failure (HF) has yet to be elucidated. We aimed to assess the effect of changes in patterns of PA on incident HF, especially in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. @*Methods@#We examined health examination data and claims records of 294,528 participants from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012 and were newly diagnosed with T2DM. Participants were classified into the four groups according to changes in PA between before and after the diagnosis of T2DM: continuously inactive, inactive to active, active to inactive, and continuously active. The development of HF was analyzed until 2017. @*Results@#As compared with those who were continuously inactive, those who became physically active after diagnosis showed a reduced risk for HF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93). Those who were continuously active had the lowest risk for HF (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96). As compared with those who were inactive, those who exercised regularly, either performing vigorous or moderate PA, had a lower HF risk (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91). @*Conclusion@#Among individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, the risk of HF was reduced in those with higher levels of PA after diagnosis was made. Our results suggest either increasing or maintaining the frequency of PA after the diagnosis of T2DM may lower the risk of HF.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875491

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the impact of obesity on the clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#We included South Koreans aged > 20 years who underwent the Korean National Health Screening assessment between 2009 and 2012. Obesity was defined using the body mass index (BMI), according to the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Abdominal obesity was defined using the waist circumference (WC), as defined by the Korean Society for Obesity. The odds and hazard ratios in all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates. Patients were followed up to the end of 2017. @*Results@#Among 130,490 subjects who underwent PCI, the mean age negatively correlated with BMI. WC, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels correlated with the increased BMI. The mortality rates were higher in the lower BMI and WC groups than the higher BMI and WC groups. The non-obese with abdominal obesity group showed a mortality rate of 2.11 per 1,000 person-years. Obese with no abdominal obesity group had the lowest mortality rate (0.88 per 1,000 person-years). The mortality showed U-shaped curve with a cut-off value of 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. @*Conclusions@#The mortality showed U-shaped curve and the cut-off value of lowest mortality was 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. The abdominal obesity may be associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients who underwent PCI.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875460

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite recent improvements in the quality of life of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures are one of the major complications of SLE. Furthermore, limited data are available on the incidence and predictor of osteoporotic fractures in Korean patients with SLE. Herein, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in Korean SLE patients compared to those without SLE. @*Methods@#SLE patients aged ≥ 40 years (n = 10,434; mean age, 51.3 ± 9.1 years;women, 89.7%) were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, spanning a period from 2008 to 2014. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 52,170) were randomly sampled in a 5:1 ratio from non-SLE individuals. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. @*Results@#The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was significantly higher in the SLE patients (19.085 per 1,000 person-years) than in matched controls (6.530 per 1,000 person-years). According to the multivariable Cox proportional analysis, patients with SLE exhibited a higher osteoporotic fracture rate than the control group (hazards ratio, 2.964; 95% confidence interval, 2.754 to 3.188), even after adjustment for confounding variables. In the subgroup analysis, male SLE patients or SLE patients aged 40 to 65 years were associated with a higher osteoporotic fracture rate than women SLE patients or SLE patients aged ≥ 65 years, respectively. @*Conclusions@#We found a 2.964-fold increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in SLE patients compared to age- and sex-matched non-SLE controls. Male or middle-aged SLE patients had a relatively higher fracture risk among patients with SLE.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874825

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol according to triglyceride (TG) levels in young adults. @*Methods@#Subjects aged 30–49 years with data from routine health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service during 2009 were selected. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018. @*Results@#The mean age of study subjects (n=1,823,537) was 40.1±5.7 years, and the median follow-up period was 8.3 years. The quartiles of serum TG levels at the baseline were calculated: Q1, 166 mg/dL.The highest quartile of TG levels (Q4) had a significantly higher risk of the primary outcome than Q1 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40 [95% confidence interval; CI, 2.33–2.47]). Q2 and Q3 also experienced the primary outcome more frequently than Q1 (HR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.33–1.42] and HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.75–1.86], respectively). Even after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, alcohol drinking amount, smoking, LDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, lipidlowering medication use, and family history of CVD, there was a significant dose-response relationship between TG quartiles and the risk of the primary outcome (HR per quartile, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.12–1.14]). @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, in the Korean population aged 30–49 years, high TG levels independently increased future CVD risk in both men and women.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-452, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904261

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction in South Korea using data from the Korean Health Insurance claims database for 2009–2015. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed cross-sectional data of 66-year-old individuals who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Auditory function was evaluated using pure-tone audiometric testing. Cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction was assessed using standardized scores of the Prescreening Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire. @*Results@#Among 1815835 participants at the age of 66 years, the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss was 5.84%, and that of bilateral hearing loss was 3.40%. The normal cognitive group comprised 86.35% of the participants, and the high-risk group for cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction totaled 13.65% of the participants. The bilateral hearing loss group had the highest percentage of subjects who responded “sometimes or frequently” to all five questions about cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction, compared to the normal hearing group or the unilateral hearing loss group. After adjusting for sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise, income, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and depression, the odds ratios for cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction was 1.183 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163–1.203] for bilateral hearing loss and 1.141 (95% CI: 1.126–1.156) for unilateral hearing loss, compared to the normal cognitive group. @*Conclusion@#Hearing loss has a significant effect on cognitive function in the Korean population. In our study, individuals with bilateral hearing loss showed poorer cognitive function than those with unilateral hearing loss.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903709

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although people with diabetes have been shown to have higher mortality than people without diabetes, there is a lack of data on the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and cause-specific mortality rates in the general population. @*Methods@#A total of 326,547 Korean adults over 20 years of age, who had received a health checkup between 2006 and 2008 were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort dataset and followed until 2015. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality relative to various range of FPG levels. All causes of death were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. @*Results@#During follow-up (mean, 8.5 years), a total of 13,536 deaths (mortality rate 4.89/1,000 person-year) occurred; 4,916 deaths from cancer, 2,133 from cardiovascular disease, 762 from infectious disease, 199 from renal disease, and 5,526 from other causes. The overall mortality rate increased with an increase in FPG category (HR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 1.92; in the ≥ 160 mg/dL). In addition, a J-shaped associations was found between FPG levels and all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In particular, the risk of cancer-mortality with high FPG levels was increased for men but not women. @*Conclusions@#The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality showed the tendency to increase when the FPG level was outside of the normal range, indicating a J-shaped relationship, in both men and women.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903671

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because weight control is important in treatment of type 2 diabetes, it is essential to understand the associations between weight change and the risk of microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether weight changes early after new-onset diabetes have an impact on the clinical outcomes of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, 181,872 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were free of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) during 2007 to 2012 were followed to the end of 2016. Weight change was defined as the difference in body weight from the time of diabetes diagnosis to 2 years later. @*Results@#We identified 180 cases of ESRD and 780 cases of PDR followed up for a median of 5.5 years from the index year at 2 years after diagnosis. Those with 5% to 10% weight gain showed a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for ESRD, compared with those with ≤ 5% weight change after adjusting for several confounding factors, including the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.70). Those with ≥ 10% weight loss showed the lowest HR for PDR (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.83), whereas those with ≥ 10% weight gain showed the highest HR for PDR (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.51 to 4.08). @*Conclusions@#Weight gain after new-onset diabetes was associated with increased risk of ESRD and PDR whereas weight loss with decreased risk of PDR, but not ESRD.

12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 866-874, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901665

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#It is crucial to understand the exact public health burden of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases; this is presently unknown since sufficient episodes are not reported in registry studies. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of non-traumatic OHCA. @*Methods@#During January 2008 to December 2017, we enrolled 387,665 patients who had been assigned a code for sudden cardiac arrest or had undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Those whose arrest was of non-cardiac origin were excluded. @*Results@#The incidence of OHCA per 100,000 patients increased steadily from 48.2 in 2008 to, 53.8 in 2011, 60.1 in 2014, and 66.7 in 2017, with a 1-year survival rate of 8.2%. Age and sex-adjusted mortality rates showed a decreasing trend. The hazard ratio was 1.0015 in 2009, 0.9865 in 2012, 0.9769 in 2015, and 0.9629 in 2017 (p for trend <0.0001), with coronary artery disease-related OHCA accounting for 59.8% of the total. Subgroups with coronary artery disease-related OHCA were more likely to be older and have a higher prevalence of all related comorbidities, excluding malignancy, than those with non-coronary artery disease-related OHCA. @*Conclusions@#This nationwide population-based study showed that the incidence of OHCA in Korea had increased during the last decade. The post OHCA 1-year mortality rate showed a poor outcome but improved gradually.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899984

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of malignant gliomas (MGs) using population-based Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID) data. @*Methods@#Using the Korean NHID, we identified patients with MG as C71 codes in KCD 5–7 according to ICD-10 from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. Epidemiological characteristics of MG, including annual incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and survival rates, were collected and analyzed according to socioeconomic state (SES) and treatments received. @*Results@#We identified 45,066 newly diagnosed-MG patients from 2007 to 2017, for an age-adjusted incidence of 7.47 per 100,000 people. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The male to female ratio was 1.11. Mortality and survival probability were analyzed among total subjects and in subgroups. The mortality rates were lower in female than that of male patients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.71), and in younger age population and in higher income group. Patients operated had a slightly higher survival rate. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were estimated at 63.4%, 46.2%, 39.4%, and 34.8%, respectively. This is the first population-based study to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG according to epidemiological characteristics in Korea using NHID. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that female sex and high SES were factors that significantly lowered the mortality rate in MG, and younger groups and operated patients showed significantly higher survival rates.

14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021005-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We aimed to evaluate the association between early-life weight status and urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in children. @*METHODS@#A nationwide study was conducted using Korean National Health Screening (NHS) data and National Health Insurance Service data. A sample cohort was selected using data from the 2014 and 2015 NHS for infants and children (4-71 months) and followed up until the end of 2017. Participants were divided into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) based on the weight-for-age (< 2 years) or body mass index (≥ 2 years). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing UTIs, cystitis, and acute pyelonephritis (APN) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model. @*RESULTS@#Of 1,653,106 enrolled children, 120,142 (7.3%) developed UTIs, cystitis, and APN during follow-up. The underweight, overweight, and obese groups had higher risks of UTIs than the reference group after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight, and preterm birth. Between 2 years and 6 years of age, boys with underweight had a high risk of UTI and APN, while girls with overweight and obesity revealed elevated risks of UTIs, cystitis, and APN. The HRs for APN in boys with underweight and in girls with obesity were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.07) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.75), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight, and preterm birth. The incidence of APN did not decrease with age in underweight and obese children aged 2-6 years. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with underweight, overweight, and obesity may be at high risk for UTIs.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898092

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have suggested that depression in patients with diabetes is associated with worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes with comorbid depression. @*Methods@#We examined the general health check-up data and claim database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,668,615 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had examinations between 2009 and 2012. As NHIS database has been established since 2002, those who had been diagnosed with depression or CVD since 2002 were excluded. The 2,228,443 participants were classified into three groups according to the claim history of depression; normal group (n=2,166,979), transient depression group (one episode of depression, n=42,124) and persistent depression group (at least two episodes of depression, n=19,340). The development of CVD and mortality were analyzed from 2009 to 2017. @*Results@#Those with depression showed a significantly increased risk for stroke (transient depression group: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.26) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.63). Those with depression had an increased risk for myocardial infarction (transient depression group: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.31) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.49). The persistent depression group had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.72). @*Conclusion@#Coexisting depression in patients with diabetes has a deleterious effect on the development of CVD and mortality. We suggest that more attention should be given to patients with diabetes who present with depressive symptoms.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898055

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. @*Methods@#We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). @*Results@#During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. @*Conclusion@#Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-452, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896557

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction in South Korea using data from the Korean Health Insurance claims database for 2009–2015. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed cross-sectional data of 66-year-old individuals who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Auditory function was evaluated using pure-tone audiometric testing. Cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction was assessed using standardized scores of the Prescreening Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire. @*Results@#Among 1815835 participants at the age of 66 years, the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss was 5.84%, and that of bilateral hearing loss was 3.40%. The normal cognitive group comprised 86.35% of the participants, and the high-risk group for cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction totaled 13.65% of the participants. The bilateral hearing loss group had the highest percentage of subjects who responded “sometimes or frequently” to all five questions about cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction, compared to the normal hearing group or the unilateral hearing loss group. After adjusting for sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise, income, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and depression, the odds ratios for cognitive disorder with memory dysfunction was 1.183 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163–1.203] for bilateral hearing loss and 1.141 (95% CI: 1.126–1.156) for unilateral hearing loss, compared to the normal cognitive group. @*Conclusion@#Hearing loss has a significant effect on cognitive function in the Korean population. In our study, individuals with bilateral hearing loss showed poorer cognitive function than those with unilateral hearing loss.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896005

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although people with diabetes have been shown to have higher mortality than people without diabetes, there is a lack of data on the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and cause-specific mortality rates in the general population. @*Methods@#A total of 326,547 Korean adults over 20 years of age, who had received a health checkup between 2006 and 2008 were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort dataset and followed until 2015. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality relative to various range of FPG levels. All causes of death were classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. @*Results@#During follow-up (mean, 8.5 years), a total of 13,536 deaths (mortality rate 4.89/1,000 person-year) occurred; 4,916 deaths from cancer, 2,133 from cardiovascular disease, 762 from infectious disease, 199 from renal disease, and 5,526 from other causes. The overall mortality rate increased with an increase in FPG category (HR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 1.92; in the ≥ 160 mg/dL). In addition, a J-shaped associations was found between FPG levels and all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus medication, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In particular, the risk of cancer-mortality with high FPG levels was increased for men but not women. @*Conclusions@#The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality showed the tendency to increase when the FPG level was outside of the normal range, indicating a J-shaped relationship, in both men and women.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895967

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because weight control is important in treatment of type 2 diabetes, it is essential to understand the associations between weight change and the risk of microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether weight changes early after new-onset diabetes have an impact on the clinical outcomes of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. @*Methods@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, 181,872 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were free of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) during 2007 to 2012 were followed to the end of 2016. Weight change was defined as the difference in body weight from the time of diabetes diagnosis to 2 years later. @*Results@#We identified 180 cases of ESRD and 780 cases of PDR followed up for a median of 5.5 years from the index year at 2 years after diagnosis. Those with 5% to 10% weight gain showed a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for ESRD, compared with those with ≤ 5% weight change after adjusting for several confounding factors, including the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.70). Those with ≥ 10% weight loss showed the lowest HR for PDR (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.83), whereas those with ≥ 10% weight gain showed the highest HR for PDR (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.51 to 4.08). @*Conclusions@#Weight gain after new-onset diabetes was associated with increased risk of ESRD and PDR whereas weight loss with decreased risk of PDR, but not ESRD.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892280

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of malignant gliomas (MGs) using population-based Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID) data. @*Methods@#Using the Korean NHID, we identified patients with MG as C71 codes in KCD 5–7 according to ICD-10 from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. Epidemiological characteristics of MG, including annual incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and survival rates, were collected and analyzed according to socioeconomic state (SES) and treatments received. @*Results@#We identified 45,066 newly diagnosed-MG patients from 2007 to 2017, for an age-adjusted incidence of 7.47 per 100,000 people. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The male to female ratio was 1.11. Mortality and survival probability were analyzed among total subjects and in subgroups. The mortality rates were lower in female than that of male patients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.71), and in younger age population and in higher income group. Patients operated had a slightly higher survival rate. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were estimated at 63.4%, 46.2%, 39.4%, and 34.8%, respectively. This is the first population-based study to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG according to epidemiological characteristics in Korea using NHID. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that female sex and high SES were factors that significantly lowered the mortality rate in MG, and younger groups and operated patients showed significantly higher survival rates.

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