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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

6.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897343

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

7.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889639

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832099

ABSTRACT

Childhood acute leukemia has achieved tremendous treatment outcome improvement over the past several decades. Given that pediatric leukemia remains the most common type of childhood malignant tumors, there are still unmet needs in relapsed/ refractory diseases. Moreover, reducing the toxic adverse effects of chemotherapy is another big challenge. Over the past decades, immunotherapy in pediatric leukemia has achieved significant improvement. This review will focus on the recent development and achievement of bi-specific T-cell engagers, antibody-drug conjugates, and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies in pediatric leukemia. Moreover, several prevalent obstacles in administering these treatments will also be discussed. Based on the characteristics of each treatment, a variety of clinical trials are currently underway. As a new treatment modality, immunotherapy should be optimally applied based on disease conditions.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831622

ABSTRACT

Consumptive hypothyroidism is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by excessive inactivation of the thyroid hormones due to increased type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity of tumors. We report the case of severe consumptive hypothyroidism in a 1-month-old boy with infantile hepatic hemangiomas who presented with cardiac failure and cholestasis. Diffuse infiltration of hepatic hemangiomas was detected on abdominal imaging studies, and thyroid function screening test revealed severe hypothyroidism, which necessitated the administration of higher-than-usual doses of levothyroxine for the normalization of thyroid function. The patient was successfully treated with propranolol, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, and he showed normal thyroid function at 3 months of age and normal neurodevelopment at 9 months of age. This case highlights the importance of early recognition and prompt management of consumptive hypothyroidism in patients with infantile hepatic hemangiomas.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a very rare disease and patients who do not receive timely treatment suffer from bleeding, infection, and malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been recognized as an effective treatment, but the standard transplantation protocol has not been established. We report the outcomes of WAS patients who underwent HSCT in our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent HSCT at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from 2005 to 2018. Busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning regimen was used, and an intensive daily therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for busulfan dosing was started for effective myeloablation and to reduce toxicity since 2008. We collected and analyzed data regarding symptoms, engraftment, transplantation-related toxicities, and survival. RESULTS: Six WAS patients who received HSCT were evaluated. The median age of the patients at diagnosis was 5 years (range, 1–11). There were 2 matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantations, 3 matched unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (PBSCT), and 1 haploidentical PBSCT. No patient experienced engraftment failure. Three patients developed grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Two patients had veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Two patients died (due to VOD and acute GVHD). The 5-year overall survival was 66.7% with 8 years of median follow-up. Particularly, a patient who underwent haploidentical PBSCT using targeted busulfan is alive with a follow-up duration of 3 years after HSCT. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, WAS patients may be cured with HSCT with targeted busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning. But, long-term and multi-center studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Busulfan , Diagnosis , Drug Monitoring , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hemorrhage , Humans , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stem Cell Transplantation , Unrelated Donors , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717632

ABSTRACT

The treatment outcomes of relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma have been unsatisfactory till date. We reported two cases of adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. CIK cell production was attempted in three patients, out of which two patients exhibited adequate levels of CIK cell production. Two patients completed full term of CIK cell infusions (weekly for 6 weeks and then biweekly for 8 wk) without serious adverse events. The progression-free survivals for the two patients were 1.9 and 4.1 months. Their overall survivals were 16.7 and 28.7 months. Although the efficacy was unclear, CIK cell infusion combined with other treatment strategies may have prolonged overall survival in refractory neuroblastoma patients. Further studies are needed to determine the exact role of CIK cell-based immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunotherapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neuroblastoma
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue clear cell sarcoma is a rare tumor which originates from neural crest cells. Due to its rarity and lack of established treatment, the prognosis of clear cell sarcoma is poor. Here, we reviewed the clinical data and outcome of patients diagnosed with soft tissue clear cell sarcoma in our institution.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on pediatric patients who were treated for pathologically confirmed soft tissue clear cell sarcoma at the Seoul National University Hospital, between January 2000 and July 2017.RESULTS: Six patients (3 boys and 3 girls) were diagnosed with soft tissue clear cell sarcoma at a median age of 14 years 4 months (range 11 years 7 months - 19 years 3 months). The median size of the tumor was 5.6 cm (range, 0.6 cm to 7.9 cm). The most frequent symptom was pain (67%), and the most common primary site was the lower limb (67%). Three patients (50%) presented with metastases at diagnosis. Four patients underwent chemotherapy with various therapeutic combinations. Four patients received surgical resection. Only one patient received local radiotherapy. One patient died of primary refractory disease, three patients relapsed, while the remaining two survive event-free.CONCLUSION: Soft tissue clear cell sarcoma is a rare and highly aggressive tumor, for which there is no established treatment. All surviving patients received surgery, indicating that surgery is a key treatment modality. Further genetic studies of soft tissue clear cell sarcoma are needed to find a better treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Lower Extremity , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neural Crest , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Clear Cell , Seoul , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue clear cell sarcoma is a rare tumor which originates from neural crest cells. Due to its rarity and lack of established treatment, the prognosis of clear cell sarcoma is poor. Here, we reviewed the clinical data and outcome of patients diagnosed with soft tissue clear cell sarcoma in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on pediatric patients who were treated for pathologically confirmed soft tissue clear cell sarcoma at the Seoul National University Hospital, between January 2000 and July 2017. RESULTS: Six patients (3 boys and 3 girls) were diagnosed with soft tissue clear cell sarcoma at a median age of 14 years 4 months (range 11 years 7 months - 19 years 3 months). The median size of the tumor was 5.6 cm (range, 0.6 cm to 7.9 cm). The most frequent symptom was pain (67%), and the most common primary site was the lower limb (67%). Three patients (50%) presented with metastases at diagnosis. Four patients underwent chemotherapy with various therapeutic combinations. Four patients received surgical resection. Only one patient received local radiotherapy. One patient died of primary refractory disease, three patients relapsed, while the remaining two survive event-free. CONCLUSION: Soft tissue clear cell sarcoma is a rare and highly aggressive tumor, for which there is no established treatment. All surviving patients received surgery, indicating that surgery is a key treatment modality. Further genetic studies of soft tissue clear cell sarcoma are needed to find a better treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Lower Extremity , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neural Crest , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Clear Cell , Seoul , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18288

ABSTRACT

A variety of diseases are associated with the development of unilateral pleural effusion. Although unilateral pleural effusion is common, refractory unilateral pleural effusion is rare. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis using proper diagnostic tools. Thrombocytopenia is one of the rare conditions occurring from various diseases such as severe infection or autoimmune diseases. It can be life-threatening if accurate diagnosis and treatment are delayed and be a clue to accurate diagnosis in differential diagnosis from refractory pleural effusion. Kasabach-Merrit syndrome (KMS) is often accompanied by extensive vascular tumors and characterized by consumptive coagulopathy with profound thrombocytopenia. It is also important to have a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis. We report a case of KMS in a 2-month-old female infant with a vascular tumor on her left intrathoracic cage, who had presented refractory unilateral pleural effusion and thrombocytopenia. Initially, the patient was diagnosed as having complications of severe infection, and a chest tube was inserted for aggressive treatment. However, her unilateral pleural effusion persisted, and thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia were refractory. Chest imaging revealed an infiltrating large vascular tumor involving the cardiac border, diaphragm, and chest wall. The patient’s unilateral pleural effusion was misidentified as an infectious condition at the initial stage. As a result of the ultrasonography-guided biopsy, it was revealed to be Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. The patient was cured after treatment for KMS.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Chest Tubes , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diaphragm , Female , Hemangioendothelioma , Humans , Infant , Pleural Effusion , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Thrombocytopenia , Vascular Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208699

ABSTRACT

Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat various seizures, mood disorders and migraine based on its various pharmacological mechanisms. Even though nephrolithiasis is listed as one of its side effects, there have been no cases reporting nephrolithiasis caused by use of topiramate on Korean pediatric patients. Since the use of topiramate is increasing in many patients, the possibility of nephrolithiasis after the treatment needs to be considered. Here, we report our experience in correcting neprholithiasis by simply discontinuing topiramate without administering any additional treatments.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Fructose , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Mood Disorders , Nephrolithiasis , Seizures
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