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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925529

ABSTRACT

Background@#In recent years, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) has emerged as an important concern. At our institution, patients who received breast reconstruction using Allergan implants were informed individually about BIA-ALCL. The present study analyzed correlations between patients’ level of satisfaction with their breast shape and whether they chose to undergo reoperation (implant removal or replacement). @*Methods@#Breast reconstruction with Allergan implants was performed between December 2014 and April 2018. In total, 107 patients were interviewed, excluding those who had died, were unreachable, or had already undergone reoperation. The mean follow-up period was 53 months (range, 26–73 months). @*Results@#After the interviews, 68 patients postponed reoperation, 29 had their implant replaced, and 10 had their implant removed. Nearly one-fifth (18.9%) of patients who were satisfied with their breast shape (13 out of 69) underwent reoperation due to anxiety over ALCL. Meanwhile, 68.4% of patients who were not satisfied due to capsular contracture or scar contracture (26 out of 38) underwent reoperation. Sixteen of the 30 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (53.3%) chose to undergo reoperation. @*Conclusions@#Satisfaction with the cosmetic outcomes of implant placement played a meaningful role in patients’ decisions to undergo reoperation. This tendency may be linked to postoperative radiotherapy, which is a major contributor to complications such as contracture. Nonetheless, a substantial proportion of patients who were satisfied with the outcomes chose to undergo reoperation due to concerns regarding ALCL.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913592

ABSTRACT

Background@#Breast reconstruction using an extended latissimus dorsi (eLD) flap can supplement more volume than reconstruction using various local flaps after partial mastectomy, and it is a valuable surgical method since the reconstruction area is not limited. However, when performing reconstruction, the surgeon should consider latissimus dorsi (LD) volume reduction due to postoperative chemotherapy (POCTx) and postoperative radiotherapy (PORTx). To evaluate the effect of POCTx and PORTx on LD volume reduction, the effects of each therapy—both separately and jointly—need to be demonstrated. The present study quantified LD volume reduction in patients who underwent POCTx and PORTx after receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with an eLD flap. @*Methods@#This study included 48 patients who received immediate breast reconstruction using an eLD flap from January 2013 to March 2017, had chest computed tomography (CT) 7–10 days after surgery and 10–14 months after radiotherapy completion, and were observed for more than 3 years postoperatively. One surgeon performed the breast reconstruction procedures, and measurements of breast volume were obtained from axial CT views, using a picture archiving and communication system. A P-value <0.05 was the threshold for statistical significance. @*Results@#The average volume reduction of LD at 10–14 months after completing POCTx and PORTx was 64.5% (range, 42.8%–81.4%) in comparison to the volume measured 7–10 days after surgery. This change was statistically significant (P<0.05). @*Conclusions@#Based on the findings of this study, when harvesting an eLD flap, surgeons should anticipate an average LD volume reduction of 64.5% if chemotherapy and radiotherapy are scheduled after BCS with an eLD flap.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832904

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Some patients with neonatal seizures show diffuse, symmetric diffusion-restricted lesions in the cerebral white matter. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and imaging findings of patients with neonatal seizures who had diffuse, symmetric diffusion-restricted lesions without any structural or metabolic etiology. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 56 neonates aged less than 1 week underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of seizures from November 2008 to February 2017. After excluding 43 patients, 13 patients showed diffuse white matter abnormality on diffusion-weighted imaging. Initial and follow-up clinical and MRI findings were analyzed retro-spectively. @*Results@#All 13 patients were born at full term. Among the ten patients who underwent a stool test for viruses, six were positive for rotavirus and one for astrovirus. MRI revealed diffuse, symmetric diffusion-restricted lesions distributed along the cerebral white matter, thalami, and midbrain variably. @*Conclusion@#Diffuse, symmetric diffusion-restricted lesions involving the cerebral white matter can be seen in patients with neonatal seizures without any structural or metabolic etiology. Rotavirus is commonly but not exclusively detected in these patients. Nevertheless, viral infection-associated encephalopathy should be considered for patients with characteristic clinical and MRI findings.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830765

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reduction mammoplasty or mastopexy is performed as an additional balancing procedure in patients with large or ptotic breasts who undergo breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Radiation therapy on breasts that have undergone surgery may result in changes in the volume. This study presents a comparative analysis of patients who received post-BCS balancing procedures to determine whether volume changes were larger in breasts that received radiation therapy than on the contralateral side. @*Methods@#Thirty-six participants were selected among patients who received BCS using the inverted-T scar technique between September 2012 and July 2017, were followed up for 2 or more years, and had pre-radiation therapy computed tomography images and post-radiation therapy images taken between 12 and 18 months after completion. The average age of the participants was 53.5 years, their average body mass index was 26.62 kg/m2. @*Results@#The pre- and post-radiation therapy volumes of the breasts receiving BCS were 666.08±147.48 mL and 649.33±130.35 mL, respectively. In the contralateral breasts, the volume before radiation therapy was 637.69±145.72 mL, which decreased to 628.14±166.41 mL after therapy. The volume ratio of the affected to the contralateral breasts was 1.05±0.10 before radiation therapy and 1.06±0.12 after radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#The ratio of the volume between the two breasts immediately after surgery and at roughly 18 months postoperatively was not significantly different (P=0.98). For these reasons, we recommend a simultaneous single-stage balancing procedure as a reasonable option for patients who require radiation therapy after BCS without concerns regarding volume change.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1167-1175, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the objective and subjective image quality indicators and radiation doses of computed tomography (CT) venography performed using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) at 80 kVp and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-V at 70 kVp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients who had undergone CT venography of the lower extremities with MBIR at 80 kVp (Group A; 21 men and 20 women; mean age, 55.5 years) or ASIR-V at 70 kVp (Group B; 18 men and 24 women; mean age, 57.3 years) were enrolled. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the objective (vascular enhancement, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) and subjective (quantum mottle, delineation of contour, venous enhancement) image quality indicators at the inferior vena cava and femoral and popliteal veins. Clinical information, radiation dose, reconstruction time, and objective and subjective image quality indicators were compared between groups A and B. RESULTS: Vascular enhancement, SNR, and CNR were significantly greater in Group B than in Group A (p ≤ 0.015). Image noise was significantly lower in Group B (p ≤ 0.021), and all subjective image quality indicators, except for delineation of vein contours, were significantly better in Group B (p ≤ 0.021). Mean reconstruction time was significantly shorter in Group B than in Group A (1 min 43 s vs. 131 min 1 s; p < 0.001). Clinical information and radiation dose were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: CT venography using ASIR-V at 70 kVp was better than MBIR at 80 kVp in terms of image quality and reconstruction time at similar radiation doses.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Image Enhancement , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lower Extremity , Male , Noise , Phlebography , Popliteal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Veins , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To compare image qualities of 80 kVp CT venography (CTV) and 120 kVp CTV by model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) at the same radiation dose.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#Sixty-nine patients that underwent CTV using 80 kVp (36 patients, group 1) or 120 kVp (33 patients, group 2) with MBIR at the same radiation dose were enrolled, and objective and subjective image qualities were assessed independently by two radiologists.@*RESULTS@#Mean vascular enhancement and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 for inferior vena cavas, femoral veins, and popliteal veins (p < 0.001), and there was significantly lower objective image noise in group 1 (p < 0.001). Subjective analysis revealed image quality was significantly higher in group 1 and image noise was significantly higher in group 2 (p < 0.001). Mean dose-length products was not significantly lower in group 1 (356.1 ± 153.7 mGy cm) than in group 2 (370.1 ± 77.1 mGy cm) (p = 0.635).@*CONCLUSION@#CTV at 80 kVp with MBIR is a better protocol than CTV at 120 kVp with MBIR at the same radiation dose.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740152

ABSTRACT

Foreign body injections into breasts may produce foreign body reactions, fibrosis, and local swelling of involved lymph nodes, which can be misdiagnosed as metastasis or malignancy. Here, the authors report MR imaging, PET-CT imaging, and pathologic findings of contralateral internal mammary lymphadenopathy suspicious of breast cancer metastasis in a 58-year-old woman with history of left breast cancer, and previous interstitial mammoplasty by paraffin injection in both breasts.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Female , Fibrosis , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammaplasty , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraffin
8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 71-75, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648280

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This retrospective study evaluated the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE), Tozaki's visual pattern classification, and conventional Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. METHODS: Between May 2015 and July 2016, 388 patients underwent SWE and B-mode ultrasonography. The BI-RADS system was used to exclude cases with category 1–2 lesions or unbiopsied category 3 lesions. A total of 100 patients with 100 solid breast masses underwent tissue sampling (ultrasonography-guided core biopsy or vacuum-assisted biopsy) or surgical excision. The quantitative elasticity was measured for each lesion, and the imaging and histological findings were compared. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 51 years (range, 18–79 years). Histological examination identified 50 malignant lesions and 50 benign lesions. According to the BI-RADS classification, 20 lesions were classified as category 3, 56 as category 4, and 24 as category 5. Based on the Tozaki classification, 39 lesions were classified as pattern 1, seven as pattern 2, 23 as pattern 3, and 31 as pattern 4. If patterns 1 and 2 were assumed to be benign, and patterns 3 and 4 were assumed to be malignant, the combination of BI-RADS and SWE provided a sensitivity of 100% (50/50), a specificity of 92.0% (46/50), a positive predictive value of 92.5% (50/54), and a negative predictive value of 100% (50/50). CONCLUSION: The combination of SWE and BI-RADS was useful for evaluating breast lesions, improved the specificity of ultrasonography and may help facilitate appropriate treatment planning.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Elasticity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Information Systems , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59528

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) has been established as a standard method for histological diagnosis of microcalcification or nonpalpable breast lesions on mammography. Generally, the procedure has been done under the prone position or upright sitting position. We herein attempt to evaluate clinical utility of Stereotactic VAB under lateral decubitus position. METHODS: One hundred six women (mean age, 51.2 years) with mammographically detected microcalcification underwent lateral decubitus positioning VAB using the 8G probe. In all cases, we obtained mammography specimens for identification of microcalcification and postprocedure mammography. We reviewed mean procedure time, pieces of specimen, pathology and follow-up mammography. RESULTS: The procedure took approximately 20 minutes (range, 15-24 minutes). Average number of obtained specimens was 8.5 pieces (range, 6-12 pieces). Microcalcifications were confirmed in both specimen mammography and microscopic slides. Of 106 cases, 10 cases were diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ. Additional surgical management was performed. Atypical ductal hyperplasias were found in 8 cases, and fibrocystic changes in 88 cases. CONCLUSION: Stereotactic VAB using the 8G probe under lateral decubitus position does not need a dedicated table, and is easier to maintain the position. Also, this procedure is accurate and safe. Thus, stereotactic VAB using the 8G probe under lateral decubitus position will be a useful method for diagnosis of microcalcification or nonpalpable breast lesions on mammography.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperplasia , Mammography , Pathology , Prone Position , Stereotaxic Techniques
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 219-223, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of our study was to identify useful computed tomography (CT) findings for differentiating fundal type adenomyomatosis from localized chronic cholecystitis involving the fundus of the gallbladder. METHODS: We retrospectively identified cases of 41 patients with pathologically proven adenomyomatosis (n=21) or chronic cholecystitis (n=20) who had fundal thickening of the gallbladder on preoperative abdominal CT. Analysis of the CT findings included evaluation of the thickness, contour, border, intralesional cystic area, adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, presence of inner layer enhancement, enhancement grade, enhancement pattern, and presence of stones. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Oval contour, inner layer enhancement and intralesional cystic area were more frequently noted in adenomyomatosis than in chronic cholecystitis (p<0.05 for each finding). Flat contour and adjacent gallbladder wall thickening were more frequently observed in chronic cholecystitis than in adenomyomatosis. No differences between adenomyomatosis and chronic cholecystitis in terms of the thickness, enhancement grade, enhancement pattern and presence of stones were apparent. CONCLUSIONS: CT may help to differentiate fundal type adenomyomatosis from localized chronic cholecystitis involving the fundus of the gallbladder.


Subject(s)
Adenomyoma/pathology , Adult , Aged , Cholecystitis/pathology , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Ultrasonography ; : 26-33, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue stiffness of solid pancreatic lesions by using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic lesions. METHODS: ARFI elastography was performed in 26 patients who had 27 focal solid pancreatic lesions, including 8 benign lesions (mass-forming pancreatitis, 5; autoimmune pancreatitis, 3) and 19 malignant lesions (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 16; metastasis from colorectal cancer, 2; malignant neuroendocrine tumor, 1). On the elastographic images of virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI), the echogenicity of the mass was categorized on a 5-grade scale. On the elastographic image of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), the shear wave velocities (SWVs) of the lesion and surrounding parenchyma were measured. RESULTS: On the VTI images, the mean echogenicity score of the malignant lesions (3.7+/-1.0) was higher than that of the benign lesions (3.1+/-0.4; P=0.023). On the VTQ images, there were no statistical differences in the mean SWV between the benign (2.4+/-1.1 m/sec) and malignant (3.3+/-1.0 m/sec) lesions (P=0.101). However, the mean SWV difference values between the lesion and background parenchyma of the malignant lesions (1.5+/-0.8 m/sec) were higher than those of the benign lesions (0.4+/-0.3 m/sec; P=0.011). CONCLUSION: ARFI elastography can determine the relative stiffness between a lesion and the background pancreatic parenchyma using VTI and VTQ, which is helpful in the differentiation between benign and malignant solid pancreatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Adenocarcinoma , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Ultrasonography
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 374-380, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was performed to investigate the correlation of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression with the functionality and loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) expression in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for the expression of NIS and PTEN was performed in 60 biopsy specimens of CCA. The clinicopathological parameters were retrospectively identified from medical records. The expression pattern of NIS and loss of PTEN expression were analyzed in association with the clinicopathological characteristics, including survival. RESULTS: Normal biliary trees displayed NIS expression, but hepatocytes did not. NIS expression was divided into two patterns: cytoplasmic and membranous. Fifty-nine cases, all except for one case, displayed NIS expression in tumor cells. Twenty-two cases (33.3%) were mixed pattern, and 39 cases (65.05%) were cytoplasmic pattern; the pure membranous pattern was not noted. There was no association between the NIS expression pattern and clinicopathological parameters, including age, sex, differentiation grade, T stage and tumor, node, metastasis stage (p>0.05). The survival rates were similar among various NIS expression patterns. Normal hepatocytes and biliary trees exhibited PTEN expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm. CCA cells displayed nuclear staining. Thirty-six (60.0%) of 60 cases displayed a loss of PTEN expression. The loss of PTEN expression was observed in the advanced T-stage group (p=0.0036), but there was no association between the loss of PTEN expression and other clinicopathological parameters (p>0.05). No association between the loss of PTEN expression and survival was noted. CONCLUSIONS: NIS is expressed in most types of human CCA. The expression pattern suggests a role in cancer development. PTEN loss expression is common in the context of human CCA, especially in the advanced T stage.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cytoplasm , Hepatocytes , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Ion Transport , Medical Records , Microfilament Proteins , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium Iodide , Survival Rate , Symporters
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725612

ABSTRACT

Nodular fasciitis is a rapidly growing benign soft tissue tumor that is related to the fascia and this tumor is generally seen in young and middle aged adults. It is often seen as a subcutaneous solitary nodule in an upper extremity. Clinically, it is often mistaken for a malignancy. We present here a rare case of nodular fasciitis of the chest wall and that was observed on breast sonography (US) and this lesion clinically simulated palpable breast cancer. US may be helpful for evaluating a chest wall lesion that is misunderstood to be a breast lump. So, if the lesion's location is vague, US can reveal the exact location and characteristics of the mass. Although the incidence of nodular fasciitis is rare, nodular fasciitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a lesion is located in the chest wall.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , Fascia , Fasciitis , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Upper Extremity
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725378

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to analyze the mammographic and clinical findings of the non-mass image-forming low echoic areas seen on breast ultrasonography (US) and investigate their pathologic results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with 72 non-mass image-forming low echoic areas seen on breast US and who had undergone mammography and biopsy were included in this study. The mammographic findings were divided into 2 groups: 1) the negative or probably benign group and 2) the suspicious for malignancy group. The US findings were divided into 3 groups: focal, segmental and diffuse distributions. The clinical findings were divided into 2 groups: the non-palpable and palpable groups. We investigated the pathologic results according to each group. RESULTS: Of the 72 lesions, 49 (68.1%) were benign and 23 (31.9%) were malignant. On the mammography, 42 (93.3%) of the 45 negative or probably benign findings and 7 (25.9%) of 27 suspicious for malignancy findings were pathologically benign (p < 0.001). On the US, 38 (76%) of the 50 focal distributions and 11 (52.4%) of 21 segmental distributions were benign (p = 0.090). Thirty (73.2%) of the 41 nonpalpable lesions and 19 (61.3%) of the 31 palpable lesions were benign (p = 0.609). CONCLUSIONS: A non-mass image-forming low echoic area seen on breast US was malignant at a higher rate when it was found in conjunction with suspicious mammographic finding. There was no significant correlation between the distribution of the non-mass image-forming low echoic areas on US or their palpability and the pathologic results.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Humans , Mammography , Ultrasonography, Mammary
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43-73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow-up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. RESULTS: All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1-5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17-33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). CONCLUSION: The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218298

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is debate concerning the observation of metabolite changes on MRS at the designated cortex during some tasks. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of the lactate content at the motor cortex during hand-grasping tasks with performing real-time fMRI-guided fMRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven healthy volunteers (23-28 years old) underwent realtime fMRI during right hand grasping tasks with using a 1.5 T system. After confirming the activating area, single voxel MRS was preformed at 1) the baseline, 2) during the task and 3) after the task on the activating cortex. The three consecutive spectra were compared for observing the changes of the lactate content by the tasks. The Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr and Lac/Cr ratios were calculated manually from those spectra. RESULTS: MRS during the tasks revealed the lactate peaks at the 1.33 ppm resonance frequency with great conspicuity at the activated area, which was identified on the real-time fMRI. After the task scan, the lactate peaks completely disappeared and the spectra recovered to the values of the baseline scan in all volunteers. At baseline, during the task and after the task, the Cho/Cr ratios were 0.81, 0.76 and 0.77, respectively, and the NAA/Cr ratios were 1.68, 1.65 and 1.72, respectively, and the Lac/Cr ratios were 0.28, 0.41 and 0.30, respectively. During the task, Lac was significantly increased by 46%. CONCLUSION: We observed prominent lactate peaks on MRS during hand-grasping tasks at the activated area, as was shown on the real-time fMRI. We suggest that fMRS can be used as a sensitive tool for observing the metabolite changes of the functioning brain.


Subject(s)
Hand , Hand Strength , Lactic Acid , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Motor Cortex
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142824

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the clinical significance of normal mammograms and normal sonograms in patients with palpable abnormalities of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From Apr 2003 to Feb 2005, 107 patients with 113 palpable abnormalities who had combined normal sonographic and normal mammographic findings were retrospectively studied. The evaluated parameters included age of the patients, the clinical referrals, the distribution of the locations of the palpable abnormalities, whether there was a past surgical history, the mammographic densities and the sonographic echo patterns (purely hyperechoic fibrous tissue, mixed fibroglandular breast tissue, predominantly isoechoic glandular tissue and isoechoic subcutaneous fat tissue) at the sites of clinical concern, whether there was a change in imaging and/or the physical examination results at follow-up, and whether there were biopsy results. This study period was chosen to allow a follow-up period of at least 12 months. RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged from 22 to 66 years (mean age: 48.8 years) and 62 (58%) of the 107 patients were between 41 and 50 years old (58%). The most common location of the palpable abnormalities was the upper outer portion of the breast (45%) and most of the mammographic densities were dense patterns (BI-RADS Type 3 or 4: 91%). Our cases showed similar distribution for all the types of sonographic echo patterns. 23 patients underwent biopsy; all the biopsy specimens were benign. For the 84 patients with 90 palpable abnormalities who were followed, there was no interval development of breast cancer in the areas of clinical concern. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that we can follow up and prevent unnecessary biopsies in women with palpable abnormalities when both the mammography and ultrasonography show normal tissue, but this study was limited by its small sample size. Therefore, a larger study will be needed to better define the negative predictive value of combined normal sonographic and mammographic findings.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mammography , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size , Subcutaneous Fat , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142821

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the clinical significance of normal mammograms and normal sonograms in patients with palpable abnormalities of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From Apr 2003 to Feb 2005, 107 patients with 113 palpable abnormalities who had combined normal sonographic and normal mammographic findings were retrospectively studied. The evaluated parameters included age of the patients, the clinical referrals, the distribution of the locations of the palpable abnormalities, whether there was a past surgical history, the mammographic densities and the sonographic echo patterns (purely hyperechoic fibrous tissue, mixed fibroglandular breast tissue, predominantly isoechoic glandular tissue and isoechoic subcutaneous fat tissue) at the sites of clinical concern, whether there was a change in imaging and/or the physical examination results at follow-up, and whether there were biopsy results. This study period was chosen to allow a follow-up period of at least 12 months. RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged from 22 to 66 years (mean age: 48.8 years) and 62 (58%) of the 107 patients were between 41 and 50 years old (58%). The most common location of the palpable abnormalities was the upper outer portion of the breast (45%) and most of the mammographic densities were dense patterns (BI-RADS Type 3 or 4: 91%). Our cases showed similar distribution for all the types of sonographic echo patterns. 23 patients underwent biopsy; all the biopsy specimens were benign. For the 84 patients with 90 palpable abnormalities who were followed, there was no interval development of breast cancer in the areas of clinical concern. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that we can follow up and prevent unnecessary biopsies in women with palpable abnormalities when both the mammography and ultrasonography show normal tissue, but this study was limited by its small sample size. Therefore, a larger study will be needed to better define the negative predictive value of combined normal sonographic and mammographic findings.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mammography , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size , Subcutaneous Fat , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (109 pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. RESULTS: Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group (p< 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group (p< 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group. CONCLUSION: rVV was markedly effective in suppressing hepatic tumor growth and extrahepatic metastasis in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. US guided intra-tumoral injection was more effective than systemic intravenous injection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Liver , Lymphocytes , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphotransferases , Rabbits , Vaccinia virus , Vaccinia
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725710

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular enhancement (VE) technology(ClarifyTM) is a new technique in vascular, B-mode imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of VE technology in ultrasonographic diagnosis of abdominal vasculature. MATERIALS and METHODS: Seventy-one adult patients (39 men and 32 women; age range, 25-89 years; mean age, 56 years) who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study. The imaging was performed with a 1.8-4.0 MHz convex array transducer (SONOLINE, Antares, Siemens Medical Solutions, WA) by an abdominal radiologist. The radiologist obtained images of the same vascular area with each of conventional ultrasonography imaging (CUS), tissue harmonic imaging (THI), CUS plus VE technique and THI plus VE technique. Images were divided into normal (56) and abnormal (15) groups. The vessel visibility, conspicuity of the vascular wall and contrast resolution with adjacent structures were evaluated in the normal group, and the lesion conspicuity and border sharpness were evaluated in the abnormal group. On the PACS monitor, the images were graded into four grades by two radiologists in consensus. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: In the normal group, all parameters of the ultrasonographic imaging which applied the VE technique were superior to those of the imaging without VE technique (p < 0.05). In the abnormal group, combined use of VE technique with CUS or THI provided better results than CUS or THI alone in terms of lesion conspicuity and border sharpness (p < 0.05). THI combined with VE technique provided the best image quality among the 4 ultrasonographic methods examined in this study for the evaluation of both normal and abnormal abdominal vessels (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: VE technology was a helpful technique to evaluate the abdominal vasculature. Furthermore, VE technique combined with THI provided better image quality than other ultrasonographic methods in the evaluation of abdominal vessels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Consensus , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Transducers , Ultrasonography
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