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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 270-277, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Stress is believed to play a role; however, evidence remains insufficient. A recent study showed that substance P (SP) damaged hair follicles by causing neurogenic inflammation, activating perifollicular mast cells, and inducing keratinocyte apoptosis. @*Objective@#We aimed at studying the role of SP in AA pathogenesis. We investigated the SP levels in the lesional scalp tissues and serum. We also studied the effect of SP on the inflammatory response and hair growth in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells. @*Methods@#We compared the serum levels of SP in 58 AA patients and 28 healthy subjects.Then, we checked the expression of SP and SP receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) in the scalps of AA patients and healthy controls using immunohistochemical staining.Finally, we analyzed the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and hair growthrelated factors in ORS cells. @*Results@#SP and NK-1R expression were markedly higher in the hair follicles and interfollicular epidermis of the scalp lesions of AA patients. However, there was no statistically significant difference in serum SP levels between controls and patients, regardless of the type of alopecia. SP significantly increased the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased hair growth-related growth factors in ORS cells, but the results were not dramatic. @*Conclusion@#SP triggered a localized micro-inflammation in lesional hair follicles, provoked an inf lammatory response, and inhibited hair growth, thereby confirming the pathogenic role of SP in AA.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926641

ABSTRACT

Background@#Skin aging can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic processes, and occur due to several factors. Although the interest in skin youthfulness is increasing globally, research on facial skin youthfulness and lifestyle is limited. @*Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the association between facial skin youthfulness and biophysical facial skin parameters in Korean women over 50 years of age. We further investigated lifestyle factors that make people appear younger than their chronological age. @*Methods@#We surveyed the essential information and lifestyle of subjects by questionnaires, and measured the biophysical parameters of the facial skin. We then performed clinical facial assessments, and the values were compared with the chronologic age. The associations between age differences, biophysical parameters, and living habits were evaluated. @*Results@#We identified a positive correlation between age and melanin index (r=0.245, p<0.001) and erythema index (r=0.119, p=0.002). The melanin index was statistically significantly lower in the group without regular outdoor activities (144.66±43.24 vs. 137.00±55.48, p=0.043). The melanin index and erythema index were the significant differences that defined younger perceived age than chronological age. The perceived age was younger in the group who wore a hat when performing outdoor activities than the group who did not (3.70±1.84 vs. 3.40±1.94, p=0.034). @*Conclusion@#To retain youthful skin, it is essential to reduce sun exposure, as this factor can affect the melanin and erythema indices by inducing photoaging. Therefore, avoiding the sun bia proper methods, such as wearing a hat and sunscreen during outdoor activities, is recommended to maintain skin youthfulness.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 147-153, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874101

ABSTRACT

Background@#Longitudinal melanonychia (LM) is a common clinical finding. Most cases of LM are benign, and a waitand-see approach is preferred in the management of this condition. Nevertheless, it is important for clinicians to distinguish subungual melanoma (SUM) from other benign LMs. @*Objective@#To evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of LM in the Korean population and to identify the predictor of SUM against other benign conditions. @*Methods@#This was a single-center retrospective cohort study including patients who underwent nail biopsy for LM from January 2000 to May 2019. To identify the predictor of SUM, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses was performed. @*Results@#A total of 68 cases of biopsy-proven LM were included in the analysis. Among the 68 cases, 8 were SUM. In univariable analysis, patients diagnosed with SUM were older (p=0.035) and had a longer disease duration (p=0.004).They also showed multicolor pigmentation of LM (p=0.022),a larger width of LM (p<0.001), and associated nail plate dystrophy (p=0.010) than patients diagnosed with benign conditions. In multivariable logistic regression, width of LM showed statistical significance (odds ratio, 1.083; 95% confidence interval, 1.018∼1.153). ROC analysis suggested that an LM width >28% of the whole nail was the predictor of SUM (area under the curve=0.883; p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#SUM has distinct demographic and clinical features. The width of LM can predict SUM against other benign LMs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901986

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can have accompanying comorbidities including arthritis, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with psoriasis tend to frequently visit medical institutions, and their economic burden for medical services is high. @*Objective@#To investigate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea. @*Methods@#The Korean Society for Psoriasis conducted a multi-center field survey of the patients and analyzed the national insurance claim data. Also, we discussed the medical environment of psoriasis in Korea based on the results. @*Results@#The economic burden of psoriasis patients is substantial and varied by the type of medical institute. Patients also paid the indirect and intangible medical costs. Biological agents, which is used in patients with severe psoriasis, led to an increase in the cost. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to estimate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea comprehensively. To improve the medical environment of psoriasis and alleviate the burden of patients, discussion on the more efficient health policy and medical insurance criteria for psoriasis would be needed.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901949

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hormone therapy, which includes tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, is the most common adjuvant therapy used for breast cancer. However, only a few studies have reported endocrine therapy induced alopecia. @*Objective@#We investigated the effects of long-term adjuvant hormone therapy on hair in patients with breast cancer, in addition to patients’ concerns and current treatment for hair loss. @*Methods@#Patients completed a questionnaire that included information on self-perceived hair changes after each adjuvant therapy session, distress, and current treatment for hair loss. Using a folliscope, we measured hair density and thickness in each patient and in healthy controls. @*Results@#The study included 93 patients with breast cancer (mean age 51.9±9.8 years). The density and hair thickness were 106.36±21.85 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the patient group and 147.86±30.67 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the control group (n=98, mean age 52.10±8.40 years), respectively. The mean hair density was significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group; however, no statistically significant intergroup difference was observed in hair thickness. Among 76 patients who perceived hair changes after adjuvant therapy, 71.1% (n=54) were distressed with regard to hair changes. However, only 7.8% of the patients, including two who were treated by dermatologists, currently received treatment for hair changes. @*Conclusion@#Dermatologists should be familiar with hair changes in patients with breast cancer and provide appropriate education to encourage patients to consult dermatologists for hair loss and thinning after breast cancer treatment.

7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 425-431, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896826

ABSTRACT

Background@#Increased sebum secretion is considered the main causative factor in the pathogenesis of acne. There is an unmet pharmacological need for a novel drug that can control sebum production with a favorable adverse effect profile. @*Objective@#To investigate the effect of azidothymidine on lipid synthesis in sebocytes and to identify the underlying mechanism of the inhibitory effect of azidothymidine on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-induced lipid synthesis in sebocytes. @*Methods@#Immortalized human sebocytes were used for the analysis. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and Oil Red O staining were performed to evaluate lipid synthesis in the sebocytes. The differentiation, lipid synthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitophagy in sebocytes were investigated. @*Results@#TLC and Oil Red O staining revealed that azidothymidine reduced IGF-1 induced lipid synthesis in the immortalized human sebocytes. Azidothymidine also reduced IGF-1-induced expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes involved in sebocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, respectively. Moreover, we found that IGF-1 upregulated the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α, LC-3B, p62, and Parkin, major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in immortalized human sebocytes. In contrast, azidothymidine inhibited IGF-1 induced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in the sebocytes. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that azidothymidine downregulates IGF-1-induced lipogenesis by dysregulating the quality of mitochondria through suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in immortalized human sebocytes. Our study provides early evidence that azidothymidine may be an effective candidate for a new pharmacological agent for controlling lipogenesis in sebocytes.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894282

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can have accompanying comorbidities including arthritis, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with psoriasis tend to frequently visit medical institutions, and their economic burden for medical services is high. @*Objective@#To investigate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea. @*Methods@#The Korean Society for Psoriasis conducted a multi-center field survey of the patients and analyzed the national insurance claim data. Also, we discussed the medical environment of psoriasis in Korea based on the results. @*Results@#The economic burden of psoriasis patients is substantial and varied by the type of medical institute. Patients also paid the indirect and intangible medical costs. Biological agents, which is used in patients with severe psoriasis, led to an increase in the cost. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to estimate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea comprehensively. To improve the medical environment of psoriasis and alleviate the burden of patients, discussion on the more efficient health policy and medical insurance criteria for psoriasis would be needed.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894245

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hormone therapy, which includes tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, is the most common adjuvant therapy used for breast cancer. However, only a few studies have reported endocrine therapy induced alopecia. @*Objective@#We investigated the effects of long-term adjuvant hormone therapy on hair in patients with breast cancer, in addition to patients’ concerns and current treatment for hair loss. @*Methods@#Patients completed a questionnaire that included information on self-perceived hair changes after each adjuvant therapy session, distress, and current treatment for hair loss. Using a folliscope, we measured hair density and thickness in each patient and in healthy controls. @*Results@#The study included 93 patients with breast cancer (mean age 51.9±9.8 years). The density and hair thickness were 106.36±21.85 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the patient group and 147.86±30.67 hairs/cm2 and 0.07±0.01 mm in the control group (n=98, mean age 52.10±8.40 years), respectively. The mean hair density was significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group; however, no statistically significant intergroup difference was observed in hair thickness. Among 76 patients who perceived hair changes after adjuvant therapy, 71.1% (n=54) were distressed with regard to hair changes. However, only 7.8% of the patients, including two who were treated by dermatologists, currently received treatment for hair changes. @*Conclusion@#Dermatologists should be familiar with hair changes in patients with breast cancer and provide appropriate education to encourage patients to consult dermatologists for hair loss and thinning after breast cancer treatment.

10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 425-431, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889122

ABSTRACT

Background@#Increased sebum secretion is considered the main causative factor in the pathogenesis of acne. There is an unmet pharmacological need for a novel drug that can control sebum production with a favorable adverse effect profile. @*Objective@#To investigate the effect of azidothymidine on lipid synthesis in sebocytes and to identify the underlying mechanism of the inhibitory effect of azidothymidine on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-induced lipid synthesis in sebocytes. @*Methods@#Immortalized human sebocytes were used for the analysis. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and Oil Red O staining were performed to evaluate lipid synthesis in the sebocytes. The differentiation, lipid synthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitophagy in sebocytes were investigated. @*Results@#TLC and Oil Red O staining revealed that azidothymidine reduced IGF-1 induced lipid synthesis in the immortalized human sebocytes. Azidothymidine also reduced IGF-1-induced expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes involved in sebocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, respectively. Moreover, we found that IGF-1 upregulated the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α, LC-3B, p62, and Parkin, major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in immortalized human sebocytes. In contrast, azidothymidine inhibited IGF-1 induced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in the sebocytes. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that azidothymidine downregulates IGF-1-induced lipogenesis by dysregulating the quality of mitochondria through suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in immortalized human sebocytes. Our study provides early evidence that azidothymidine may be an effective candidate for a new pharmacological agent for controlling lipogenesis in sebocytes.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832753

ABSTRACT

Background@#Female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair loss disorder in women. The various treatments include topical minoxidil and 17α-estradiol, as well as oral anti-androgens. However, the clinical efficacy of 5α -reductase inhibitors remains controversial. @*Objective@#We evaluated the clinical utility of dutasteride in FPHL patients and how dutasteride promotes hair growth. @*Methods@#We evaluated hair follicle density and thickness before and after oral dutasteride treatment in 24 patients with FPHL. We measured β-catenin activity in primary cultures of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) using the TOP Flash reporter assay and Western blotting. The expression levels of genes promoting hair growth were quantitatively assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). @*Results@#The mean vertex hair density increased significantly from 67±14 to 76±13/cm2 (p=0.001) and the mean occipital hair density increased from 89±11 to 94±13/cm2 (p=0.012) after dutasteride treatment. However, the mean hair thickness did not increase. When DPCs were treated with dutasteride, TOP Flash activity increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the protein level of non-phosphorylated (active) β-catenin also increased. The mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor increased, but the mRNA levels of the keratinocyte growth factor, insulin growth factor-1, and Noggin were not affected by dutasteride. @*Conclusion@#This study shows a novel mechanism of dutasteride in promoting hair growth and provides support for the possible clinical application of 5α-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of FPHL.

12.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 481-486, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. The development of psoriasis is dependent on many intercellular events such as innate immunity and T cell-mediated inflammation. Furthermore, genetic factors are strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Although a variety of susceptible genes are identified, it is likely that many important genes remain undisclosed. @*Objective@#The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A) in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. @*Methods@#We examined the expression of KDM2A using a well established imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis model. @*Results@#Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that expression of KDM2A was increased in imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. Consistent with this result, KDM2A level was markedly increased in the epidermis of psoriatic patient. When keratinocytes were stimulated with TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), KDM2A was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels. Poly(I:C) increased the expression of psoriasis-related cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8, and CCL20, and KDM2A inhibitor daminozide enhanced the poly(I:C)-induced cytokine expression. Finally, topical co-application of imiquimod and daminozide exacerbated the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. @*Conclusion@#Together, these results suggest that KDM2A is increased to negatively regulate the inflammatory reaction of epidermal keratinocytes in psoriasis.

13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S49-S51, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762405

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Erythrokeratodermia Variabilis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of cutaneous malignant tumors has been increasing worldwide due to changes in various environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to analyze the overall tendency of clinical characteristics in single-center patients with cutaneous malignant tumors according to sex, age, duration, size, anatomic site, treatment, and concomitant diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of 319 patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant tumors (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic skin cancer, mycosis fungoides, angiosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Kaposi sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, Merkel cell carcinoma) and 109 patients diagnosed with premalignant tumors (Bowen's disease) between January 2007 and January 2017. RESULTS: The average annual incidence of malignant cutaneous tumors was 2.4%. In total, 158 males (36.9%) and 270 females (63.1%) were included with a mean age of onset of 66 years. Among the malignant tumors, basal cell carcinoma (30.8%) was the most common, while the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (18.9%), melanoma (6.3%), and lymphoma (4.4%) were also high. The predominantly involved anatomic sites were the face (67.3%), trunk (11.5%), and legs (10.9%). Most cases involved solitarily existing tumors (77.3%), and pruritus (21.7%) was the most common accompanying symptom. Among the 69.6% of patients who received treatment for their tumors, the most common method was surgical removal. No significant increase in concomitant diseases or environmental factors was detected. CONCLUSION: Our study is meaningful as an overall and recent review of various types of cutaneous malignancies that provides preliminary data for further large-scale nationwide studies.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Female , Hemangiosarcoma , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous , Humans , Incidence , Leg , Lymphoma , Male , Medical Records , Melanoma , Methods , Mycosis Fungoides , Pruritus , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Skin Neoplasms , Statistics as Topic
17.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 550-555, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is an uncommon dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented scaly macules or papillomatous papules coalescing into confluent patches or plaques centrally with a reticular pattern peripherally. Few studies regarding this have been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and histologic characteristics of CRP in Korean patients according to anatomic site and age. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, clinical photographs, and 40 histopathologic slides of 29 patients diagnosed with CRP. RESULTS: Sixteen adults and 13 adolescents were included. The predominantly involved anatomic sites were the trunk (89.7%) and axillae (27.6%); flexural area involvement was mainly found in the adolescent group. The mean disease duration was 2.3 times longer in the adult group than in the adolescent group. The histopathologic features included hyperkeratosis (95.0%), acanthosis (87.5%), and papillomatosis (77.5%) in the epidermis. In the adult group, only 10 specimens (52.6%) showed mild to moderate papillomatosis. There was no relationship between the histologic findings and disease duration; however, the former was associated with the anatomic site. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to present the clinical and histologic features of CRP according to age and anatomic site in Korean patients. The patients in this study more frequently had fungal infections (31%) than patients in a previous study (12.8%). Histologic changes were more prominent in the adolescent group than in the adult group and in the flexural area than in the non-flexural area.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Axilla , Epidermis , Humans , Medical Records , Papilloma , Retrospective Studies , Skin Diseases
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 737-739, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718540

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster
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