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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915699

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To validate the criteria for the extreme risk category for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). @*Methods@#An observational cohort study of 35,464 individuals with established ASCVD was performed using the National Health Information Database. Incident myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and death in patients with established ASCVD was investigated to validate the criteria for the extreme risk category of ASCVD defined as the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and history of premature ASCVD. @*Results@#Among 35,464 patients, 77.97% of them were classified into the extreme risk group of ASCVD. A total of 28.10%, 39.61%, and 32.12% had DM, CKD, and a history of premature ASCVD, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 8.39 years, MI, ischemic stroke, and all-cause death were found in 3.87%, 8.51%, and 23.98% of participants, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients with DM had higher risk for MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45–1.81), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.29–1.50), and all-cause death (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.45–1.59) than those without DM. Patients with CKD had 1.56 times higher risk for MI, 1.12 times higher risk for ischemic stroke, and 1.34 times higher risk for death than those without CKD. However, the risk for MI, ischemic stroke, and all-cause death was not different between patients with and without a history of premature ASCVD. @*Conclusion@#DM and CKD, but not a history of premature ASCVD, could be considered as reasonable criteria of an extreme risk for ASCVD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914210

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the association between free fatty acid (FFA) level at mid-pregnancy and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). @*Methods@#We enrolled 710 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from February 2009 to October 2016. GDM was diagnosed by a ‘two-step’ approach with Carpenter and Coustan criteria. We measured plasma lipid profiles including fasting and 2-hour postprandial FFA (2h-FFA) levels at mid-pregnancy. LGA was defined if birthweights of newborns were above the 90th percentile for their gestational age. @*Results@#Mean age of pregnant women in this study was 33.1 years. Mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 22.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of LGA was 8.3% (n=59). Levels of 2h-FFA were higher in women who delivered LGA newborns than in those who delivered non-LGA newborns (416.7 μEq/L vs. 352.5 μEq/L, P=0.006). However, fasting FFA was not significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of delivering LGA newborns was increased with increasing tertile of 2h-FFA (T1, 4.3%; T2, 9.8%; T3, 10.7%; P for trend <0.05). After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fasting plasma glucose, the highest tertile of 2h-FFA was 2.38 times (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.13) more likely to have LGA newborns than the lowest tertile. However, there was no significant difference between groups according to fasting FFA tertiles. @*Conclusion@#In women with GDM, a high 2h-FFA level (but not fasting FFA) at mid-pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of delivering LGA newborns.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890527

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Korea, using a nationwide database. @*Methods@#We analyzed 417,139 women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015 using the Korean National Health Information Database. They underwent the Korean National Health Screening Program within one year before pregnancy and were not prescribed drugs for diabetes nor diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before 280 days antepartum. Patients with GDM were defined as those who visited the outpatient clinic more than twice with GDM codes. @*Results@#The prevalence of GDM was 12.70% and increased with increasing maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P for trend <0.05). As compared with those aged <25 years, the odds ratio for women with GDM aged ≥40 years were 4.804 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.436 to 5.203) after adjustment for covariates. Women with prepregnancy BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were at 1.898 times (95% CI, 1.736 to 2.075) greater risk for GDM than those with prepregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Women with WC of ≥95 cm were at 1.158 times (95% CI, 1.029 to 1.191) greater risk for GDM than women with WC of less than 65 cm. High FPG, high income, smoking, and drinking were associated with an elevated risk of GDM. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of GDM in Korean women increased up to 12.70% during 2011 to 2015. These data suggest the importance of GDM screening and prevention in high-risk groups in Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890371

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUmbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell.MethodsInsulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell.ResultsGlucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSC-CM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance.ConclusionUC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890352

ABSTRACT

Background@#We previously, reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the mechanisms underlying of the anti-apoptotic effects of G-CSF were associated with autophagy using a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. @*Methods@#Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced in rats through a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin and the rats were then treated with G-CSF for 5 days. Rat H9c2 cardiac cells were cultured under high glucose conditions as an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The extent of apoptosis and protein levels related to autophagy (Beclin-1, microtubule-binding protein light chain 3 [LC3]-II/LC3-I ratio, and P62) were determined for both models. Autophagy determination was performed using an Autophagy Detection kit. @*Results@#G-CSF significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the diabetic myocardium in vivo and led to an increase in Beclin-1 level and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level. Similarly, G-CSF suppressed apoptosis, increased Beclin-1 level and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level in high glucose-induced H9c2 cardiac cells in vitro. These effects of G-CSF were abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. In addition, G-CSF significantly increased autophagic flux in vitro. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF might be significantly associated with the up-regulation of autophagy in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898231

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Korea, using a nationwide database. @*Methods@#We analyzed 417,139 women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015 using the Korean National Health Information Database. They underwent the Korean National Health Screening Program within one year before pregnancy and were not prescribed drugs for diabetes nor diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before 280 days antepartum. Patients with GDM were defined as those who visited the outpatient clinic more than twice with GDM codes. @*Results@#The prevalence of GDM was 12.70% and increased with increasing maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (P for trend <0.05). As compared with those aged <25 years, the odds ratio for women with GDM aged ≥40 years were 4.804 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.436 to 5.203) after adjustment for covariates. Women with prepregnancy BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were at 1.898 times (95% CI, 1.736 to 2.075) greater risk for GDM than those with prepregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Women with WC of ≥95 cm were at 1.158 times (95% CI, 1.029 to 1.191) greater risk for GDM than women with WC of less than 65 cm. High FPG, high income, smoking, and drinking were associated with an elevated risk of GDM. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of GDM in Korean women increased up to 12.70% during 2011 to 2015. These data suggest the importance of GDM screening and prevention in high-risk groups in Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898075

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUmbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell.MethodsInsulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell.ResultsGlucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSC-CM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance.ConclusionUC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898056

ABSTRACT

Background@#We previously, reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated whether the mechanisms underlying of the anti-apoptotic effects of G-CSF were associated with autophagy using a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. @*Methods@#Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced in rats through a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin and the rats were then treated with G-CSF for 5 days. Rat H9c2 cardiac cells were cultured under high glucose conditions as an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The extent of apoptosis and protein levels related to autophagy (Beclin-1, microtubule-binding protein light chain 3 [LC3]-II/LC3-I ratio, and P62) were determined for both models. Autophagy determination was performed using an Autophagy Detection kit. @*Results@#G-CSF significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the diabetic myocardium in vivo and led to an increase in Beclin-1 level and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level. Similarly, G-CSF suppressed apoptosis, increased Beclin-1 level and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and decreased P62 level in high glucose-induced H9c2 cardiac cells in vitro. These effects of G-CSF were abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. In addition, G-CSF significantly increased autophagic flux in vitro. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF might be significantly associated with the up-regulation of autophagy in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897586

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Few studies have reported combined analyses of the microbiome of the adenoids and tonsils in pediatric patients with snoring, and correlations of the adenotonsillar microbiome with clinical characteristics have not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the adenotonsillar microbiome and to determine its correlations with the subjective symptoms of pediatric patients with snoring and with levels of regional mucosal immune molecules. @*Methods@#. Twenty-four children who underwent tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy owing to snoring were enrolled in this cross-sectional study conducted between August 2017 and December 2018. The microbiome of the adenoids and tonsils was characterized, and its alpha- and beta-diversity was determined. Clinical characteristics, including subjective discomfort during sleep (assessed using the obstructive sleep apnea-18 questionnaire), the presence of allergic rhinitis, concentrations of heat shock protein (Hsp)27, Hsp70, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in lavage fluids, and white blood cell (WBC) counts, were measured. @*Results@#. At the phylum level, the microbiome was not significantly different between the adenoids and tonsils; the alpha and beta indices were likewise not significantly different between these two regions. The alpha-diversity of the entire adenotonsillar microbiome was associated with sex, emotional stress, and IL-8 levels in the tonsil lavage fluids. Beta-diversity was associated with Hsp27 levels in the tonsil lavage fluids and WBC counts. Multiple allergen simultaneous test results were not significant, although total serum immunoglobulin E levels were significantly associated with the beta-diversity of the adenotonsillar microbiome. @*Conclusion@#. The data reported herein suggest, for the first time, that the adenotonsillar microbiome interacts with the regional mucosal immune system. The observed association of the microbiome with subjective discomfort is a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889882

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Few studies have reported combined analyses of the microbiome of the adenoids and tonsils in pediatric patients with snoring, and correlations of the adenotonsillar microbiome with clinical characteristics have not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the adenotonsillar microbiome and to determine its correlations with the subjective symptoms of pediatric patients with snoring and with levels of regional mucosal immune molecules. @*Methods@#. Twenty-four children who underwent tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy owing to snoring were enrolled in this cross-sectional study conducted between August 2017 and December 2018. The microbiome of the adenoids and tonsils was characterized, and its alpha- and beta-diversity was determined. Clinical characteristics, including subjective discomfort during sleep (assessed using the obstructive sleep apnea-18 questionnaire), the presence of allergic rhinitis, concentrations of heat shock protein (Hsp)27, Hsp70, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in lavage fluids, and white blood cell (WBC) counts, were measured. @*Results@#. At the phylum level, the microbiome was not significantly different between the adenoids and tonsils; the alpha and beta indices were likewise not significantly different between these two regions. The alpha-diversity of the entire adenotonsillar microbiome was associated with sex, emotional stress, and IL-8 levels in the tonsil lavage fluids. Beta-diversity was associated with Hsp27 levels in the tonsil lavage fluids and WBC counts. Multiple allergen simultaneous test results were not significant, although total serum immunoglobulin E levels were significantly associated with the beta-diversity of the adenotonsillar microbiome. @*Conclusion@#. The data reported herein suggest, for the first time, that the adenotonsillar microbiome interacts with the regional mucosal immune system. The observed association of the microbiome with subjective discomfort is a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 67-71, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836090

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely used as targeted treatments for various malignancies. Sorafenib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks the signaling pathways of several growth factors. Its use is approved for various malignancies such as unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Several adverse effects have been reported in the literature; however, cardiotoxicity is rare. We present a case of recurrent coronary vasospasm caused by short-term administration (5 days) of sorafenib. Since it caused refractory ischemia after re-administration, we had no choice but to stop the treatment.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the process of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We have previously reported that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) ameliorated diastolic dysfunction and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we hypothesized a regulatory role of cardiac miRNAs in the mechanism of the anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.METHODS: Rats were given a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin injection and then randomly allocated to receive treatment with either G-CSF or saline. H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were cultured under a high glucose (HG) condition to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy in vitro. We examined the extent of apoptosis, miRNA expression, and miRNA target genes in the myocardium and H9c2 cells.RESULTS: G-CSF treatment significantly decreased apoptosis and reduced miR-34a expression in diabetic myocardium and H9c2 cells under the HG condition. G-CSF treatment also significantly increased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein expression as a target for miR-34a. In addition, transfection with an miR-34a mimic significantly increased apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 luciferase activity in H9c2 cells.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that G-CSF might have an anti-apoptotic effect through down-regulation of miR-34a in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Diet, High-Fat , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , In Vitro Techniques , Luciferases , Lymphoma, B-Cell , MicroRNAs , Models, Animal , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats , Streptozocin , Transfection
13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833925

ABSTRACT

Olfactory impairment occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and olfactory function tests are performed for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the diagnosis and patient status are not currently outlined for vascular dementia, and many physicians do not consider concurrent vascular dementia in patients complaining of olfactory dysfunction. Here, we report a case of vascular dementia with no symptoms of dementia other than olfactory dysfunction. This case suggested that the olfactory function test is helpful not only for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease but also for the early diagnosis of vascular dementia.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1021-1030, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832596

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to find the optimal cut-off scores for screening of odor detection threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification tests for detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Korean elderly. @*Methods@#A total of 195 elderly people were divided into three groups: the normal cognition (NC), MCI, and dementia groups. All participants underwent neurocognitive and olfactory function tests. We used k-means cluster analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify the most appropriate cut-off value. @*Results@#To distinguish the MCI from NC groups, odor identification [area under the curve (AUC)=0.670, p<0.007] with a cut-off point of 7 showed greater validity for screening (sensitivity/specificity=0.462/0.837) than did other olfactory function tests. To distinguish the MCI and dementia from NC as well, odor identification (AUC=0.817, p=0.002) with a cut-off point of 7 showed the highest validity for screening (0.785/0.654). To distinguish MCI from AD, an odor detection threshold (AUC=0.722, p=0.001) with a cut-off point of 2 showed the highest validity for screening (0.785/0.654). @*Conclusion@#Olfactory function tests may be a useful screening tool for cognitive decline before clinical symptoms of dementia have completely developed. This tool can be used as a supplementary tool to enhance the sensitivity of traditional cognitive tests to screen for dementia.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832349

ABSTRACT

Background@#Umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell. @*Methods@#Insulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell. @*Results@#Glucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSCCM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance. @*Conclusion@#UC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832291

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder and is associated with various metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are no approved drugs for NAFLD, and the only approved treatment option is weight reduction. As insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of NAFLD, many anti-diabetic drugs have been evaluated for the treatment of NAFLD. Improvement of liver enzymes has been demonstrated by many anti-diabetic drugs, but histological assessment still remains insufficient. Pioglitazone could become the first-line therapy for T2DM patients with NAFLD, based on evidence of histological improvement in patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liraglutide, another promising alternative, is not yet recommended in patients with NAFLD/NASH due to limited evidence. Therefore, well-designed randomized controlled trials should be performed in the near future to demonstrate if and how anti-diabetic drugs can play a role in the treatment of NAFLD.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918892

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) not only increases perinatal complications, but also increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. Recently, many studies have shown that women with GDM also have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of preeclampsia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, and CVDs were elevated in women with GDM compared with in those without GDM. Although it was not confirmed whether the management of GDM could reduce the development of CVDs, it is important to identify and manage CVDs in women with GDM.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).METHODS: We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from August 2012 to October 2016. We measured serum 25(OH)D levels at mid-pregnancy and carried out a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL.RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 76.7% (n=267). Women with vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance than did those without vitamin D deficiency (48.7% vs. 32.1%, P=0.011). Serum 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c at antepartum and postpartum period (antepartum: r=−0.186, P=0.001; postpartum: r=−0.129, P=0.047). Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level only postpartum (r=0.138, P=0.035). The risk of postpartum glucose intolerance was 2.00 times (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.55) higher in women with vitamin D deficiency than in those without vitamin D deficiency (P=0.018).CONCLUSION: In women with GDM, vitamin D deficiency at mid-pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of postpartum glucose intolerance.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Female , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761481

ABSTRACT

The basic action mechanism of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor is to lower the glucose burden by excreting the glucose filtered by the kidney into the urine. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are primarily indicated as glucose-lowering agents, they have a broad range of effects on renal function and plasma volume homeostasis, as well as on adiposity and energy metabolism across the entire body. That might be why SGLT2 inhibition causes spill-over of sodium and glucose beyond the proximal tubule, triggering dynamic and reversible realignment of energy metabolism, renal filtration, and plasma volume. A better understanding of SGLT2 inhibition in the kidney and the entire body will lead to more benefits in people with and without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Diabetes Mellitus , Energy Metabolism , Filtration , Glucose , Homeostasis , Kidney , Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action , Plasma Volume , Sodium
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 101-109, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the multimodality treatment with neoadjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for resectable clinical T1-3N0-1M0 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eleven patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy between March 2016 and June 2018 were reviewed. Patients received 25 Gy in 5 fractions to entire ipsilateral hemithorax with helical tomotherapy. RESULTS: All of patients were men with a median age of 56 years. Epithelioid subtype was found in 10 patients. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pemetrexed-cisplatin regimen. Ten patients (90.9%) completed 25 Gy/5 fractions and one (9.0%) completed 20 Gy/4 fractions of radiotherapy. IMRT was well tolerated with only one acute grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. Surgery was performed 1 week (median, 8 days; range, 1 to 15 days) after completing IMRT. Extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed in 4 patients (36.3%), extended pleurectomy/decortication in 2 (18.2%) and pleurectomy/decortications in 5 (63.6%). There was no grade 3+ surgical complication except two deaths after EPP in 1 month. Based on operative findings and pathologic staging, adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 7 patients (63.6%), and 2 (18.2%) were decided to add adjuvant radiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 14.6 months (range, 2.8 to 30 months), there were 3 local recurrence (33.3%) and 1 distant metastasis (11.1%). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant entire pleural IMRT can be delivered with a favorable radiation complication. An optimal strategy has to be made in resectable MPM patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiation and surgery. Further studies are needed to look at long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mesothelioma , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonectomy , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence
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