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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913819

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Preclinical data indicate that response to radiotherapy (RT) depends on DNA damage repair. In this study, we investigated the role of mutations in genes related to DNA damage repair in treatment outcome after RT. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with solid tumor who participated in next generation sequencing panel screening using biopsied tumor tissue between October 2013 and February 2019 were reviewed and 97 patients that received RT were included in this study. Best response to RT and the cumulative local recurrence rate (LRR) were compared according to absence or presence of missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in ATM and/or BRCA1/2. @*Results@#Of the 97 patients, five patients harbored mutation only in ATM, 22 in only BRCA1/2, and six in both ATM and BRCA1/2 (ATMmtBRCAmt). Propensity score matching was performed to select the control group without mutations (ATMwtBRCAwt, n=33). In total, 90 RT-treated target lesions were evaluated in 66 patients. Highest objective response rate of 80% was observed in ATMmtBRCAmt lesions (p=0.007), which was mostly durable. Furthermore, the cumulative 1-year LRR was the lowest in ATMmtBRCAmt lesions and the highest in ATMwtBRCAwt lesions (0% vs. 47.9%, p=0.008). RT-associated toxicities were observed in 10 treatments with no significant difference among the subgroups (p=0.680). @*Conclusion@#Tumors with ATM and BRCA1/2 mutations exhibited superior tumor response and local control after RT compared to tumors without these mutations. The results are hypothesis generating and suggest the need for integrating the tumor mutation profile of DNA repair genes during treatment planning.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913784

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) can be treated by surgical procedures, usually through an endonasal transsphenoidal corridor using either a microscope or an endoscope. We report a large suprasellar extended RCC causing obstructive hydrocephalus, which was efficiently managed by a novel surgical route named “reverse” trans-sellar approach using transventricular neuroendoscopy. A 48-yearold woman complained of persistent headache and a tendency to fall that had begun 6 months previously. The images obtained from MRI scan showed intra- and supra-sellar cystic masses occupying the third ventricle with obstruction of the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius. The cystic wall showed a slight enhancement, and the cystic contents showed iso-signal intensity on T1-and T2-weighted images. Instead of trans-nasal trans-sellar surgery, we decided to operate using a conventional transventricular endoscope. A thin cystic capsule, which blocked the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius, was fenestrated and removed and a third ventriculostomy was performed. The defect in the infundibulum between sellar and suprasellar cysts was widened and used as a corridor to drain cystic contents (reverse trans-sellar route). The final pathological finding revealed an RCC with focal metaplasia. We efficiently managed a large RCC by transventricular neuroendoscopic surgery with cyst fenestration and third ventriculostomy and simultaneously drained the sellar contents using a novel surgical route. Reverse trans-sellar neuroendoscopic surgery is a relevant treatment option for selective patients with large suprasellar extensions of RCCs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875116

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma (PCNSTL) is an extremely rare type of brain tumor. There are only few reports on the imaging findings of patients with PCNSTL. Herein, we report the imaging findings of a patient with peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified that presented with numerous small nodular and patchy strongly enhancing lesions on MRI.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875099

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). @*Methods@#Using the NEDIS data from 2014 to 2018, we included patients who had visited the emergency department (ED) with CO poisoning (T58.0 in 7th Korean Standard Classification of Diseases [KCD-7]). We excluded patients with an uncertain time of onset, uncertain intentionality of poisoning, mental state, and unknown clinical outcome. We surveyed age, sex, time of onset, the intentionality of poisoning, mental state, results of emergency treatment, the proportion of admissions to intensive care units (ICU), the outcome of hospitalization, and the regional distribution. We analyzed the rate of incidence and trends of CO poisoning in patients using time series analysis. @*Results@#A total of 18,533 patients, including 10,671 (57.6%) males and 7,862 (42.4%) females, with a mean age of 40.38±18.41 years, were included in this study. Gyeonggi Province (n=6,354, 34.3%) had the highest distribution of patients, followed by Seoul (n=3,357, 18.1%). The incidence of unintentional CO poisoning was more frequent in January and December, and less frequent in August and September. However, the incidence of intentional CO poisoning showed no seasonal variation. The severity, ICU hospitalization rate, and mortality rate for intentional CO poisoning were higher than unintentional CO poisoning (4.1% vs. 0.8%, 29.9% vs. 16.7%, and 2.0% vs. 0.8% respectively) (P<0.001). Applying Winter’s additive method, we could predict that the rate of unintentional CO poisoning would continue to increase and the seasonal fluctuation, such as cases increasing in January-December and decreasing in August-September, would also increase. @*Conclusion@#Intentional CO poisoning showed higher severity than unintentional CO poisoning. In the time series analysis, the rate of unintentional CO poisoning and seasonal fluctuation is predicted to increase.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897406

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889702

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914888

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Malnutrition is the main complication after gastrectomy and the degree may vary depending on the extent of resection. This study sought to help determine an appropriate type of resection and provide methods for addressing malnutrition after gastrectomy. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical resection at the Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital between December 2012 and December 2013.A total of 100 patients were screened, and all patients were followed for 1 to 3 years. Among this group, 12 underwent total gastrectomy, 5 underwent proximal gastrectomy, 46 underwent distal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis, and 37 with Billroth II anastomosis. The nutritional status assessment included body weight, body mass index, serum albumin, serum hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ferritin, and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). @*Results@#Patients who underwent total gastrectomy had lower hemoglobin and vitamin B12 levels compared to patients who underwent distal gastrectomy. The NRI was statistically significantly lower in patients who underwent total gastrectomy than patients who underwent distal gastrectomy. Patients who underwent total gastrectomy had lower vitamin B12 than patients who underwent proximal gastrectomy till the second year after gastrectomy. Regarding postdistal gastrectomy reconstruction, there was no statistically significant difference between the Billroth I and Billroth II groups. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who underwent total gastrectomy were more susceptible to malnutrition than those who underwent distal or proximal gastrectomy. Patients who undergo gastrectomy should be monitored carefully for nutritional status and given appropriate nutritional support in the post-operative period.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899063

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

11.
Immune Network ; : e8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898558

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

12.
Immune Network ; : e48-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898548

ABSTRACT

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a distinct pattern of progression characterized by acceleration of tumor growth after treatment with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs. However, the immunological characteristics have not been fully elucidated in patients with HPD. We prospectively recruited patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs between April 2015 and April 2018, and collected peripheral blood before treatment and 7-days post-treatment. HPD was defined as ≥2-fold increase in both tumor growth kinetics and tumor growth rate between pre-treatment and post-treatment.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry to phenotype the immune cells. Of 115 patients, 19 (16.5%) developed HPD, 52 experienced durable clinical benefit (DCB; partial response or stable disease ≥6 months), and 44 experienced non-hyperprogressive progression (NHPD). Patients with HPD had significantly lower progression-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). When peripheral blood immune cells were examined, the pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ cells among CD8+T cells was significantly higher in patients with HPD compared to those with NHPD, although it showed borderline significance to predict HPD. Other parameters regarding regulatory T cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells did not significantly differ among patient groups. Our findings suggest high pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ CD8+ T cells might be a characteristic of HPD. Further investigations in a larger cohort are needed to confirm our results and better delineate the immune landscape of HPD.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893451

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. @*Results@#A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. @*Conclusion@#This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

15.
Immune Network ; : e8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890854

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

16.
Immune Network ; : e48-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890844

ABSTRACT

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a distinct pattern of progression characterized by acceleration of tumor growth after treatment with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs. However, the immunological characteristics have not been fully elucidated in patients with HPD. We prospectively recruited patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs between April 2015 and April 2018, and collected peripheral blood before treatment and 7-days post-treatment. HPD was defined as ≥2-fold increase in both tumor growth kinetics and tumor growth rate between pre-treatment and post-treatment.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry to phenotype the immune cells. Of 115 patients, 19 (16.5%) developed HPD, 52 experienced durable clinical benefit (DCB; partial response or stable disease ≥6 months), and 44 experienced non-hyperprogressive progression (NHPD). Patients with HPD had significantly lower progression-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). When peripheral blood immune cells were examined, the pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ cells among CD8+T cells was significantly higher in patients with HPD compared to those with NHPD, although it showed borderline significance to predict HPD. Other parameters regarding regulatory T cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells did not significantly differ among patient groups. Our findings suggest high pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ CD8+ T cells might be a characteristic of HPD. Further investigations in a larger cohort are needed to confirm our results and better delineate the immune landscape of HPD.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836785

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Our study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)to assess the capsular extension of prostate cancer. Risk factors for extraprostatic invasion or microscopic invasionof bladder neck (pT3a stage) in the cases showing localized disease findings on MRI scan were also identified. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified 198 patients who underwent robot-assisted or conventional laparoscopicradical prostatectomy in our institute between June, 2016 and May, 2018. Altogether, 170 patients withpreoperational mpMRI scans and complete pathologic data were included. Positive and negative predictive valuesof mpMRI to detect capsular extension were estimated. Chi-square test was performed for ratio variables. Logisticregression analysis was performed to identify capsular invasion risk factors. @*Results@#Median age and prostate-specific antigen level were 68 years and 7.5 ng/mL, respectively. Based onfindings, 16 patients (9.4%) were identified as cT3a stage (unilateral or bilateral extraprostatic extension), whereas37 patients (21.8%) as pT3a stage. Positive and negative predictive values of mpMRI to detect capsular extensionwere 75.0% and 73.9%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, positive biopsy core rate was the significantpredictor for pT3a disease in the patients with negative capsular invasion findings on mpMRI (p<0.001). Accordingto receiver-operating characteristic curve (area under the curve=0.691, p=0.001), the positive biopsy core rateof 0.275 was the best threshold. @*Conclusions@#Multiparametric MRI is an appropriate test to predict pT3a disease preoperatively. The patients withpositive core rate over 0.275 may have pT3a diseases despite negative image findings.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835295

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted to evaluate the hemodynamic performance and the incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) using bovine pericardial valves (Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magana and Magna Ease). @*Methods@#In total, 216 patients (mean age, 70.0±10.5 years) who underwent AVR using stented bovine pericardial valves and had follow-up echocardiography between 3 months and 2 years (mean, 12.0±6.6 months) after surgery were enrolled. The implanted valve sizes were 19, 21, 23, and 25 mm in 32, 56, 99, and 29 patients, respectively. @*Results@#On follow-up echocardiography, the mean transvalvular pressure gradients for the 19-mm, 21-mm, 23-mm, and 25-mm valves were 13.3±4.4, 12.6±4.2, 10.5±3.9, and 10.2± 3.7 mm Hg, respectively. The effective orifice area (EOA) was 1.25±0.26, 1.54±0.31, 1.81±0.41, and 1.87±0.33 ㎠ , respectively. These values were smaller than those suggested by the manufacturer for the corresponding sizes. No patients had PPM, when based on the reference EOA. However, moderate (EOA index ≤0.85㎠ /㎡ ) and severe (EOA index ≤0.65 ㎠ /㎡ ) PPM was present in 56 patients (11.8%) and 9 patients (1.9%), respectively, when using the measured values. @*Conclusion@#Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna and Magna Ease bovine pericardial valves showed satisfactory hemodynamic performance with low rates of PPM, although the reference EOA could overestimate the true EOA for individual patients.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835252

ABSTRACT

A 39-year-old man presented to the department of emergency medicine in Seoul National University Hospital complaining of chest pain, heart palpitation, and headache. Upon arrival, a computed tomography scan showed a 7.0 cm×6.2 cm lesion with the typical features of a paraganglioma. The patient was treated with an alpha-blocker and a beta-blocker prior to surgical intervention. We removed the tumor successfully, and histopathologic findings indicated that the tumor was indeed a paraganglioma. Since intracardiac paraganglioma is a rare disease, we present this case together with a literature review.

20.
Immune Network ; : 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811174

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
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