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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

2.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 271-284, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To achieve optimal bone marrow engraftment during bone marrow transplantation, migration of donor bone marrow cells (BMCs) toward the recipient’s bone marrow is critical. Despite the enhanced engraftment of BMCs by co-administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the efficiency can be variable depending on MSC donor. The purpose of this study is to examine the functional heterogeneity of tonsil-derived MSCs (TMSCs) and to identify a marker to evaluate efficacy for the enhancement of BMC migration. @*METHODS@#To examine the donor-to-donor variation of TMSCs in potentiating BMC migration, we isolated TMSCs from 25 independent donors. Transcriptome of TMSCs and proteome of conditioned medium derived from TMSC were analyzed. @*RESULTS@#Enhanced BMC migration by conditioned medium derived from TMSCs was variable depending on TMSC donor. The TMSCs derived from 25 donors showed distinct expression profiles compared with other cells, including fibroblasts, adipose-derived MSCs and bone marrow–derived MSCs. TMSCs were distributed in two categories: high- and low-efficacy groups for potentiating BMC migration. Transcriptome analysis of TMSCs and proteome profiles of conditioned medium derived from TMSCs revealed higher expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 in the high-efficacy group. MMP1 knockdown in TMSCs abrogated the supportive efficacy of conditioned medium derived from TMSC cultures in BMC migration. @*CONCLUSION@#These data suggest that secreted MMP1 can be used as a marker to evaluate the efficacy of TMSCs in enhancing BMC migration. Furthermore, the strategy of analyzing transcriptomes and proteomes of the MSCs may be useful to set the standard for donor variation.

3.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 117-129, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Mast cells are immune sentinels in the skin that respond to a wide range of pathological and environmental stimuli; they owe their function to the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We previously found that tonsilderived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) were able to effectively attenuate TLR7-mediated skin inflammation in mice, which was accompanied by an increase in mast cell number. The present study investigated whether T-MSC extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are able to regulate mast cell activation in response to TLR7 stimulation. @*METHODS@#The HMC-1 human mast cell line was treated with a TLR7 agonist in the presence or absence of T-MSC exosomes, and the levels of expressed inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Additionally, mice were repeatedly injected with a TLR7 agonist with or without interval treatments with T-MSC exosomes and assessed dermal distribution of mast cells and related immune cells. @*RESULTS@#We showed that T-MSC exosomes containing microRNAs that target inflammatory cytokines significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in TLR7 agonist-treated HMC-1 cells. In addition, T-MSC exosomes inhibited the increase in the number of both dermal mast cells and CD14-positive cells in TLR7 agonist-treated mice. @*CONCLUSION@#Our data suggest that T-MSC exosomes have regulatory effects on mast cell activation under inflammatory conditions, including TLR7 stimulation.

4.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 131-139, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Therapeutic strategies that can promote platelet production are in demand to enhance clinical outcomes of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Our research group has studied human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) and their effectiveness in promoting bone marrow (BM) engraftment. Here, we analyzed the effects of T-MSCs on platelet production and hemostasis. @*METHODS@#Donor BM cells (BMCs) were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and transplanted with or without T-MSCs to BALB/c recipient mice. Mice were sacrificed and blood cells were counted using an Auto Hematology Analyzer. Femur sections were stained with CD41 antibody to analyze megakaryocytes in the BM. Growth factor secretion from MSCs was analyzed using the Quantibody Array. Effects of T-MSC conditioned medium (CM) on megakaryopoiesis were investigated using the MegaCult assay. In a mouse model of BMT, T-MSC CM was injected with or without anti-placental growth factor (a-PlGF) blocking antibody, and blood cell numbers and coagulation were analyzed. @*RESULTS@#T-MSC co-transplantation increased percent survival of BMT mice. Platelet numbers were significantly lower in the BMC-only group, whereas T-MSC co-transplantation restored circulating platelets to levels similar to those of the control group. Significantly reduced numbers of CD41 ? megakaryocytes in Bu-Cy and BMC groups were increased by T-MSC co-transplantation. PlGF secretion from T-MSCs were detected and enhanced megakaryopoiesis, platelet production, and coagulation by T-MCS CM were disrupted in the presence of the a-PlGF blocking antibody. @*CONCLUSION@#We demonstrated the effectiveness of T-MSC co-transplantation in promoting platelet production and coagulation after BMT. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic relevance of T-MSCs for preventing thrombocytopenia after BMT.

5.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 253-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The advantages of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) over other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) include higher proliferation rates, various differentiation potentials, efficient immune-modulating capacity, and ease of obtainment. Specifically, TMSCs have been shown to differentiate into the endodermal lineage. Estrogen deficiency is a major cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis and is associated with higher incidences of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular attacks during the postmenopausal period. Therefore, stem cell-derived, estrogen-secreting cells might be used for estrogen deficiency. @*METHODS@#Here, we developed a novel method that utilizes retinoic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and dexamethasone to evaluate the differentiating potential of TMSCs into estrogen-secreting cells. The efficacy of the novel differentiating method for generation of estrogen-secreting cells was also evaluated with bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs. @*RESULTS@#Incubating TMSCs in differentiating media induced the gene expression of cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1), which plays a key role in estrogen biosynthesis, and increased 17b-estradiol secretion upon testosterone addition. Furthermore, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 gene expression levels were significantly increased in TMSCs. In bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived MSCs, this differentiation method also induced the gene expression of CYP19A1, but not CYP17A1, suggesting TMSCs are a superior source for estrogen secretion. @*CONCLUSION@#These results imply that TMSCs can differentiate into functional estrogen-secreting cells, thus providing a novel, alternative cell therapy for estrogen deficiency.

6.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 253-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The advantages of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) over other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) include higher proliferation rates, various differentiation potentials, efficient immune-modulating capacity, and ease of obtainment. Specifically, TMSCs have been shown to differentiate into the endodermal lineage. Estrogen deficiency is a major cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis and is associated with higher incidences of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular attacks during the postmenopausal period. Therefore, stem cell-derived, estrogen-secreting cells might be used for estrogen deficiency. @*METHODS@#Here, we developed a novel method that utilizes retinoic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and dexamethasone to evaluate the differentiating potential of TMSCs into estrogen-secreting cells. The efficacy of the novel differentiating method for generation of estrogen-secreting cells was also evaluated with bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs. @*RESULTS@#Incubating TMSCs in differentiating media induced the gene expression of cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1), which plays a key role in estrogen biosynthesis, and increased 17b-estradiol secretion upon testosterone addition. Furthermore, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 gene expression levels were significantly increased in TMSCs. In bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived MSCs, this differentiation method also induced the gene expression of CYP19A1, but not CYP17A1, suggesting TMSCs are a superior source for estrogen secretion. @*CONCLUSION@#These results imply that TMSCs can differentiate into functional estrogen-secreting cells, thus providing a novel, alternative cell therapy for estrogen deficiency.

7.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 65-69, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837198

ABSTRACT

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare, inherited bone marrow failure syndrome that manifests as anemia in early infancy. Blood transfusion is a critical factor for survival. However, blood transfusions can result in iron overload. Endocrinopathies, hepatic cirrhosis, and cardiomyopathy are the most common complications of iron overload. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old boy with DBA with hyperglycemia, short stature, and absence of puberty. The patient showed endocrine dysfunction associated with iron overload caused by repeated transfusions. He was eventually diagnosed with acquired hypopituitarism and was placed on testosterone replacement therapy. Endocrine dysfunction is common in patient with DBA, with an early manifestation of symptoms, even in teenage years. Patients receiving corticosteroid treatment or those in remission may also exhibit endocrine dysfunction, although its prevalence is the highest among chronic transfusion patients. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation of growth and pubertal development are needed for better management of these disorders.

8.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 51-58, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The liver is an organ with remarkable regenerative capacity; however, once chronic fibrosis occurs, liver failure follows, with high mortality and morbidity rates. Continuous exposure to proinflammatory stimuli exaggerates the pathological process of liver failure; therefore, immune modulation is a potential strategy to treat liver fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with tissue regenerative and immunomodulatory potential may support the development of therapeutics for liver fibrosis. METHODS: Here, we induced hepatic injury in mice by injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and investigated the therapeutic potential of conditionedmedium from tonsil-derivedMSCs (T-MSCCM). In parallel, we used recombinant human IL-1Ra,which, as we have previously shown, is secreted exclusively from T-MSCs and resolves the fibrogenic activation of myoblasts. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by histological analyses using H&E and Picro-Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that T-MSC CM treatment significantly reduced inflammation as well as fibrosis in the CCl₄-injured mouse liver. IL-1Ra injection showed effects similar to T-MSC CM treatment, suggesting that T-MSC CM may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects via the endogenous production of IL-1Ra. The expression of genes involved in fibrosis was evaluated, and the results showed significant induction of alpha-1 type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 1 upon CCl₄ injection, whereas treatment with T-MSC CM or IL-1Ra downregulated their expression. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data support the therapeutic potential of T-MSC CM and/or IL-1Ra for the alleviation of liver fibrosis, as well as in treating diseases involving organ fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carbon Tetrachloride , Collagen Type I , Culture Media, Conditioned , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Failure , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metalloproteases , Mortality , Myoblasts , Transforming Growth Factor beta
9.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 75-81, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is characterized by lymphadenopathy and fever, and is usually self-limited. This study analyzed the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with KFD. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, single-center study was conducted in South Korea from March 2008 to October 2015. KFD was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological or histological findings and excluded when there were any other causes of lymphadenopathy. Medical records were reviewed for clinical and laboratory manifestations. RESULTS: A total of 35 cases were included. The mean patient age was 12.1±2.9 years (range, 5 to 17 years); the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.8. The main clinical manifestations were cervical lymphadenopathy and fever in 34 cases (97%). The mean duration of fever was 12.2±8.3 days (range, 2 to 37 days). We noted enlargement of lymph nodes in the cervical, mesenteric (n=5, 14%), axillary (n=2, 6%), and inguinal (n=1, 3%) regions. Hepatosplenomegaly, loss of appetite, and rash were observed. On laboratory examinations, elevation of ferritin, leukopenia, and positivity for anti-nuclear antibodies were frequently observed. Twelve patients underwent biopsy and 23 cases were diagnosed by radiological findings. The mean duration of hospitalization for all cases was 7.9±2.9 days (range, 3 to 13 days) and steroids were administered in 10 cases. KFD recurrence was observed in 2 cases (5.7%) with the time to relapse of 7 months and 4 years. There were no cases with systemic lupus erythematous or other autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION: KFD should be considered in pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy and prolonged fever. Patients with KFD should be monitored for recurrence and the development of autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Antibodies , Appetite , Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Exanthema , Ferritins , Fever , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Hospitalization , Korea , Leukopenia , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
10.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 167-173, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714563

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome with many causes, including Kawasaki disease (KD). The purpose of this study was to identify the laboratory tests needed to easily differentiate KD with HLH from incomplete KD alone. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with incomplete KD and incomplete KD with HLH (HLH-KD) between January 2012 and March 2015. We compared 8 secondary HLH patients who were first diagnosed with incomplete KD with all 247 incomplete KD diagnosed patients during the study period. The complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, and serum total protein, albumin, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and ferritin levels were compared. Clinical characteristics and echocardiography findings were also compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The total duration of fever was longer in the HLH-KD group than in the KD group. White blood cell and platelet counts were higher in the KD group. Alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, and coronary artery diameter were increased in the HLH-KD group compared with those in the KD group. The median of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in the HLH-KD group than in the KD group at 889.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 384.5–1792.0) pg/mL vs. 233.0 (IQR, 107.0–544.0) pg/mL. CONCLUSION: The NT-proBNP level may be helpful in distinguishing incomplete KD from KD with HLH. The NT-proBNP level should be determined in KD patients with prolonged fever, in addition to the white blood cell count, platelet count, and ferritin level, to evaluate secondary HLH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Blood Cell Count , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Ferritins , Fever , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Triglycerides
11.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 154-163, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents are important because it can cause functional compromise if appropriate treatment is delayed. Therefore, this study was designed to describe the clinical presentations and causative organisms of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents in order to propose early diagnosis method and an appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: Forty-two medical records were reviewed retrospectively, which were confirmed as osteomyelitis (OM) or septic arthritis (SA) at Department of Pediatrics or Orthopedic Surgery in patients under 18 years old of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital from March 2008 to March 2015. RESULTS: We identified 21 cases of OM, 13 cases of SA and 8 cases of OM with SA. There were 31 males and 11 females and mean age was 7.1 years old. The most common symptoms were pain and tenderness of involved site. Major involved bones were femur (10 cases, 34.5%), tibia (7 cases, 24.1%) and major involved joints were hip (9 cases, 42.9%), and knee (5 cases, 23.8%). Increased serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed in 37 cases (88.1%) respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 40 cases among 42 cases and was used to demonstrate osteoarticular infections and other adjacent infections. Nine cases (23.7%) among 38 cases and 20 cases (50.0%) among 40 cases were positive in blood culture and infected site culture respectively. The most common causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which was represented in 22 cases (75.9%), of which nine cases (40.9%) were resistant to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus was the most common causative organism of osteoarticular infections in children and adolescents and the proportion of MRSA was high in this study. Therefore, we recommend vancomycin as the first empiric antimicrobial therapy and suggest that further study is necessary to elucidate an appropriate guideline for treatment which takes into account MRSA proportion.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Arthritis, Infectious , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Early Diagnosis , Femur , Hip , Joints , Knee , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Methicillin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Orthopedics , Osteomyelitis , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Tibia , Vancomycin
12.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 172-176, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788511

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia was admitted for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and antithymocyte immunoglobulin, he presented with fever and abdominal pain on day 0 of stem cell transplantation. After diagnosis of acute appendicitis with minor perforation, appendectomy was performed just after cell infusion. A week after the procedure, he showed two huge liver abscesses in S4 and S6 segments. We used broad spectrum antibiotics along with antifungal agents. Percutaneous drainage was attempted, but no fluid was removed and no microorganisms were isolated. After 7 weeks of antibiotics and antifungal therapy, liver abscesses showed improvement. We report a case of successfully treated appendicitis with liver abscesses in a severely neutropenic patient during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Anemia, Aplastic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Fever , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunoglobulins , Liver Abscess , Stem Cell Transplantation , Typhlitis
13.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 177-180, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788510

ABSTRACT

Malignant salivary gland tumors only represent 0.08% of all childhood tumors and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common histologic type. Although there are many reports describing second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients treated for childhood cancer, salivary gland tumors rarely appears. In Korea, there has been no report about MEC that developed in children as a SMN. We report a MEC in a 4 years and 8 months old female child that developed after completing treatment for yolk sac tumor of lower abdomen. The primary tumor presented with metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, the child underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation along with surgery and radiotherapy. Three years and five months after completing treatment, MEC developed in her submandibular gland. She was treated with surgery and radiotherapy and is in disease free state for 5 months at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Abdomen , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Korea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Radiotherapy , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Writing
14.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 278-286, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential utility of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions in pediatric neuroblastoma (NBL) patients, and to determine whether 18F-FDG PET is as beneficial as 123I-MIBG imaging. METHODS: We selected 8 NBL patients with significant residual mass after operation and who had paired 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET images that were obtained during the follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts and the findings of 45 paired scans. RESULTS: Both scans correlated relatively well with the disease status as determined by standard imaging modalities during follow-up; the overall concordance rates were 32/45 (71.1%) for primary tumor sites and 33/45 (73.3%) for bone-bone marrow (BM) metastatic sites. In detecting primary tumor sites, 123I-MIBG might be superior to 18F-FDG PET. The sensitivity of 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET were 96.7% and 70.9%, respectively, and their specificity were 85.7% and 92.8%, respectively. 18F-FDG PET failed to detect 9 true NBL lesions in 45 follow-up scans (false negative rate, 29%) with positive 123I-MIBG. For bone-BM metastatic sites, the sensitivity of 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET were 72.7% and 81.8%, respectively, and the specificity were 79.1% and 100%, respectively. 123I-MIBG scan showed higher false positivity (20.8%) than 18F-FDG PET (0%). CONCLUSION: 123I-MIBG is superior for delineating primary tumor sites, and 18F-FDG PET could aid in discriminating inconclusive findings on bony metastatic NBL. Both scans can be complementarily used to clearly determine discrepancies or inconclusive findings on primary or bone-BM metastatic NBL during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , 3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Bone Marrow , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Follow-Up Studies , Neuroblastoma , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 172-176, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84405

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia was admitted for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and antithymocyte immunoglobulin, he presented with fever and abdominal pain on day 0 of stem cell transplantation. After diagnosis of acute appendicitis with minor perforation, appendectomy was performed just after cell infusion. A week after the procedure, he showed two huge liver abscesses in S4 and S6 segments. We used broad spectrum antibiotics along with antifungal agents. Percutaneous drainage was attempted, but no fluid was removed and no microorganisms were isolated. After 7 weeks of antibiotics and antifungal therapy, liver abscesses showed improvement. We report a case of successfully treated appendicitis with liver abscesses in a severely neutropenic patient during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Anemia, Aplastic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Fever , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunoglobulins , Liver Abscess , Stem Cell Transplantation , Typhlitis
16.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 177-180, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84404

ABSTRACT

Malignant salivary gland tumors only represent 0.08% of all childhood tumors and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common histologic type. Although there are many reports describing second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients treated for childhood cancer, salivary gland tumors rarely appears. In Korea, there has been no report about MEC that developed in children as a SMN. We report a MEC in a 4 years and 8 months old female child that developed after completing treatment for yolk sac tumor of lower abdomen. The primary tumor presented with metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, the child underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation along with surgery and radiotherapy. Three years and five months after completing treatment, MEC developed in her submandibular gland. She was treated with surgery and radiotherapy and is in disease free state for 5 months at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Abdomen , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Korea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Radiotherapy , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Writing
17.
Blood Research ; : 254-257, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate the clinical pattern of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Kawasaki disease (HLH-KD), to enable differentiation of HLH from recurrent or refractory KD and facilitate early diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a nationwide retrospective survey and reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with HLH-KD, including the interval between KD and HLH, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment responses, and outcomes, and compared them with historical data for both diseases. RESULTS: Twelve patients with HLH-KD, including 5 previously reported cases, were recruited. The median age was 6.5 years (range, 9 months-14.7 years). Eight patients were male and 4 were female. The median interval between the first episode of KD and the second visit with recurrent fever was 12 days (3-22 days). Of the 12 children, 2 were initially treated with intravenous IgG (IVIG) for recurrent KD when they presented at the hospital with recurrent fever. Eventually, 10 children received chemotherapy under an HLH protocol and 2 received supportive treatment. Two patients died of combined infections during chemotherapy, 1 was lost to follow up, and 9 remain alive. The overall survival rate at 4 years was 81.1% with a median follow up of 45.1 months. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of HLH-KD should be considered when symptoms similar to recurrent KD develop within 1 month of the first episode of KD. Our findings will help physicians differentiate between HLH and the recurrent form of KD.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Early Diagnosis , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Immunoglobulin G , Lost to Follow-Up , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
18.
Blood Research ; : 258-265, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multiorgan disease of toxic immune activation caused by the interaction of cytotoxic T cells and innate immune cells and frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) might develop during treatment with the HLH-2004 protocol from the Histiocyte Society. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and putative risk factors for prediction of PRES related to HLH. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with HLH who were treated between April 2005 and April 2012. We compared various clinical and laboratory parameters in patients without or with PRES to evaluate putative risk factors related to development of PRES. RESULTS: Six (21.4%) of the patients experienced PRES during treatment with the HLH-2004 protocol. Clinical and laboratory manifestations were not different compared with other conditions causing PRES. The main mechanism of PRES may be related to the HLH-2004 protocol and a high pro-inflammatory state. Most patients recovered quickly from neurologic manifestations without significant long-term sequelae. Preceding hypertension, an increase in ferritin level >50% compared with 1 week before development of PRES and hyponatremia were statistically significant factors. CONCLUSION: PRES is clinically reversible and has a favorable outcome in patients with HLH. Awareness of PRES and a differential diagnosis of other causes of neurologic complications, including CNS involvement of HLH, can help avoid unnecessary treatment or delayed management. Patients with preceding hypertension, hyponatremia, and rising ferritin levels during HLH treatment should be closely monitored for PRES.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis, Differential , Ferritins , Histiocytes , Hypertension , Hyponatremia , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Medical Records , Neurologic Manifestations , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes
19.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 131-135, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), characterized by impaired red cell production, is a rare condition that is usually symptomatic in early infancy. The purpose of this study was to assess nationwide experiences of DBA encountered over a period of 20 years. METHODS: The medical records of 56 patients diagnosed with DBA were retrospectively reviewed from November 1984 to July 2010. Fifteen institutions, including 13 university hospitals, participated in this study. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of patients with DBA was 1.67:1. The median age of diagnosis was 4 months, and 74.1% were diagnosed before 1 year of age. From 2000 to 2009, annual incidence was 6.6 cases per million. Excluding growth retardation, 38.2% showed congenital defects: thumb deformities, ptosis, coarctation of aorta, ventricular septal defect, strabismus, etc. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 5.1+/-1.9 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume was 93.4+/-11.6 fL, and mean number of reticulocytes was 19,700/mm3. The mean cellularity of bone marrow was 75%, with myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20.4:1. After remission, 48.9% of patients did not need further steroids. Five patients with DBA who received hematopoietic transplantation have survived. Cancer developed in 2 cases (3.6%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of DBA is similar to data already published, but our study had a male predilection. Although all patients responded to initial treatment with steroids, about half needed further steroids after remission. It is necessary to collect further data, including information regarding management pathways, from nationwide DBA registries, along with data on molecular analyses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anemia , Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan , Aortic Coarctation , Bone Marrow , Congenital Abnormalities , Diamond , Erythrocyte Indices , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Hemoglobins , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Registries , Reticulocytes , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Strabismus , Thumb , Transplants
20.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 159-166, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in children on a weaning diet. We investigated weaning practices in infants and children, as well as their mothers' knowledge about weaning. METHODS: We investigated 129 children with IDA and 166 without IDA (aged 6-36 months) who had visited 10 university hospitals between March 2006 and July 2007. We investigated the hematologic values of both groups. A questionnaire on weaning was answered by the mothers of these children. RESULTS: The hematologic values in the IDA group showed a significant difference from those in the comparison group (P0.05). Rice gruel, boiled rice, and fruit juice accounted for approximately 8 0% of the starting foods in both groups (P>0.05). Only 40% of the children in the IDA group had a balanced diet within a month, versus 38% in the comparison group. In response to questions about the necessity of iron-fortified foods for breast-fed infants, less than 50% of mothers in both groups answered correctly. In the IDA group, 42% showed serum ferritin less than 10 ng/ mL, while 92% showed serum MCV less than 72 fL. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, collection of information on history should be thorough for feeding and selective examinations for IDA in high-risk groups. Considering the adaptation period, we suggest beginning children on a weaning diet at 45 months. In addition, we need to educate mothers on weaning practice, especially on the necessity of iron-fortified foods for breast-fed infants.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Diet , Ferritins , Fruit , Hospitals, University , Iron , Malnutrition , Mothers , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weaning
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