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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e76-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925926

ABSTRACT

In acute pulmonary embolism (PE), circulatory failure and systemic hypotension are important clinically for predicting poor prognosis. While pulmonary artery (PA) clot loads can be an indicator of the severity of current episode of PE or treatment effectiveness, they may not be used directly as an indicator of right ventricular (RV) failure or patient death. In other words, pulmonary vascular resistance or patient prognosis may not be determined only with mechanical obstruction of PAs and their branches by intravascular clot loads on computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), but determined also with vasoactive amines, reflex PA vasoconstriction, and systemic arterial hypoxemia occurring during acute PE. Large RV diameter with RV/left ventricle (LV) ratio > 1.0 and/or the presence of occlusive clot and pulmonary infarction on initial CTPA, and clinically determined high baseline PA pressure and RV dysfunction are independent predictors of oncoming chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In this pictorial review, authors aimed to demonstrate clinical and serial CTPA features in patients with acute massive and submassive PE and to disclose acute CTPA and clinical features that are related to the prediction of oncoming CTEPH.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1690-1696, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902494

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the anatomic locations and imaging features of posterior lung herniation in unilateral pulmonary agenesis and aplasia, focusing on radiograph-CT/MRI correlation. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 10 patients (seven with pulmonary agenesis and three with pulmonary aplasia, male:female = 1:9, mean age 7.3 years, age range from 1 month to 20 years) were included. Chest radiographs (n = 9), CT (n = 9), and MRI (n = 1) were reviewed to assess the type of lung underdevelopment, presence of anterior and posterior lung herniation, bronchus origin, supplying artery, and draining vein of the herniated lung. @*Results@#Pulmonary agenesis/aplasia more commonly affected the left lung (n = 7) than the right lung (n = 3). Anterior lung herniation was observed in nine of the 10 patients. Posterior lung herniation was observed in seven patients with left pulmonary agenesis/aplasia. Two patients showed posterior lung herniation crossing the midline but not beyond the aorta, and five patients showed the posteriorly herniated right lower lobe crossing the midline to extend into the left hemithorax farther beyond the descending thoracic aorta through the space between the esophagus and the aorta. This anatomical configuration resulted in a characteristic radiographic finding of a radiolucent area with a convex lateral border and a vertical medial border in the left lower lung zone, revealing a tongue-like projection on CT and MRI. @*Conclusion@#Posterior lung herniation occurs in unilateral left lung agenesis/aplasia. Approximately 70% of the cases of posterior lung herniation reveal a unique radiolucent tongue-like projection in the left lower lung zone on imaging studies, which is caused by the extension of the posteriorly herniated right lung farther beyond the descending aorta.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 811-828, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902476

ABSTRACT

Following the introduction of a novel pathological concept of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by Liebow and Carrington in 1969, diffuse interstitial pneumonia has evolved into UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), and interstitial lung abnormality (ILA); the histopathological and CT findings of these conditions reflect the required multidisciplinary team approach, involving pulmonologists, radiologists, and pathologists, for their diagnosis and management. Concomitantly, traction bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis have been recognized as the most persistent and important indices of the severity and prognosis of fibrotic lung diseases. The traction bronchiectasis index (TBI) can stratify the prognoses of patients with ILAs. In this review, the evolutionary concepts of UIP, NSIP, and ILAs are summarized in tables and figures, with a demonstration of the correlation between CT findings and pathologic evaluation. The CT-based UIP score is being proposed to facilitate a better understanding of the spectrum of pulmonary fibrosis, from ILAs to UIP, with emphasis on traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1416-1435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902413

ABSTRACT

Non-infectious granulomatous lung disease represents a diverse group of disorders characterized by pulmonary opacities associated with granulomatous inflammation, a relatively nonspecific finding commonly encountered by pathologists. Some lesions may present a diagnostic challenge because of nonspecific imaging features; however, recognition of the various imaging manifestations of these disorders in conjunction with patients’ clinical history, such as age, symptom onset and duration, immune status, and presence of asthma or cutaneous lesions, is imperative for narrowing the differential diagnosis and determining appropriate management of this rare group of disorders. In this pictorial review, we describe the pathologic findings of various non-infectious granulomatous lung diseases as well as the radiologic features and high-resolution computed tomography imaging features.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e51-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899982

ABSTRACT

Background@#Few studies have classified chest computed tomography (CT) findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyzed their correlations with prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate retrospectively the clinical and chest CT findings of COVID-19 and to analyze CT findings and determine their relationships with clinical severity. @*Methods@#Chest CT and clinical features of 271 COVID-19 patients were assessed. The presence of CT findings and distribution of parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated, and CT patterns were classified as bronchopneumonia, organizing pneumonia (OP), or diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Total extents were assessed using a visual scoring system and artificial intelligence software. Patients were allocated to two groups based on clinical outcomes, that is, to a severe group (requiring O2 therapy or mechanical ventilation, n = 55) or a mild group (not requiring O2 therapy or mechanical ventilation, n = 216). Clinical and CT features of these two groups were compared and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. @*Results@#Age, lymphocyte count, levels of C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were significantly different in the two groups. Forty-five of the 271 patients had normal chest CT findings. The most common CT findings among the remaining 226 patients were groundglass opacity (98%), followed by consolidation (53%). CT findings were classified as OP (93%), DAD (4%), or bronchopneumonia (3%) and all nine patients with DAD pattern were included in the severe group. Uivariate and multivariate analyses showed an elevated procalcitonin (odds ratio [OR], 2.521; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–6.303, P = 0.048), and higher visual CT scores (OR, 1.137; 95% CI, 1.042–1.236; P = 0.003) or higher total extent by AI measurement (OR, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.020–1.076; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with a severe clinical course. @*Conclusion@#CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia can be classified into OP, DAD, or bronchopneumonia patterns and all patients with DAD pattern were included in severe group. Elevated inflammatory markers and higher CT scores were found to be significant predictors of poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1690-1696, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894790

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the anatomic locations and imaging features of posterior lung herniation in unilateral pulmonary agenesis and aplasia, focusing on radiograph-CT/MRI correlation. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 10 patients (seven with pulmonary agenesis and three with pulmonary aplasia, male:female = 1:9, mean age 7.3 years, age range from 1 month to 20 years) were included. Chest radiographs (n = 9), CT (n = 9), and MRI (n = 1) were reviewed to assess the type of lung underdevelopment, presence of anterior and posterior lung herniation, bronchus origin, supplying artery, and draining vein of the herniated lung. @*Results@#Pulmonary agenesis/aplasia more commonly affected the left lung (n = 7) than the right lung (n = 3). Anterior lung herniation was observed in nine of the 10 patients. Posterior lung herniation was observed in seven patients with left pulmonary agenesis/aplasia. Two patients showed posterior lung herniation crossing the midline but not beyond the aorta, and five patients showed the posteriorly herniated right lower lobe crossing the midline to extend into the left hemithorax farther beyond the descending thoracic aorta through the space between the esophagus and the aorta. This anatomical configuration resulted in a characteristic radiographic finding of a radiolucent area with a convex lateral border and a vertical medial border in the left lower lung zone, revealing a tongue-like projection on CT and MRI. @*Conclusion@#Posterior lung herniation occurs in unilateral left lung agenesis/aplasia. Approximately 70% of the cases of posterior lung herniation reveal a unique radiolucent tongue-like projection in the left lower lung zone on imaging studies, which is caused by the extension of the posteriorly herniated right lung farther beyond the descending aorta.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 811-828, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894772

ABSTRACT

Following the introduction of a novel pathological concept of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by Liebow and Carrington in 1969, diffuse interstitial pneumonia has evolved into UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), and interstitial lung abnormality (ILA); the histopathological and CT findings of these conditions reflect the required multidisciplinary team approach, involving pulmonologists, radiologists, and pathologists, for their diagnosis and management. Concomitantly, traction bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis have been recognized as the most persistent and important indices of the severity and prognosis of fibrotic lung diseases. The traction bronchiectasis index (TBI) can stratify the prognoses of patients with ILAs. In this review, the evolutionary concepts of UIP, NSIP, and ILAs are summarized in tables and figures, with a demonstration of the correlation between CT findings and pathologic evaluation. The CT-based UIP score is being proposed to facilitate a better understanding of the spectrum of pulmonary fibrosis, from ILAs to UIP, with emphasis on traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1416-1435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894709

ABSTRACT

Non-infectious granulomatous lung disease represents a diverse group of disorders characterized by pulmonary opacities associated with granulomatous inflammation, a relatively nonspecific finding commonly encountered by pathologists. Some lesions may present a diagnostic challenge because of nonspecific imaging features; however, recognition of the various imaging manifestations of these disorders in conjunction with patients’ clinical history, such as age, symptom onset and duration, immune status, and presence of asthma or cutaneous lesions, is imperative for narrowing the differential diagnosis and determining appropriate management of this rare group of disorders. In this pictorial review, we describe the pathologic findings of various non-infectious granulomatous lung diseases as well as the radiologic features and high-resolution computed tomography imaging features.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e51-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892278

ABSTRACT

Background@#Few studies have classified chest computed tomography (CT) findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyzed their correlations with prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate retrospectively the clinical and chest CT findings of COVID-19 and to analyze CT findings and determine their relationships with clinical severity. @*Methods@#Chest CT and clinical features of 271 COVID-19 patients were assessed. The presence of CT findings and distribution of parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated, and CT patterns were classified as bronchopneumonia, organizing pneumonia (OP), or diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Total extents were assessed using a visual scoring system and artificial intelligence software. Patients were allocated to two groups based on clinical outcomes, that is, to a severe group (requiring O2 therapy or mechanical ventilation, n = 55) or a mild group (not requiring O2 therapy or mechanical ventilation, n = 216). Clinical and CT features of these two groups were compared and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. @*Results@#Age, lymphocyte count, levels of C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were significantly different in the two groups. Forty-five of the 271 patients had normal chest CT findings. The most common CT findings among the remaining 226 patients were groundglass opacity (98%), followed by consolidation (53%). CT findings were classified as OP (93%), DAD (4%), or bronchopneumonia (3%) and all nine patients with DAD pattern were included in the severe group. Uivariate and multivariate analyses showed an elevated procalcitonin (odds ratio [OR], 2.521; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–6.303, P = 0.048), and higher visual CT scores (OR, 1.137; 95% CI, 1.042–1.236; P = 0.003) or higher total extent by AI measurement (OR, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.020–1.076; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with a severe clinical course. @*Conclusion@#CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia can be classified into OP, DAD, or bronchopneumonia patterns and all patients with DAD pattern were included in severe group. Elevated inflammatory markers and higher CT scores were found to be significant predictors of poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 257-258, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810989

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Prognosis
11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 513-521, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the morphologic-metabolic (M-M) dissociation sign based on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in discriminating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) from invasive non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (ADCs) of the lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Among surgically resected solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN)-type ADCs (< 3 cm in diameter), 35 patients with IMAs and 329 with invasive non-mucinous ADCs were included. Morphologic malignancy was established if the tumor with lobulated or spiculated margin on CT presented a tumor shadow disappearance rate of < 0.5. The M-M dissociation sign was determined when a malignant-morphologic nodule on CT showed maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) < 3.5 on PET/CT. RESULTS: Among 35 IMAs (size: 21 ± 7 mm, SUVmax: 1.8 ± 2.0) and 329 invasive non-mucinous ADCs (size: 21 ± 6 mm, SUVmax: 4.6 ± 4.2), the M-M dissociation sign was observed in 54% of IMAs (19/35) and 10% of invasive non-mucinous ADCs (34/329) (p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of the sign in discriminating IMA from invasive non-mucinous ADCs showed a sensitivity of 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7–71.2), specificity 89.7% (95% CI, 85.9–92.7), positive predictive value 35.8% (95% CI, 26.5–46.5), and negative predictive value 94.9% (95% CI, 92.8–96.4). Multivariate analyses revealed metabolic benignity (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01–8.93; p = 0.047) and M-M dissociation sign (OR 6.35; 95% CI, 2.76–14.62; p < 0.001) to be significant predictors of SPN-type IMAs. CONCLUSION: Identification of the absence of M-M dissociation sign is an accurate indicator for excluding IMA from SPN-type lung ADCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Diagnosis , Ethics Committees, Research , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lung , Mucins , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1293-1299, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) for chronic empyema-associated malignancy (CEAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT images of 33 patients with chronic empyema, and analyzed the following findings: 1) shape of the empyema cavity, 2) presence of fistula, 3) maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the empyema cavity, 4) uptake pattern of the empyema cavity, 5) presence of a protruding soft tissue mass within the empyema cavity, and 6) involvement of adjacent structures. Final diagnosis was determined based on histopathology or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. The abovementioned findings were compared between the ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT images of CEAM and chronic empyema. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Six lesions were histopathologically proven as malignant; there were three cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two of squamous cell carcinoma, and one of poorly differentiated carcinoma. Maximum SUV within the empyema cavity (p < 0.001) presence of a protruding soft tissue mass (p = 0.002), and involvement of the adjacent structures (p < 0.001) were significantly different between the CEAM and chronic empyema images. The maximum SUV exhibited the highest diagnostic performance, with the highest specificity (96.3%, 26/27), positive predictive value (85.7%, 6/7), and accuracy (97.0%, 32/33) among all criteria. On ROC analysis, the area under the curve of maximum SUV was 0.994. CONCLUSION: ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT can be useful for diagnosing CEAM in patients with chronic empyema. The maximum SUV within the empyema cavity is the most accurate ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT diagnostic criterion for CEAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis , Electrons , Empyema , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 260-267, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare congenital disease in Korea, and its clinical and imaging findings are unclear. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical and CT features of CF in Korea and compare its features with those of other diseases mimicking CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 1994 to December 2014, a presumptive diagnosis of CF was made in 23 patients based on clinical or radiological examination. After the exclusion of 10 patients without diagnostic confirmation, 13 patients were included in the study. A diagnosis of CF was made with the CF gene study. CT findings were evaluated for the presence and distribution of parenchymal abnormalities including bronchiectasis, tree-in-bud (TIB) pattern, mucus plugging, consolidation, and mosaic attenuation. RESULTS: Of the 13 patients, 7 (median age, 15 years) were confirmed as CF, 4 (median age, 19 years) had primary ciliary dyskinesia, 1 had bronchiectasis of unknown cause, and 1 had chronic asthma. CT of patients with CF showed bilateral bronchiectasis, TIB pattern, mosaic attenuation, and mucus plugging in all patients, with upper lung predominance (57%). In CT of the non-CF patients, bilateral bronchiectasis, TIB pattern, mosaic attenuation, and mucus plugging were also predominant features, with lower lung predominance (50%). CONCLUSION: Korean patients with CF showed bilateral bronchiectasis, cellular bronchiolitis, mucus plugging, and mosaic attenuation, which overlapped with those of non-CF patients. CF gene study is recommended for the definitive diagnosis of CF in patients with these clinical and imaging features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Bronchiolitis , Cystic Fibrosis , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Kartagener Syndrome , Korea , Lung , Mucus , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 321-329, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). CONCLUSION: The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Ethics Committees, Research , Iodine , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 940-949, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe radiologic findings of adenovirus pneumonia and to understand clinico-radiological features associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with adenovirus pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 19 patients diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia at a tertiary referral center, in the period between March 2003 and April 2015. Clinical findings were reviewed, and two radiologists assessed imaging findings by consensus. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Student's t tests were used for comparing patients with and without subsequent development of ARDS. RESULTS: Of 19 patients, nine were immunocompromised, and 10 were immunocompetent. Twelve patients (63%) progressed to ARDS, six of whom (32%) eventually died from the disease. The average time for progression to ARDS from symptom onset was 9.6 days. Initial chest radiographic findings were normal (n = 2), focal opacity (n = 9), or multifocal or diffuse opacity (n = 8). Computed tomography (CT) findings included bilateral (n = 17) or unilateral (n = 2) ground-glass opacity with consolidation (n = 14) or pleural effusion (n = 11). Patients having subsequent ARDS had a higher probability of pleural effusion and a higher total CT extent compared with the non-ARDS group (p = 0.010 and 0.007, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in clinical variables such as patient age and premorbid condition. CONCLUSION: Adenovirus pneumonia demonstrates high rates of ARDS and mortality, regardless of patient age and premorbid conditions, in the tertiary care setting. Large disease extent and presence of pleural effusion on CT are factors suggestive of progression to ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Adenoviridae , Consensus , Mortality , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare
16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 950-960, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) on the assessment of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) using CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom (module 4 to assess spatial resolution) was scanned with 10–100 effective mAs at 120 kVp. The images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), with blending ratios of 0%, 30%, 70% and 100%, and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), and their spatial resolution was objectively assessed by the line pair structure method. The patient study was based on retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data, and it was approved by the institutional review board. Chest CT scans of 23 patients (mean age 64 years) were performed at 120 kVp using 1) standard dose protocol applying 142–275 mA with dose modulation (high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT]) and 2) low-dose protocol applying 20 mA (low dose CT, LDCT). HRCT images were reconstructed with FBP, and LDCT images were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Matching images were randomized and independently reviewed by chest radiologists. Subjective assessment of disease presence and radiological diagnosis was made on a 10-point scale. In addition, semi-quantitative results were compared for the extent of abnormalities estimated to the nearest 5% of parenchymal involvement. RESULTS: In the phantom study, ASIR was comparable to FBP in terms of spatial resolution. However, for MBIR, the spatial resolution was greatly decreased under 10 mA. In the patient study, the detection of the presence of disease was not significantly different. The values for area under the curve for detection of DILD by HRCT, FBP, ASIR, and MBIR were as follows: 0.978, 0.979, 0.972, and 0.963. LDCT images reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR tended to underestimate reticular or honeycombing opacities (-2.8%, -4.1%, and -5.3%, respectively) and overestimate ground glass opacities (+4.6%, +8.9%, and +8.5%, respectively) compared to the HRCT images. However, the reconstruction methods did not differ with respect to radiologic diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of LDCT with MBIR was similar to that of HRCT in typical DILD cases. However, caution should be exercised when comparing disease extent, especially in follow-up studies with IR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Ethics Committees, Research , Follow-Up Studies , Glass , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 209-217, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM) were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM's experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. METHODS: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM's efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. RESULTS: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. CONCLUSION: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Clerkship , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronavirus Infections , Decision Making , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Education , Education, Medical , Korea , Leadership , Learning , Lecture , Middle East , Risk Assessment , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 295-301, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. RESULTS: The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410-100690/microL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Fistula/complications , Hydropneumothorax/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium avium Complex/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/complications , Pleural Effusion/complications , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 75-77, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99592

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Thymoma
20.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 428-431, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149067

ABSTRACT

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of lung is a minor subset of salivary type carcinoma of lung of known low grade malignancy. Histologically, two-cell components forming duct-like structure with inner epithelial cell layer and outer myoepithelial cell layer are characteristics of EMC. In salivary gland, dedifferentiation of conventional low grade malignancy has been reported and is thought to be related with poor prognosis. However, precise histomorphology and prognostic factors of pulmonary EMC have not been clarified due to its rarity. Herein, we reported a rare case of EMC presented as endobronchial mass in a 53-year old woman, which showed predominant solid lobular growth pattern and lymph node metastases.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Bronchial Neoplasms , Epithelial Cells , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Salivary Glands
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