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1.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 25-29, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976745

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular adenoma is an uncommon, benign liver tumor usually occurring in patients using estrogen or anabolic androgens and in those with a genetic disease, including glycogen storage disease. Hepatocellular adenomas can sometimes induce pain. However, it is usually asymptomatic. Moreover, few studies have reported cases of hepatocellular adenomas presenting with iron deficiency anemia. Herein, we report a pediatric case of a large hepatocellular adenoma, presenting with iron therapy-refractory iron deficiency anemia. A 14-year-old boy was diagnosed with hepatocellular adenoma during an anemia work-up. Improvement in iron deficiency anemia was observed after tumor resection.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

3.
Blood Research ; : 41-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aggressive mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children. The outcome of chemotherapy for B-NHL has improved over decades. @*Methods@#We reviewed 82 children and adolescents with B-NHL diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between 1993 and 2020. The D-COMP/COMP (daunomycin–cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone), Pediatric Oncology Group (POG)-9219/9315/ 9317, R-CHOP/CHOP (rituximab–cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone), and Lymphomes Malins B 89 (LMB89)/LMB96 regimens were administered. In 2018, rituximab was added to the LMB protocol (R-LMB) for advanced-staged Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The patients’ clinical features and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#The most common subtype was BL (61%), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (35%). The median age was 7.8 (range, 1.3‒16.4) years, and the most frequently used regimen was French‒American‒British (FAB)/LMB96 (58 patients, 70.7%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 92.5% and 85.7%, respectively. The EFS rates of patients with BL and DLBCL were 90.0% and 79.3%, respectively. Among the FAB/LMB risk groups, group C (85.7%) had a significantly lower 5-year OS (P =0.037). Eleven events occurred (6 relapses, 3 deaths, and 2 secondary malignancies) during the median follow-up of 7.1 (range, 3.7‒118.5) months. Two patients treated with R-LMB had good outcomes without complications. @*Conclusion@#Various treatment regimens have favorable outcomes in pediatric patients with B-NHL.However, further studies are needed to improve survival in high-risk patients. In addition, careful monitoring for acute toxicity or secondary malignancy due to intensive multidrug chemotherapy is required.

4.
Blood Research ; : 152-157, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937244

ABSTRACT

Background@#The incorporation of a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has decreased early mortality but is associated with a high rate of mixed chimerism and graft failure. Here, we present a successful single-center experience using busulfan and a fludarabine-based RIC regimen for the treatment of HLH. @*Methods@#The medical records of pediatric patients with HLH who underwent HCT using a busulfan/fludarabine-based RIC regimen between January 2008 and December 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Nine patients received HCT with a busulfan/fludarabine-based RIC regimen. Three patients had primary HLH, and the other six patients had secondary HLH with multiple reactivations. All three patients with primary HLH had UNC13D mutations. All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment at a median of 11 days (range, 10‒21) and 19 days (range, 13‒32), and all eight evaluable patients had sustained complete donor chimerism at the last follow-up. Two patients (22%) experienced grade 2 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Two patients (22%) developed chronic GVHD, and one died from chronic GVHD. One patient (11%) experienced reactivation 4 months after HCT from a syngeneic donor and died of the disease. The 8-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 78%. No early treatment-related mortality within 100 days after HCT was observed. @*Conclusion@#Our experience suggests that a busulfan/fludarabine-based RIC regimen is a viable option for pediatric patients with HLH who require HCT.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 253-258, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913845

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In 2017, the Children’s Hepatic Tumors International Collaboration-Hepatoblastoma Stratification (CHIC-HS) system was introduced. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CHIC-HS System for the prediction of event-free survival (EFS) in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#This two-center retrospective study included consecutive Korean pediatric patients with histopathologically confirmed hepatoblastoma from March 1988 through September 2019. We compared EFS among four risk groups according to the CHIC-HS system. Discriminatory ability of CHIC-HS system was also evaluated using optimism-corrected C-statistics. Factors associated with EFS were explored using multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#We included 129 patients (mean age, 2.6±3.3 years; female:male, 63:66). The 5-year EFS rates in the very low, low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, according to the CHIC-HS system were 90.0%, 82.8%, 73.5%, and 51.3%, respectively. The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes (p=0.004). The optimism-corrected C index of CHIC-HS was 0.644 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.561 to 0.727). Age ≥ 8 (vs. age ≤ 2; hazard ratio [HR], 2.781; 95% CI, 1.187 to 6.512; p=0.018), PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor (PRETEXT) stage IV (vs. PRETEXT I or II; HR, 2.774; 95% CI, 1.228 to 5.974; p=0.009), and presence of metastasis (HR, 2.886; 95% CI, 1.457 to 5.719; p=0.002), which are incorporated as the first three nodes in the CHIC-HS system, were independently associated with EFS. @*Conclusion@#The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. Age group, PRETEXT stage, and presence of metastasis were independently associated with EFS.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

10.
Blood Research ; : 262-274, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889631

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is the second most common subtype of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Modified treatments derived from the LSA2-L2 regimen resulted in encouraging survival, but toxicities and long-term sequelae have been problematic. At present, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type protocol has demonstrated efficacy in LBL. We analyzed the outcomes of children and adolescents with LBL treated with various regimens. @*Methods@#From 1991‒2018, this study enrolled 63 patients diagnosed with LBL at Asan Medical Center. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 63 patients, most patients (38.1%) presented with stage IV at diagnosis, and two had central nervous system (CNS) involvement. At a median follow-up of 160 months, the 5-year event free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and relapse free survival (RFS) were 68.8%, 79.3%, and 71.3%, respectively. Among 61 patients who received chemotherapy, 27 patients (44.3%) received the NY protocol, and 14 (23.0%) received the ALL-type protocol. There was no significant difference in 5-yr OS (85.2%/78.6%), EFS (73.5%/78.6%), and RFS (73.5%/78.6%) between the NY and ALL protocol groups, regardless of immunophenotype. Thirteen patients (21.3%) received prophylactic cranial radiotherapy with no difference in the incidence of CNS relapse based on irradiation. @*Conclusion@#This study showed no difference in outcome between the NY and ALL-type protocols, regardless of stage or immunophenotype. In addition to improving the effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to continuously appraise the appropriate chemotherapy regimen, considering toxicities and long-term prognosis, for pediatric LBL.

11.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 43-54, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832096

ABSTRACT

Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant hepatic tumor in infants and young children and accounts for approximately 1% of all pediatric malignancies. A treatment strategy incorporating chemotherapy and surgical resection has evolved based on the results of the multicenter clinical trials performed by the major liver study groups during the last two decades and led to significantly improved survival outcomes. The alpha-fetoprotein level, PRE-Treatment EXTent tumor stage, and histological category are well-known prognostic factors that are used for risk stratification. Platinum-based chemotherapy regimens are effective in terms of increasing the likelihood of surgical resectability. Refinement of surgical techniques and the advent of liver transplantation have improved the outcomes in patients with advanced tumors. However, the optimal treatment strategy for advanced hepatoblastoma remains unclear. Unanswered questions include the optimal timing and indications for pulmonary metastasectomy and when the surgical strategy should be complex liver resection or liver transplantation. The major liver study groups have now formed a global coalition known as the Children’s Hepatic tumors International Collaboration and developed an international staging system. The aim of this article is to review current treatment strategies of hepatoblastoma focusing on high risk patients.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e255-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831595

ABSTRACT

Quarantine often provokes negative psychological consequences. Thus, we aimed to identify the psychological and behavioral responses and stressors of caregivers quarantined with young patients after a close contact to a coronavirus disease 2019 case at a children's hospital. More than 90% of the caregivers reported feelings of worry and nervousness, while some of them reported suicidal ideations (4.2%), and/or homicidal ideations (1.4%). Fear of infection of the patient (91.7%) and/or oneself (86.1%) were most frequently reported stressors. A multidisciplinary team including infection control team, pediatrician, psychiatrist, nursing staff and legal department provided supplies and services to reduce caregiver's psychological distress. Psychotropic medication was needed in five (6.9%), one of whom was admitted to the psychiatry department due to suicidality. Quarantine at a children's hospital makes notable psychological impacts on the caregivers and a multidisciplinary approach is required.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e393-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

14.
Blood Research ; : 262-274, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897335

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is the second most common subtype of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Modified treatments derived from the LSA2-L2 regimen resulted in encouraging survival, but toxicities and long-term sequelae have been problematic. At present, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type protocol has demonstrated efficacy in LBL. We analyzed the outcomes of children and adolescents with LBL treated with various regimens. @*Methods@#From 1991‒2018, this study enrolled 63 patients diagnosed with LBL at Asan Medical Center. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 63 patients, most patients (38.1%) presented with stage IV at diagnosis, and two had central nervous system (CNS) involvement. At a median follow-up of 160 months, the 5-year event free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and relapse free survival (RFS) were 68.8%, 79.3%, and 71.3%, respectively. Among 61 patients who received chemotherapy, 27 patients (44.3%) received the NY protocol, and 14 (23.0%) received the ALL-type protocol. There was no significant difference in 5-yr OS (85.2%/78.6%), EFS (73.5%/78.6%), and RFS (73.5%/78.6%) between the NY and ALL protocol groups, regardless of immunophenotype. Thirteen patients (21.3%) received prophylactic cranial radiotherapy with no difference in the incidence of CNS relapse based on irradiation. @*Conclusion@#This study showed no difference in outcome between the NY and ALL-type protocols, regardless of stage or immunophenotype. In addition to improving the effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to continuously appraise the appropriate chemotherapy regimen, considering toxicities and long-term prognosis, for pediatric LBL.

15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 357-367, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
16.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 116-127, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) has worse prognosis than B-cell ALL. We aimed to evaluate prognostic variables in pediatric T-ALL. METHODS: Medical records of 36 T-ALL patients (27 males and 9 females; median age at diagnosis, 10.6 years) diagnosed and treated at Asan Medical Center from 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. Six patients (16.7%) had early T-cell precursor ALL (ETP-ALL). Most patients received the Children's Cancer Group-1882 (CCG1882) or Korean multicenter high risk ALL (ALL0601) protocols and prophylactic cranial irradiation. Clinical features at presentation, response to therapy, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The six patients with ETP-ALL and 17 of 30 with non-ETP-ALL received CCG1882 or ALL0601 chemotherapy. Three patients, including two with ETP-ALL, did not achieve complete remission after induction. Rapid early response during induction was achieved by 26 patients. Five year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) rates were 71.4% and 70.2%, respectively. ETP-ALL and slow early response during induction were significant adverse prognostic factors, while hyperleukocytosis at diagnosis was not. CCG1882/ALL0601 chemotherapy resulted in superior survival (OS: 78.9%, EFS: 73.3%) compared with CCG1901 chemotherapy (OS: 64.3%, EFS: 64.3%), and patients undergoing prophylactic cranial irradiation had superior EFS to non-radiated patients. CONCLUSION: A high risk ALL protocol with intensified post-remission therapy, including prophylactic cranial irradiation, conferred T-ALL survival outcomes comparable with those of Western studies. Further treatment intensification should be considered for patients with ETP-ALL and slow induction responders. Additionally, CNS-directed treatment intensification, without prophylactic cranial irradiation, is needed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , B-Lymphocytes , Cranial Irradiation , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Medical Records , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes
17.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 132-138, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) is characterized by FOXO1-related chromosomal translocations that result in a poorer clinical outcome compared with embryonal RMS (ERMS). Because the chromosomal features of RMS have not been comprehensively defined, we analyzed the clinical and laboratory data of childhood RMS patients and determined the clinical significance of chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. METHODS: Fifty-one Korean patients with RMS < 18 years of age treated between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Clinical factors, bone marrow and cytogenetic results, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients (70.6%) had ERMS and 15 (29.4%) had ARMS; 80% of the ARMS patients had stage IV disease. The incidences of bone and bone marrow metastases were 21.6% and 19.6%, respectively, and these results were higher than previously reported results. Of the 40 patients who underwent bone marrow cytogenetic investigation, five patients had chromosomal abnormalities associated with the 13q14 rearrangement. Patients with a chromosomal abnormality (15 vs 61 months, P=0.037) and bone marrow involvement (17 vs 61 months, P=0.033) had a significantly shorter median OS than those without such characteristics. Two novel rearrangements associated with the 13q14 locus were detected. One patient with concomitant MYCN amplification and PAX3/FOXO1 fusion showed an aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive approach involving conventional cytogenetics and FOXO1 FISH of the bone marrow is needed to assess high-risk ARMS patients and identify novel cytogenetic findings.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Arm , Bone Marrow , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Translocation, Genetic
18.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 148-152, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788605

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Cytarabine , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
19.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 157-161, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788603

ABSTRACT

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a very rare disease in childhood. We report a case of a 5-month-old girl with isolated pulmonary LCH, who was transferred due to incidental chest x-ray finding of multiple cystic lesions without any clinical symptoms. Chest computed tomography (CT) finding suggested that pulmonary LCH was likely, but evaluations including lung biopsy were negative. At a follow-up visit three months later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis and confirmed the presence of CD1a-positive cells, thereby confirming diagnosis of pulmonary LCH. After completing eight months of chemotherapy, yearly follow-up evaluations were performed and there has been no evidence of reactivation of the disease for four years. Based on our case, we suggest that BAL with immunohistochemical staining can be a valuable modality to eliminate the possibility of infection and other infiltrating disorders, and diagnose pulmonary LCH in case of suspicious pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Lung , Rare Diseases , Thorax
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 642-649, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49314

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, prospective trial was conducted to develop an effective and safe reinduction regimen for marrow-relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by modifying the dose of idarubicin. Between 2006 and 2009, the trial accrued 44 patients, 1 to 21 years old with first marrow-relapsed ALL. The reinduction regimen comprised prednisolone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, and idarubicin (10 mg/m²/week). The idarubicin dose was adjusted according to the degree of myelosuppression. The second complete remission (CR2) rate was 72.7%, obtained by 54.2% of patients with early relapse < 24 months after initial diagnosis and 95.0% of those with late relapse (P = 0.002). Five patients entered remission with extended treatment, resulting in a final CR2 rate of 84.1%. The CR2 rate was not significantly different according to the idarubicin dose. The induction death rate was 2.3% (1/44). The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 22.2% ± 6.4% and 27.3% ± 6.7% for all patients, 4.2% ± 4.1% and 8.3% ± 5.6% for early relapsers, and 43.8% ± 11.4% and 50.0% ± 11.2% for late relapsers, respectively. Early relapse and slow response to reinduction chemotherapy were predictors of poor outcomes. In conclusion, a modified dose of idarubicin was effectively incorporated into the reinduction regimen for late marrow-relapsed ALL with a low toxic death rate. However, the CR2 rate for early relapsers was suboptimal, and the second remission was not durable in most patients.

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