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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891403

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to have a neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to determine the effects of serum IGF-1 on the severity and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). @*Methods@#This study included 446 patients with AIS who were admitted to Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital within 7 days of stroke onset from February 2014 to June 2017. Serum IGF-1 levels were measured within 24 hours of admission. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, and the functional outcome at 3 months after symptom onset was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale score. The effects of serum IGF-1 levels on stroke severity and 3-month functional outcomes were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#This study evaluated 379 patients with AIS (age 67.2±12.6 years, mean±standard deviation; 59.9% males) after excluding 67 patients who had a history of previous stroke (n=25) or were lost to follow-up at 3 months (n=42). After adjusting for clinically relevant covariates, a higher serum IGF-1 level was associated with a lower NIHSS score at admission (adjusted odds ratio=0.44, 95% confidence interval=0.24–0.80, p=0.01), while there was no significant association at 3 months. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that a higher serum IGF-1 level is associated with a lower NIHSS score at admission but not at 3 months. Further studies are required to clarify the usefulness of the serum IGF-1 level as a prognostic marker for ischemic stroke.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890308

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: A new approach was proposed to score the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) index scores for 6 cognitive domains: orientation (OIS), attention (AIS), language (LIS), visuospatial function (VIS), memory (MIS), and executive function (EIS). This study investigated whether the MoCA index scores represent the functions of each cognitive domain by examining the correlations with the corresponding cognitive domain scores derived from conventional neuropsychological tests included in the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery, 2nd Edition (SNSB-II). @*Methods@#The participants were 104 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 74 vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), 73 dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), and 41 vascular dementia (VaD) patients. All participants were administered the Korean-MoCA and SNSB-II. @*Results@#Like the MoCA total score, the MoCA-OIS, MoCA-VIS, and MoCA-MIS showed differences between aMCI and AD groups and between VaMCI and VaD groups. The MoCAAIS, MoCA-LIS, and MoCA-EIS showed significant differences between VaMCI and VaD groups, but no difference between aMCI and DAT groups. In the aMCI and VaMCI groups, all index scores of the MoCA showed significant correlations with the corresponding cognitive domain scores of the SNSB-II. Except for MoCA-MIS, the MoCA-AIS, MoCA-LIS, MoCA-VIS, and MoCA-EIS also showed significant correlations with the corresponding domain scores of the SNSB-II in the DAT and VaD groups. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that all MoCA index scores, except for MoCA-MIS, which does not reflect the severity of memory impairment in dementia patients, provide highly valid information on the function of each cognitive domain in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899107

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to have a neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to determine the effects of serum IGF-1 on the severity and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). @*Methods@#This study included 446 patients with AIS who were admitted to Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital within 7 days of stroke onset from February 2014 to June 2017. Serum IGF-1 levels were measured within 24 hours of admission. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, and the functional outcome at 3 months after symptom onset was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale score. The effects of serum IGF-1 levels on stroke severity and 3-month functional outcomes were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#This study evaluated 379 patients with AIS (age 67.2±12.6 years, mean±standard deviation; 59.9% males) after excluding 67 patients who had a history of previous stroke (n=25) or were lost to follow-up at 3 months (n=42). After adjusting for clinically relevant covariates, a higher serum IGF-1 level was associated with a lower NIHSS score at admission (adjusted odds ratio=0.44, 95% confidence interval=0.24–0.80, p=0.01), while there was no significant association at 3 months. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that a higher serum IGF-1 level is associated with a lower NIHSS score at admission but not at 3 months. Further studies are required to clarify the usefulness of the serum IGF-1 level as a prognostic marker for ischemic stroke.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898012

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: A new approach was proposed to score the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) index scores for 6 cognitive domains: orientation (OIS), attention (AIS), language (LIS), visuospatial function (VIS), memory (MIS), and executive function (EIS). This study investigated whether the MoCA index scores represent the functions of each cognitive domain by examining the correlations with the corresponding cognitive domain scores derived from conventional neuropsychological tests included in the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery, 2nd Edition (SNSB-II). @*Methods@#The participants were 104 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 74 vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), 73 dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), and 41 vascular dementia (VaD) patients. All participants were administered the Korean-MoCA and SNSB-II. @*Results@#Like the MoCA total score, the MoCA-OIS, MoCA-VIS, and MoCA-MIS showed differences between aMCI and AD groups and between VaMCI and VaD groups. The MoCAAIS, MoCA-LIS, and MoCA-EIS showed significant differences between VaMCI and VaD groups, but no difference between aMCI and DAT groups. In the aMCI and VaMCI groups, all index scores of the MoCA showed significant correlations with the corresponding cognitive domain scores of the SNSB-II. Except for MoCA-MIS, the MoCA-AIS, MoCA-LIS, MoCA-VIS, and MoCA-EIS also showed significant correlations with the corresponding domain scores of the SNSB-II in the DAT and VaD groups. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that all MoCA index scores, except for MoCA-MIS, which does not reflect the severity of memory impairment in dementia patients, provide highly valid information on the function of each cognitive domain in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831618

ABSTRACT

Background@#Neurocritical care by dedicated neurointensivists may improve outcomes of critically ill patients with severe brain injury. In this study, we aimed to validate whether neurointensive care could improve the outcome in patients with critically ill acute ischemic stroke using the linked big dataset on stroke in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 1,405 acute ischemic stroke patients with mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit after an index stroke. Patients were retrieved from linking the Clinical Research Center for Stroke Registry and the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data from the period between January 2007 and December 2014. The outcomes were mortality at discharge and at 3 months after an index stroke. The main outcomes were compared between the centers with and without dedicated neurointensivists. @*Results@#Among the included patients, 303 (21.6%) were admitted to the centers with dedicated neurointensivists. The patients treated by dedicated neurointensivists had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (18.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.002) as well as lower mortality at 3-month (38.0% vs. 49.1%, P < 0.001) than those who were treated without neurointensivists. After adjusting for confounders, a treatment without neurointensivists was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.13–2.25; P = 0.008) and 3-month mortality (OR, 1.48; 95% CIs, 1.12–1.95; P = 0.005). @*Conclusion@#Treatment by dedicated neurointensivists is associated with lower in-hospital and 3-month mortality using the linked big datasets for stroke in Korea. This finding stresses the importance of neurointensivists in treating patients with severe ischemic stroke.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766748

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis patients rarely experience neurologic symptoms related to their vascular accesses. However, occlusion of venous drainage induces extreme venous hypertension and in rare cases cause intracranial venous congestion. We report a patient with cerebral venous infarction resulting from reflux flow into the cranium induced by an arteriovenous jump graft to the internal jugular vein. Clinicians should take into account the possibility of neurologic deficit related to intracranial venous hypertension in hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Drainage , Humans , Hyperemia , Hypertension , Infarction , Jugular Veins , Neurologic Manifestations , Renal Dialysis , Skull , Transplants , Veins
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Korean version of Story Memory (SM) in the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination, 2nd Edition: Expanded Version (K-MMSE-2: EV) was developed. Based on the SM, we additionally developed a full version of SM including delayed recall (DR) and recognition adding to immediate recall (IR). This study aimed to examine the reliabilities and validities of the newly developed SM in the K-MMSE-2: EV and its full version. METHODS: Ninety-five healthy elderly individuals (HE), 90 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 53 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) participated in the study. They were administered the full version of SM with the Seoul Verbal Learning Test-Elderly's version (SVLT-E) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT). In addition, the SM was re-administered to 51 participants after a 5-week interval. Two clinical neuropsychologists independently rated the performance of 50 participants. RESULTS: The test-retest reliabilities of the IR, DR, and recognition of the SM were statistically significant. The inter-rater reliabilities (Cohen's kappa) were high (0.87–1.00) for all the measures. The IR, DR, and recognition of SM had significant positive correlations with those of the SVLT-E and RCFT. Significant group differences in IR and DR of SM were found among the HE, aMCI, and DAT groups. The recognition scores were significantly different between the aMCI and DAT groups, but not between the HE and aMCI groups. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed full version of SM in the K-MMSE-2: EV was proven to be a reliable and valid memory measure for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dementia , Humans , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Cognitive Dysfunction , Seoul , Verbal Learning
13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the clock drawing test (CDT) is a widely used cognitive screening instrument, there have been inconsistent findings regarding its utility with various scoring systems in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. The present study aimed to identify whether patients with MCI or dementia exhibited impairment on the CDT using three different scoring systems, and to determine which scoring system is more useful for detecting MCI and mild dementia. METHODS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild vascular dementia (VaD), and cognitively normal older adults (CN) were included. All participants were administered the CDT, the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The CDT was scored using the 3-, 5-, and 15-point scoring systems. RESULTS: On all three scoring systems, all patient groups demonstrated significantly lower scores than the CN. However, while there were no significant differences among patients with aMCI, VaMCI, and AD, those with VaD exhibited the lowest scores. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves revealed that the three CDT scoring systems were comparable with the K-MMSE in differentiating aMCI, VaMCI, and VaD from CN. In differentiating AD from CN, however, the CDT using the 15-point scoring system demonstrated the most comparable discriminability with K-MMSE. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that the CDT is a useful cognitive screening tool that is comparable with the Mini-Mental State Examination, and that simple CDT scoring systems are sufficient for differentiating patients with MCI and mild dementia from CN.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Humans , Mass Screening , Cognitive Dysfunction , ROC Curve
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Linkage of public healthcare data is useful in stroke research because patients may visit different sectors of the health system before, during, and after stroke. Therefore, we aimed to establish high-quality big data on stroke in Korea by linking acute stroke registry and national health claim databases. METHODS: Acute stroke patients (n = 65,311) with claim data suitable for linkage were included in the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) registry during 2006–2014. We linked the CRCS registry with national health claim databases in the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Linkage was performed using 6 common variables: birth date, gender, provider identification, receiving year and number, and statement serial number in the benefit claim statement. For matched records, linkage accuracy was evaluated using differences between hospital visiting date in the CRCS registry and the commencement date for health insurance care in HIRA. RESULTS: Of 65,311 CRCS cases, 64,634 were matched to HIRA cases (match rate, 99.0%). The proportion of true matches was 94.4% (n = 61,017) in the matched data. Among true matches (mean age 66.4 years; men 58.4%), the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (interquartile range 1–7). When comparing baseline characteristics between true matches and false matches, no substantial difference was observed for any variable. CONCLUSION: We could establish big data on stroke by linking CRCS registry and HIRA records, using claims data without personal identifiers. We plan to conduct national stroke research and improve stroke care using the linked big database.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Insurance, Health , Korea , Male , National Health Programs , Parturition , Stroke
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197555

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction share common risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Unrecognized coronary artery disease typically occurs in 20-30% of patients with ischemic stroke, and its presence helps to predict the outcome. Coronary artery disease is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. Therefore, applying a screening test for asymptomatic coronary artery disease may be considered in ischemic stroke patients who have a high cardiovascular risk profile. Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography, myocardial perfusion imaging, or stress echocardiography can be used as a screening test. Coronary CT angiography is recommended in the absence of allergy to contrast media and renal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography, Stress , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Mass Screening , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Stroke
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many literatures indicate that executive dysfunction exists in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, there are few studies that found how early the deficits of the executive function (EF) exist in MCI. The present study investigated the presence of executive dysfunctions in the earliest stage of MCI, and the sub-domains of EF which are disproportionately impaired earlier than others. METHODS: The participants were 41 normal elderly (NE), 86 with amnestic multi-domain MCI, and 41 with mild AD. The MCI group was further sub-divided into two groups: Early MCI (EMCI, n=45) and late MCI (n=41), based on the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes. All participants were given neuropsychological tests to assess the sub-domains of EF, such as verbal fluency, psychomotor speed, inhibitory control, and mental set-shifting. RESULTS: Impairment of semantic fluency was observed in EMCI, with gradual worsening as cases approached mild AD. Phonemic fluency and psychomotor speed were also impaired at the early stage of MCI relative to the NE, but maintained at the same level up to mild AD. EMCI exhibited the same degree of performance with NE for inhibitory control and mental set-shifting; however, they progressively worsened from EMCI to mild AD. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that impairments of EF exist even in the earliest stage of the MCI, with a disproportionate decline in the sub-domains of EF.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Executive Function , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychological Tests , Semantics
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179057

ABSTRACT

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following carotid artery stenting (CAS). We present a case of acute subdural hematoma (SDH) 2 hours after CAS. In this case, arterial origin of bleeding was verified during operation. To our knowledge, there is no prior case report of SDH without intraparenchymal nor subarachnoid hemorrhage subsequent to CAS. We postulate that SDH was caused by sudden rise in intracranial pressure due to the hyperperfusion which disrupted a corticodural bridging artery.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Carotid Arteries , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hemorrhage , Intracranial Pressure , Mortality , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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