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1.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022031-2022.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937557

ABSTRACT

International migrants could be considered a risk group susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a measles seroprevalence study among 419 marriage migrant women living in Sinan-gun and Wando-gun, South Jeolla Province, located in the southwestern part of Korea. The overall seroimmunity was 92.8%. The seroimmunity varied considerably according to the country of origin and increased with age. Our current analysis could be valuable in the context of discussions concerning vaccination policies for immigrants in Korea.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 247-257, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937678

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused health problems and distress among healthcare workers (HCWs), so supportive measures to promote their health and relieve distress are needed. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted two rounds of Delphi surveys with 20 COVID-19-related frontline healthcare professionals and public officials. The surveys evaluated means of supporting HCWs’ health by improving health care systems and working environments in terms of effectiveness and urgency. The validity of the measures was assessed by calculating the content validity ratio. @*Results@#The top-priority measures to support HCWs were “secure isolation units capable of treating severe cases” in the facility infrastructure category, “secure nursing staff dedicated for patients in the intensive care units” in the personnel infrastructure category, “improve communication between central office and frontline field” in the cooperation system category, “support personal protective equipment and infection control supplies” in the aid supplies category, and “realization of hazard pay” in the physical/mental health and compensation category. @*Conclusion@#There was consensus among the experts on the validity and priorities of policies in the facility, personnel, cooperation, supplies, and compensation categories regarding measures to promote COVID-19 related HCWs’ health.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915500

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing, heavy workload of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. This study investigated the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Methods@#A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 16 to October 15, 2020, involving 16 healthcare facilities (4 public medical centers, 12 tertiary-care hospitals) that provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. @*Results@#Public medical centers provided the majority (69.4%) of total hospital beds for COVID-19 patients (n = 611), on the other hand, tertiary care hospitals provided the majority (78.9%) of critical care beds (n = 57). The number of beds per doctor (median [IQR]) in public medical centers was higher than in tertiary care hospitals (20.2 [13.0, 29.4] versus 3.0 [1.3, 6.6], P = 0.006). Infectious Diseases physicians are mostly (80%) involved among attending physicians. The number of nurses per patient (median [interquartile range, IQR]) in tertiarycare hospitals was higher than in public medical centers (4.6 [3.4–5] vs. 1.1 [0.8–2.1], P =0.089). The median number of nurses per patient for COVID-19 patients was higher than the highest national standard in South Korea (3.8 vs. 2 for critical care). All participating healthcare facilities were also operating screening centers, for which a median of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 2 administrating staff were necessary. @*Conclusion@#As the severity of COVID-19 patients increases, the number of HCWs required increases. Because the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak is much greater than other situations, a workforce management plan regarding this perspective is required to prevent burnout of HCWs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892243

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899947

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831531

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was performed to compare the viral load and kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in saliva with those in standard nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs. @*Methods@#Fifteen patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from four hospitals were prospectively enrolled and matched samples of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs and saliva were collected at Day 1 of admission and every other day till consequently negative for two times. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was performed to detect the envelope (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. @*Results@#The cycle threshold values of saliva were comparable to those of NP/OP swabs overall (P = 0.720, Mann–Whitney U test). However, the overall sensitivity of rRT-PCR using saliva was 64% (34/53), which is lower than the 77% (41/53) using NP/OP swabs. The sensitivity of rRT-PCR using saliva was especially lower in early stage of symptom onset (1–5 days; 8/15; 53%) and in patients who did not have sputum (12/22; 55%). @*Conclusion@#Saliva sample itself is not appropriate for initial diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to replace NP/OP swabs, especially for the person who does not produce sputum. COVID-19 cannot be excluded when the test using saliva is negative, and it is necessary to retest using NP/OP swabs.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831521

ABSTRACT

Background@#The fatality rate of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies among countries owing to demographics, patient comorbidities, surge capacity of healthcare systems, and the quality of medical care. We assessed the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the epidemic in Korea. @*Methods@#Using a modified World Health Organization clinical record form, we obtained clinical data for 3,060 patients with COVID-19 treated at 55 hospitals in Korea. Disease severity scores were defined as: 1) no limitation of daily activities; 2) limitation of daily activities but no need for supplemental oxygen; 3) supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula; 4) supplemental oxygen via facial mask; 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation; 6) invasive mechanical ventilation; 7) multi-organ failure or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy; and 8) death. Recovery was defined as a severity score of 1 or 2, or discharge and release from isolation. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 43 years of age; 43.6% were male. The median time from illness onset to admission was 5 days. Of the patients with a disease severity score of 3–4 on admission, 65 (71.5%) of the 91 patients recovered, and 7 (7.7%) died due to illness by day 28. Of the patients with disease severity scores of 5–7, 7 (19.5%) of the 36 patients recovered, and 8 (22.2%) died due to illness by day 28. None of the 1,324 patients who were < 50 years of age died; in contrast, the fatality rate due to illness by day 28 was 0.5% (2/375), 0.9% (2/215), 5.8% (6/104), and 14.0% (7/50) for the patients aged 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥ 80 years of age, respectively. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, almost all patients of < 50 years of age with COVID-19 recovered without supplemental oxygen. In patients of ≥ 50 years of age, the fatality rate increased with age, reaching 14% in patients of ≥ 80 years of age.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 301-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816705

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few studies have been investigated the in vivo efficacy of generic vancomycin products available outside of the United States. In this study, we aimed to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of five generic vancomycin products available in Korea with those of the innovator.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro vancomycin purity of each product was examined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Single-dose PK analyses were performed using neutropenic mice. The in vivo efficacy of vancomycin products was compared with that of the innovator in dose-effect experiments (25 to 400 mg/kg per day) using a thigh-infection model with neutropenic mice.RESULTS: Generic products had a lower proportion of vancomycin B (range: 90.3–93.8%) and a higher proportion of impurities (range: 6.2–9.7%) than the innovator (94.5% and 5.5%, respectively). In an in vivo single-dose PK study, the maximum concentration (C(max)) values of each generic were lower than that of the innovator, and the geographic mean area under the curve ratios of four generics were significantly lower than that of the innovator (all p<0.1). In the thigh-infection model, the maximum efficacies of generic products reflected in maximal effect (E(max)) values were not significantly different from the innovator. However, the PD profile curves of some generic products differed significantly from that of the innovator in mice injected with a high level of Mu3 (all p≤0.05).CONCLUSION: Some generic vancomycin products available in Korea showed inferior PK and PD profiles, especially in hetero-vancomycin-resistant mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764900

ABSTRACT

Since 2013, the Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM) surveillance system began a H7N9 influenza surveillance scheme for returning travelers in addition to pre-existing emergency room (ER)-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance. Although limited to eastern China, avian A/H7N9 influenza virus is considered to have the highest pandemic potential among currently circulating influenza viruses. During the study period between October 1st, 2013 and April 30th, 2016, 11 cases presented with ILI within seven days of travel return. These patients visited China, Hong Kong, or neighboring Southeast Asian countries, but none of them visited a livestock market. Seasonal influenza virus (54.5%, 6 among 11) was the most common cause of ILI among returning travelers, and avian A/H7N9 influenza virus was not detected during the study period.


Subject(s)
Asians , China , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hong Kong , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Livestock , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Seasons
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 199-209, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722327

ABSTRACT

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a burden on patients and health care resources. PJI diagnosis can be challenging, owing to imperfect definition, alongside inadequate diagnostic techniques. In this review, we describe consensus definitions of PJI, approaches to diagnosis using methods available in Korea, and novel diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Humans , Joints , Korea , Methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722003

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium marinum infection in humans occurs mainly as a granulomatous infection after exposure of traumatized skin to contaminated water. It is usually confined to the skin and soft tissue. Disseminated disease involving other organs rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a case of disseminated M. marinum infection involving not only the cutaneous tissue, but also the lung of a male patient with uncontrolled diabetes and a previous history of steroid injection who was employed by a deep-water fishery.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fisheries , Humans , Lung , Male , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium , Skin , Steroids , Water
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 199-209, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721822

ABSTRACT

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a burden on patients and health care resources. PJI diagnosis can be challenging, owing to imperfect definition, alongside inadequate diagnostic techniques. In this review, we describe consensus definitions of PJI, approaches to diagnosis using methods available in Korea, and novel diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Humans , Joints , Korea , Methods
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721498

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium marinum infection in humans occurs mainly as a granulomatous infection after exposure of traumatized skin to contaminated water. It is usually confined to the skin and soft tissue. Disseminated disease involving other organs rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a case of disseminated M. marinum infection involving not only the cutaneous tissue, but also the lung of a male patient with uncontrolled diabetes and a previous history of steroid injection who was employed by a deep-water fishery.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fisheries , Humans , Lung , Male , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium , Skin , Steroids , Water
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 205-212, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abacavir is a widely-used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Mandatory postmarketing surveillance was conducted in Korea to monitor the safety and evaluate the effectiveness of Ziagen® (abacavir sulfate 300 mg; ViiV Healthcare, Middlesex, UK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An open-label, multi-center, non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study was conducted from June 2010 to June 2016 to monitor the safety and effectiveness of Ziagen across 12 hospitals in Korea. Subjects older than 18 years taking Ziagen according to prescribing information were enrolled. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of any adverse events after Ziagen administration. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of adverse drug reactions, occurrence of serious adverse events, and effectiveness of Ziagen administration. RESULTS: A total of 669 patients were enrolled in this study, with a total observation period of 1047.8 person-years. Of these, 90.7% of patients were male. The mean age of patients was 45.8±11.9 years. One-hundred ninety-six (29.3%) patients reported 315 adverse events, and four patients reported seven serious adverse events, without any fatal events. There was one potential case of an abacavir hypersensitivity reaction. Among the 97 adverse drug reactions that were reported from 75 patients, the most frequent adverse drug reactions included diarrhea (12 events), dyspepsia (10 events), and rash (9 events). No ischemic heart disease was observed. In the effectiveness analysis, 91% of patients achieved HIV-1 RNA under 50 copies/mL after 24 months of observation with abacavir administration. CONCLUSION: Our data showed the safety and effectiveness of Ziagen in a real-world setting. During the study period, Ziagen was well-tolerated, with one incident of a clinically suspected abacavir hypersensitivity reaction. The postmarketing surveillance of Ziagen did not highlight any new safety information. These data may be helpful in understanding abacavir and the HIV treatment practices in Korea.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diarrhea , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dyspepsia , Exanthema , HIV , HIV-1 , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Male , Myocardial Ischemia , Pharmacoepidemiology , RNA , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 294-301, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends the surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to respond effectively to both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics. In Korea, the “Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM)” surveillance system has been operated to monitor ILI and SARI occurrences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-center prospective observational study was conducted. Adult patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were enrolled during the 2011-12, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 influenza seasons at the 10 university hospitals using the HIMM surveillance system. With respect to SARI and pneumonia development, risk profiles were analyzed in patients with ARI in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 5,459 cases were eligible for this analysis. Among 5,459 cases with ARI, 2,887 cases (52.9%) were identified that they had influenza infection. Among enrolled cases, 750 cases belonged to the SARI group, while 4,709 cases belonged to the non-SARI group. With respect to pneumonia development, 317 cases were accompanied by pneumonia, and 5,142 cases were not. Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were associated with an increased risk of SARI: Old age (≥65 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.32), chronic heart disease (CHD) (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.68-2.98), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.10), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.73-3.99), chronic liver disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.81), and autoimmune diseases (OR 2.53, 1.57-4.08). Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were independent risk factors for pneumonia development: Old age (≥65 years) (OR 5.71, 95% CI 4.10-7.94), CHD (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.22), COPD (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), CKD (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.73-3.99), immunocompromised conditions (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.47-6.62), and autoimmune diseases (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.79-6.27). The risk of SARI and pneumonia was increased by the number of concurrent chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSION: The risk of SARI and pneumonia development among adult patient with ARI was significantly increased by the presence or number of concurrent chronic medical conditions in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Autoimmune Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Heart Diseases , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Influenza, Human , Korea , Liver Diseases , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Seasons , World Health Organization
16.
Intestinal Research ; : 80-84, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78092

ABSTRACT

The rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infections, including pseudomembranous colitis, have increased markedly. However, there are few effective treatments for refractory or recurrent C. difficile infections and the outcomes are poor. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in patients with recurrent disease, likely due to the restoration of a disrupted microbiome. Cure rates of >90% are being consistently reported from multiple centers. We cured a case of severe refractory C. difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation in a patient colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Colon , Enterococcus , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Humans , Microbiota
18.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 37-44, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55540

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species are increasingly recognized as major nosocomial pathogens, especially in patients with critical illnesses or in intensive care. The ability of these organisms to accumulate diverse mechanisms of resistance limits the available therapeutic agents, makes the infection difficult to treat, and is associated with a greater risk of death. In this review, we provide an update on the epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, infection control measures, treatment, and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter Infections , Colistin , Critical Illness , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Critical Care
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. METHODS: A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. RESULTS: Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). CONCLUSION: The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Carotid Artery, Internal , Debridement , Diabetes Mellitus , Early Diagnosis , Fungi , Humans , Mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Sinusitis , Sphenoid Sinus , Survival Rate
20.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 37-44, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788291

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species are increasingly recognized as major nosocomial pathogens, especially in patients with critical illnesses or in intensive care. The ability of these organisms to accumulate diverse mechanisms of resistance limits the available therapeutic agents, makes the infection difficult to treat, and is associated with a greater risk of death. In this review, we provide an update on the epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, infection control measures, treatment, and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter Infections , Colistin , Critical Illness , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Critical Care
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