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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913329

ABSTRACT

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and severe adverse drug reaction characterized by the cutaneous eruption, fever, eosinophilia, and involvement of internal organs. It is commonly caused by aromatic anticonvulsant drugs and antibiotics in children. In this study, we presented a case of a 9-year-old boy with bipolar disorder, who developed DRESS syndrome after lamotrigine intake for 10 days. Thereafter, lamotrigine was discontinued, and systemic corticosteroid treatment was pursued for 18 days. After 3 months, a patch test for lamotrigine was performed as a confirmatory test to check drug reaction. Reports of DRESS syndrome in adults have increased over the past decade due to the increasing use of lamotrigine as a new aromatic anticonvulsant. Although there are only a few lamotrigine-related DRESS syndrome reports in children, caution is needed with its potential widespread use in the future.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925152

ABSTRACT

Bony deformities and fragility fractures in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on long-term hemodialysis can be caused by either osteoporosis or chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Correct identification of the underlying mechanism is critical since the treatment methods differ, and one treatment approach could negatively affect the other. Cervical kyphosis, severe enough to require immediate surgical treatment, can be caused by uncontrolled CKD-MBD, albeit in limited cases. This report presents the case of a 61-year-old female with an 11-year history of hemodialysis treatment and severe cervical kyphosis with myelopathy, which required 2-stage spinal surgeries. Our report calls for a careful diagnostic approach in ESRD patients with skeletal disorders, the points to consider before calcium replacement, and early detection of fragility fractures in them. Moreover, early mobilization and weight-bearing after the surgical procedure may lead to better neurological and functional improvements.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875091

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:This study was aimed to investigate the changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) status and long-term impact of its components over a 10-year period in severe mental illness (SMI) patients in a national mental hospital. @*Methods@#:A total of 93 patients (schizophrenia=88, bipolar disorder=5) who met the diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and participated in the MetS study in 2011 were included. MetS was defined by revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (revised NCEP-ATP-III) guidelines. @*Results@#:The prevalence of MetS was significantly increased from 40.9% in 2011 to 60.2% in 2020. There were significant differences in admission status and hospitalization months, compared to the groups with and without MetS. Upon reviewing the changes over a decade, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was a significant factor in the group without MetS. In the group with MetS, SBP, waist circumference, and BMI (body mass index) were significant factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hospitalization during follow-up periods [odds ratio (OR)=0.969, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.948-0.991] and BMI (OR=1.426, 95% CI: 1.196-1.701) were significantly associated with MetS in subjects. @*Conclusion@#:The prevalence of MetS in patients with SMI significantly increased over time. The admission status and hospitalization were also confirmed to be the significant values of MetS.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874681

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Identifying changes in the prevalence, disability, and management patterns of migraine is important for reducing the burden of this disease. However, data on the changes in these variables are scarce. @*Methods@#We compared data obtained in the 2009 Korean Headache Survey and the 2018 Korean Sleep-Headache Survey. @*Results@#The 1-year migraine prevalence did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2009 [5.2% (114/2,200) vs. 6.0% (91/1,507), p=0.492]. The number of days with missed activity due to headache during the previous 3 months was larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [1.1±2.9 vs. 0.3±1.0 days (mean±standard deviation), p=0.013]. The number of days with reduced productivity during the previous 3 months did not differ significantly between the two surveys (0.8±2.8 vs. 1.4±1.4 days, p=0.679). The proportion of subjects with a substantialto-severe headache impact (Headache Impact Test-6 score ≥56) was marginally larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [42.1% (48/114) vs. 29.7% (27/91), p=0.066]. The rate of lifetime medical consultations did not differ between the 2018 and 2009 surveys [34.2% (39/ 114) vs. 30.8% (28/91), p=0.615]. @*Conclusions@#Migraine prevalence was stable over the 9-year period between the surveys, but disability due to missed activity was greater in 2018 than in 2009 in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895442

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892929

ABSTRACT

Driving is a complicated process that demands coordination between a range of neurocognitive functions, including attention, visuo-perception, and appropriate judgment, as well as sensory and motor responses. Therefore, several factors may reduce the driving performance of an individual, such as sleepiness, distraction, overspeeding, alcohol consumption, and sedative drugs, all of which increase the hazard of motor vehicle accidents. Among them, drowsy driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, leading to more serious injuries as compared to other causes of major traffic accidents. Although sleep disorders have been highly associated among drowsy drivers, they are often untreated and unrecognized as a disease. In particular, obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy are some sleep disorders that are highly related to traffic accidents. Insomnia, which can cause inadequate sleep duration and promote sedative effects from sleeping pills, may also cause traffic accidents. These conditions are especially applicable to commercial bus or truck drivers, nocturnal workers, and shift workers, who are highly vulnerable to drowsy driving. Therefore, assertive screening and management of sleep disorders are necessary in general private drivers and relevant occupational drivers.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892187

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920243

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster oticus with multiple cranial nerve (CN) involvement and delayed facial paralysis is a rare occurrence, and there is limited information regarding the disease. We herein report two cases of RHS with delayed facial palsy involving multiple lower CNs. The degree of facial paralysis was not severe as grade III or less, and recovery was observed after treatment. To our knowledge, these are the first cases in the literature to report RHS with delayed facial paralysis and its favorable recovery. It will be a good example for expanding the possibility of treatment in RHS with delayed facial paralysis and multiple CN involvement.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918163

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Dementia is one of the most distressing mental health problems in the older population. Caregivers also experienced physical, psychological, and emotional stress from taking care of dementia patients. So, we developed program for supporting dementia caregiver and evaluated its efficacy on reducing caregiver bur-den. @*Methods@#:We provided 5 sessions of dementia caregiver supporting program to 30 caregivers who were taking care of dementia patient in their home. Program was held in Cheonan Center for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia that was established by Cheonan city government for supporting dementia patients and their caregivers. We evaluated caregiver burden using short Zarit burden inventory consisted of 12 items scoring 0 (no burden) to 4 (everyday burden) before and after program. We evaluated satisfaction of caregiver about program using satisfaction survey consisted of 10 items scoring 0 (very dissatisfy) to 4 (very satisfy) after program. @*Results@#:Mean age of caregiver was 61.9. 40.0% (n=12) of caregivers were spouse. 53.3% (n=16) of caregiv-ers were son or daughter. Caregiver burden that was estimated by short Zarit burden inventory were significantly decreased after program (p<0.001). When each item was compared, 4 items (7, 10, 11 and 12) were significantly decreased after program (p=0.036, p=0.018, p=0.01, p=0.024). All mean scores of 10 items about satisfactionwere over 3 meaning that participants generally satisfied to program. @*Conclusions@#:Our study suggested that dementia caregiver supporting program could reduce caregiver burden and provide satisfaction. Therefore, programs for supporting dementia caregivers might be important as well as treating dementia patients. So, we should be interested in developing and providing efficiently this kind of pro-gram to reduce caregiver burden.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900633

ABSTRACT

Driving is a complicated process that demands coordination between a range of neurocognitive functions, including attention, visuo-perception, and appropriate judgment, as well as sensory and motor responses. Therefore, several factors may reduce the driving performance of an individual, such as sleepiness, distraction, overspeeding, alcohol consumption, and sedative drugs, all of which increase the hazard of motor vehicle accidents. Among them, drowsy driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, leading to more serious injuries as compared to other causes of major traffic accidents. Although sleep disorders have been highly associated among drowsy drivers, they are often untreated and unrecognized as a disease. In particular, obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy are some sleep disorders that are highly related to traffic accidents. Insomnia, which can cause inadequate sleep duration and promote sedative effects from sleeping pills, may also cause traffic accidents. These conditions are especially applicable to commercial bus or truck drivers, nocturnal workers, and shift workers, who are highly vulnerable to drowsy driving. Therefore, assertive screening and management of sleep disorders are necessary in general private drivers and relevant occupational drivers.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899891

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

13.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 127-136, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915928

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be associated with various health concerns, including sleepiness, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, diminished quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. OSA-induced sleepiness at the wheel reduces vigilance and driving performance, which significantly increase the risk of motor vehicle accidents. Sleepiness-induced motor vehicle accidents are characterized by high morbidity and mortality. OSA is a well-established significant risk factor for drowsy driving-related motor vehicle accidents, which can be prevented through appropriate treatment. However, currently no clinical guidelines or regulations are available for evaluation or management of the risk of motor vehicle accidents in patients with OSA in Korea. In this review, we discuss the risk of motor vehicle accidents in patients with OSA, the effects of positive airway pressure therapy as a preventive measure to reduce this risk, and the published recommendations for OSA in other countries with regard to fitness to drive. We propose recommendations for screening, evaluation, and treatment of OSA with regard to the risk of motor vehicle accidents, which would serve as useful practical guidelines for sleep specialists in clinical practice. Further research is warranted to establish optimal strategies for effective improvements in OSA-related traffic safety.

14.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 137-144, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915927

ABSTRACT

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by irresistible sleep attacks, hypersomnolence, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone provoked by emotion), and sleep paralysis. Individuals with narcolepsy are at a high risk of experiencing sleepiness while driving leading to road traffic accidents. To prevent such accidents, some countries have regulations for commercial and noncommercial drivers with narcolepsy. Evaluating sleepiness is essential. Therefore, several subjective reports and objective tests were used to predict the possibility of car crashes or near-misses. Brain stimulants are effective in treating narcolepsy and can reduce daytime sleepiness in these patients. However, no guideline has been established for the driving safety of patients with narcolepsy in Korea. The Korean Sleep Research Society has prepared this proposal for preventing motor vehicle accidents caused by drowsy driving in patients with narcolepsy.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915393

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the fear of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) stigmatization in the elderly in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. @*Methods@#This study used data of a survey on depression, loneliness, social support, and fear of COVID-19 of the elderly in a province of Korea in July to November, 2020. The sample consisted of 1,485 (female 1,117); mean age 78.3 (6.5) years old. We administered Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, 6-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey and experience about COVID-19 infection or fear of stigmatization. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for evaluating the association between fear of COVID-19 stigmatization and the factors; gender, education level, living with spouse, socioeconomic status, depression, loneliness, and social support. @*Results@#Socioeconomic status and loneliness are associated with the fear of COVID-19 disease stigmatization, and gender and socioeconomic status are associated with the fear of COVID-19 territorial stigmatization. @*Conclusion@#Gender, socioeconomic status and loneliness are the factors for COVID-19 stigmatization in the elderly in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the change in the temperature of the adhesive resin in polycrystalline ceramic brackets irradiated using a diode laser at different irradiation energy levels and times. @*Materials and Methods@#For the measurement of the temperature of the adhesive resin, it was applied at the base of the ceramic bracket, a thermocouple was placed at the center of the base surface, the bracket was placed on prepared resin specimens for light curing, and a laser was irradiated to the center of the bracket slot at 5, 7, and 10 W. For the measurement of the temperatures of the enamel under the bracket and pulp cavity, extracted premolar was fixed to a prepared mold and the ceramic bracket was bonded to the buccal surface of the premolar. The Kruskal–Wallis H test and Friedman test were used for statistical analysis.Result: At 5 W, the temperature of the adhesive resin did not reach the resin softening temperature of 200°C within 30 seconds. At 7 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 28 seconds. At 10 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 15 seconds. During laser irradiation, the temperature of the enamel under the bracket increased by over 5°C within 15 seconds. @*Conclusion@#The use of diode laser irradiation for bracket debonding should be carefully considered because the pulp cavity temperature increases by over 5°C within the irradiation time for resin thermal softening.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835842

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to investigate the moderating effect of supervisor's support in relation to violence experience and organizational commitment among staff of special department nurses. @*Methods@#Participants in this study were nurses working in the emergency, operating and intensive care units of five general hospitals in B city. Data were collected from Aug. 6 to Sep. 14, 2018. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multi-group path-analysis. @*Results@#The organizational commitment showed a negative correlation with violence experience (r=-28, p<.001) and a positive correlation with supervisor's support (r=.27, p<.001). There was a negative correlation (r=-.37, p<.001) between violence experience and supervisor's support. As a result of verifying the moderating effect of supervisor's support in relation to violence experience and organizational commitment, there was no significant difference in the path between the high and low supervisor's support groups (∆x 2 =1.07, p=.300). @*Conclusion@#There was no buffering effect of supervisor's support in relation to violence experience and organizational commitment of nurses in special departments. Further research is needed to explore variables that show a moderating effect on the relationship between violence experience and organizational commitment.

18.
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894670

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Loneliness and poor sleep quality are common phenomena in old age and are associated with negative physical and mental health. However, little is known regarding the relation between loneliness and sleep quality. The aim of this study was to examine the association of loneliness and sleep quality among the elderly living alone. @*Methods@#:This is a cross-sectional study that enrolled 1,090 subjects who are the community-residing elderly living alone. Sociodemographic status, medical condition, cognition, mood disorder, sleep quality and levels of loneliness were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and a specific semi-structured interview con-ducted by trained nurses. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data regarding sociodemographic variable and loneliness. Univariate and Multivariate regression analyses were applied to examine the association between loneliness and sleep quality after adjustment for multiple confounding variables. @*Results@#:The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) mean score of “lonely group” (9.2±4.2) was signifi-cantly higher than that of “not lonely group” (7.3±3.7) (student-t test, p<0.001). Loneliness was significantly as-sociated with PSQI (standardized β= 0.065, p=0.025), sleep disturbance (standardized β=0.086, p=0.005), use of sleep medication (standardized β= 0.065, p=0.034) after adjustment for possible confounding variables including sex and mood disorder. @*Conclusions@#:Loneliness was associated with sleep disturbance and this finding implied negative impact of loneliness on sleep quality of older adults. Public health promotion efforts to reduce loneliness may improve sleep quality and mental health in the elderly living alone.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893437

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The aim of this study was to examine socio-demographic variables and the correlation of their factors and mental health with resilience in adolescents. @*Methods@#:Participants were 4,325 middle and high school students living in Jeollanam-do, South Korea. Participants completed self-report questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics and including the following self-rating scales: the resilience test, the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II (AMPQ-II). @*Results@#:The resilience test scores were positively correlated with the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II scores (p<0.001). In multiple regression analysis, below average academic achievement (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.62-6.27, p<0.001), perceived poor relationship with parents (OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.28-3.71, p<0.001), body dissatisfaction (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.57-2.79, p<0.001), middle school students (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.59-2.56, p<0.001), male (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.55-2.46, p<0.001), low socioeconomic status (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.11-2.52, p=0.014), low maternal education level (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09-2.48, p=0.018) showed significant negative correlation with resilience. @*Conclusion@#:Resilience needs to be considered to promote mental health of adolescents. Specifically, interventions providing psychological support should target adolescents with factors correlated low resilience

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