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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919203

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for resected stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC). The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage IB (< 4 cm) NSCLC with high-risk factors is controversial. @*Methods@#This retrospective multicenter study included 285 stage IB NSCLC patients with high-risk factors according to the 8th edition tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification from four academic hospitals. High-risk factors included visceral pleural invasion, vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion, lung neuroendocrine tumors, and micropapillary histology patterns. @*Results@#Of the 285 patients, 127 (44.6%) were included in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 158 (55.4%) were included in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group. The median follow-up was 41.5 months. Patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group had a significantly reduced recurrence rate and risk of mortality than those in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group (hazards ratio, 0.408; 95% confidence interval, 0.221 to 0.754; p = 0.004 and hazards ratio, 0.176; 95% confidence interval, 0.057 to 0.546; p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant chemotherapy should be particularly considered for the high-risk factors such as visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion. Based on the subgroup analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered when visceral pleural involvement is present, even if the tumor size is < 3 cm. @*Conclusions@#Adjuvant chemotherapy may be useful for patients with stage IB NSCLC with high-risk factors and is more relevant for patients with visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919202

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypoxemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to reduced ability to exercise, decreased quality of life, and, eventually, increased mortality. Home oxygen therapy in patients with severe COPD reduces distress symptoms and mortality rates. However, there have been few studies on physicians’ prescription behavior toward home oxygen therapy. Therefore, we investigated the respiratory specialists’ perspective on home oxygen therapy. @*Methods@#In this cross-sectional, study, a questionnaire was completed by 30 pulmonary specialists who worked in tertiary hospitals and prescribed home oxygen therapy. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, including 15 items on oxygen prescription for outpatients, four for inpatients, and nine on service improvement. @*Results@#All physicians were prescribing less than 2 L/min of oxygen for either 24 (n = 10, 33.3%) or 15 hours (n = 9, 30.3%). All (n = 30) used pulse oximetry, 26 (86.7%) analyzed arterial blood gas. Thirteen physicians had imposed restrictions and recommended oxygen use only during exercise or sleep. Sixteen (53.3%) physicians were educating their patients about home oxygen therapy. Furthermore, physicians prescribed home oxygen to patients that did not fit the typical criteria for longterm oxygen therapy, with 30 prescribing it for acute relief and 17 for patients with borderline hypoxemia. @*Conclusions@#This study identified the prescription pattern of home oxygen therapy in Korea. Respiratory physicians prescribe home oxygen therapy to hypoxemic COPD patients for at least 15 hours/day, and at a rate of less than 2 L/min. More research is needed to provide evidence for establishing policies on oxygen therapy in COPD patients.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904282

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but the epidemiological data pertaining to HAP/VAP is limited in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea. @*Methods@#This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. In total, 206,372 adult patients, who were hospitalized at one of the 13 participating tertiary hospitals in Korea, were screened for eligibility during the six-month study period. Among them, we included patients who were diagnosed with HAP/VAP based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition for HAP/VAP. @*Results@#Using the IDSA/ATS diagnostic criteria, 526 patients were identified as HAP/VAP patients. Among them, 27.9% were diagnosed at the intensive care unit (ICU). The cohort of patients had a median age of 71.0 (range from 62.0 to 79.0) years. Most of the patients had a high risk of aspiration (63.3%). The pathogen involved was identified in 211 patients (40.1%). Furthermore, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens were isolated in 138 patients; the most common MDR pathogen was Acinetobacter baumannii. During hospitalization, 107 patients with HAP (28.2%) had to be admitted to the ICU for additional care. The hospital mortality rate was 28.1% in the cohort of this study. Among the 378 patients who survived, 54.2% were discharged and sent back home, while 45.8% were transferred to other hospitals or facilities. @*Conclusion@#This study found that the prevalence of HAP/VAP in adult hospitalized patients in Korea was 2.54/1,000 patients. In tertiary hospitals in Korea, patients with HAP/VAP were elderly and had a risk of aspiration, so they were often referred to step-down centers.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 954-957, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896578

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., social distancing) are recommended to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed whether social distancing in actual settings reduces the disease burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in the general population. Accordingly, we aimed to assess associations between nationwide social distancing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 SARIs. We collected data on SARI epidemiologic characteristics recorded from January 2018 through December 2020 from the nationwide sentinel SARI surveillance data maintained by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The number of SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients decreased significantly to 18.61, 18.15, and 6.25 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively, during the surveillance period of 3 years. The number of intensive care unit admissions associated with SARIs per 1000 hospitalized patients was 0.83, 0.69, and 0.54 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p< 0.001), respectively, and the number of SARI-associated mortalities per 1000 patients was 0.42, 0.29, and 0.27 in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (p<0.001), respectively. Moreover, SARIs had two peak seasons in 2 years of the surveillance period (2018 and 2019). However, seasonality was not observed since social distancing was initiated. Our sentinel surveillance data demonstrated a remarkable reduction in SARI disease burden and a change in seasonality following the implementation of nationwide social distancing. Accordingly, we suggest that social distancing could be effective in forthcoming seasonal epidemics of non-COVID-19 origin, although the impact thereof on other aspects of society needs to be carefully considered.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896466

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but the epidemiological data pertaining to HAP/VAP is limited in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea. @*Methods@#This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. In total, 206,372 adult patients, who were hospitalized at one of the 13 participating tertiary hospitals in Korea, were screened for eligibility during the six-month study period. Among them, we included patients who were diagnosed with HAP/VAP based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition for HAP/VAP. @*Results@#Using the IDSA/ATS diagnostic criteria, 526 patients were identified as HAP/VAP patients. Among them, 27.9% were diagnosed at the intensive care unit (ICU). The cohort of patients had a median age of 71.0 (range from 62.0 to 79.0) years. Most of the patients had a high risk of aspiration (63.3%). The pathogen involved was identified in 211 patients (40.1%). Furthermore, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens were isolated in 138 patients; the most common MDR pathogen was Acinetobacter baumannii. During hospitalization, 107 patients with HAP (28.2%) had to be admitted to the ICU for additional care. The hospital mortality rate was 28.1% in the cohort of this study. Among the 378 patients who survived, 54.2% were discharged and sent back home, while 45.8% were transferred to other hospitals or facilities. @*Conclusion@#This study found that the prevalence of HAP/VAP in adult hospitalized patients in Korea was 2.54/1,000 patients. In tertiary hospitals in Korea, patients with HAP/VAP were elderly and had a risk of aspiration, so they were often referred to step-down centers.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient. CONCLUSION: Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.


Subject(s)
Aged , Appointments and Schedules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Clinical Study , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Neutropenia , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool. However, the clinical use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in adults with acute respiratory failure for diagnostic and invasive procedures has not been well evaluated. We present our experiences of well-tolerated diagnostic bronchoscopy as well as cases of improved saturation in hypoxaemic patients after a therapeutic bronchoscopic procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of hypoxaemic patients who had undergone bronchoscopy for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes from October 2015 to February 2017. RESULTS: Ten patients (44–75 years of age) were enrolled. The clinical purposes of bronchoscopy were for diagnosis in seven patients and for intervention in three patients. For the diagnoses, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage in six patients. One patient underwent endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration of a lymph node to investigate tumour involvement. Patients who underwent bronchoscopy for therapeutic interventions had endobronchial mass or blood clot removal with cryotherapy for bleeding control. The mean saturation (SpO2) of pre-bronchoscopy in room air was 84.1%. The lowest and highest mean saturation with HFNC during the procedure was 95% and 99.4, respectively. The mean saturation in room air post-bronchoscopy was 87.4%, which was 3.3% higher than the mean room air SpO2 pre-bronchoscopy. Seven patients with diagnostic bronchoscopy had no hypoxic event. Three patients with interventional bronchoscopy showed improvement in saturation after the procedure. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in all 10 cases. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the use of HFNC in hypoxaemic patients during diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy procedures has clinical effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoscopy , Catheters , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients.@*METHODS@#Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.

14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 216-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The most common cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is respiratory infection. Most studies of bacterial or viral cause in AECOPD have been conducted in Western countries. We investigated bacterial and viral identification rates in AECOPD in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed medical records of 736 cases of AECOPD at the Korea University Guro Hospital. We analyzed bacterial and viral identification rates and classified infections according to epidemiological factors, such as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, mortality, and seasonal variation. RESULTS: The numbers of AECOPD events involving only bacterial identification, only viral identification, bacterial-viral co-identification, and no identification were 200 (27.2%), 159 (21.6%), 107 (14.5%), and 270 (36.7%), respectively. The most common infectious bacteria identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.4%), and Haemophilus influenzae (5.3%); the most common viruses identified were influenza virus (12.4%), rhinovirus (9.4%), parainfluenza virus (5.2%), and metapneumovirus (4.9%). The bacterial identification rate tended to be higher at more advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.020 overall, p=0.011 for P. aeruginosa, p=0.048 for S. pneumoniae). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified more in mortality group (p=0.003 for S. aureus, p=0.009 for K. pneumoniae). All viruses were seasonal (i.e., greater prevalence in a particular season; p < 0.050). Influenza virus and rhinovirus were mainly identified in the winter, parainfluenza virus in the summer, and metapneumovirus in the spring. CONCLUSION: This information on the epidemiology of respiratory infections in AECOPD will improve the management of AECOPD using antibiotics and other treatments in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Medical Records , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that contains components of spindle or giant cells. Owing to its low prevalence, there are insufficient data regarding its clinical features, therapeutic strategies and prognosis. METHODS: The medical records of 26 patients diagnosed with PSC from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed and analyzed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modality, and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age was 69.5 years. Twenty-three patients (88%) were male. Twenty-four patients (92%) were smokers. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was one month. Eighteen patients (69%) were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Pleomorphic carcinoma was the most common subtype, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation was positive in two of 11 patients. Among 13 patients tested for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry assay, eight showed high expression of PD-L1. The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 9.5 months. In total, 12 patients were treated with chemotherapy: nine with platinum-based doublet therapy, two with tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and one with docetaxel. Seven patients showed partial response or stable disease. The median OS and progression-free survival of patients who received chemotherapy were 8.7 and 2.8 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PSC was more common in males, smokers, and the elderly, with worse prognosis than ordinary NSCLC; chemotherapy response was favorable, and EGFR mutation status and PD-L1 expression may offer more therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Giant Cells , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Medical Records , Prevalence , Prognosis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted.@*RESULTS@#A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD.@*CONCLUSION@#Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713208

ABSTRACT

Hypereosinophilia, defined as an absolute eosinophil count of >1,500/μL, can be caused by a number of allergic, infectious, paraneoplastic and neoplastic disorders. In cases of hypereosinophilia with lymphoid proliferation, pathological confirmation is essential to exclude either myeloid or lymphoid malignancy. A 38-year-old woman with both cervical lymphadenopathies and peripheral blood eosinophilia visited our clinic. She had already performed core biopsy of lymph nodes and diagnosed as Kimura disease at a regional hospital. At the time of our clinic visit, there were no palpable cervical lymph nodes. The blood test showed hypereosinophilia with a high total IgE level. There was no evidence of tissue infiltration of eosinophils except for duodenitis with eosinophilic infiltration. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as Kimura disease. She treated with high-dose systemic corticosteroid (1 mg/kg) and additional immunosuppressants sequentially used cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine. However, her eosinophilia waxed and waned, and a left inguinal mass was newly found. Excisional biopsy findings showed large atypical lymphoid cells with numerous eosinophilis, and immunohistochemistry showed CD3+, CD20−, CD30+ and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). The final diagnosis was ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We report a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with marked peripheral eosinophilia misdiagnosed as Kimura disease. In the case of hypereosinophilia with lymphadenopathy, it is necessary to differentiate hematologic diseases through immunochemical staining.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ambulatory Care , Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia , Biopsy , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclosporine , Diagnosis , Duodenitis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunohistochemistry , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Phosphotransferases
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of angiogenesis. However, little is known about the potential use of serum levels of VEGF as a biomarker for asthma. We investigated the differences in VEGF levels among normal controls, stable asthma patients, and those with exacerbation of acute asthma. All subjects were young males. METHODS: We measured VEGF levels in each patient group, and examined any serial changes in those with acute exacerbation. RESULTS: VEGF levels were significantly higher in stable asthmatic patients and even more so in acute asthmatic patients, compared to healthy controls. However, there was no correlation between VEGF levels and forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients with stable asthma. In addition, there were no correlations between VEGF levels and asthma control test scores. In patients with acute exacerbation, VEGF levels significantly increased during the acute period; their levels decreased gradually at 7 and 14 days after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to normal control patients, the serum levels of VEGF were elevated in stable asthma patients and even more elevated in patients with acute exacerbation. However, the role of VEGF as a biomarker in stable asthma is limited. In patients with acute exacerbation, VEGF levels were associated with clinical improvements.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 592-597, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the social and clinical characteristics of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The registered adult TB patients who were diagnosed and treated in Korea Medical Centers from January 2013 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 105 immigrants with TB were compared to 932 native Korean TB patients. RESULTS: Among these 105 immigrants with TB, 86 (82%) were Korean-Chinese. The rate of drug-susceptible TB were lower in the immigrants group than in the native Korean group [odds ratio (OR): 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.96, p=0.035]. Cure rate was higher in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.26–3.28, p=0.003). Treatment completion rate was lower in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33–0.74, p=0.001). However, treatment success rate showed no significant difference between two groups (p=0.141). Lost to follow up (default) rate was higher in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group after adjusting for age and drug resistance (OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.36–9.61, p=0.010). There was no difference between defaulter and non-defaulter in clinical characteristics or types of visa among these immigrants (null p value). However, 43 TB patients with recent immigration were diagnosed as TB even though they had been screened as normal at the time of immigration. CONCLUSION: Endeavor to reduce the default rate of immigrants with TB and reinforce TB screening during the immigration process must be performed for TB infection control in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Drug Resistance , Emigrants and Immigrants , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Infection Control , Korea , Lost to Follow-Up , Mass Screening , Medication Adherence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis
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