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4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785336

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccine-associated anaphylaxis is a very rare allergic reaction to vaccines, but the most concerning and life-threatening adverse reaction. Although the safety of influenza vaccines has been well documented, occasional cases of anaphylaxis in vaccinated patients have been reported. In this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin E (IgE) response to whole influenza vaccines in a pediatric case of delayed-onset anaphylaxis after influenza vaccination. The patient showed elevated specific IgE levels against whole influenza vaccines, especially with split virion from egg-based manufacturing process. Specific IgE levels to influenza vaccines showed decreased over. We evaluated a causal relationship between influenza vaccine and anaphylaxis event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Delayed-onset anaphylaxis after influenza vaccination can occur in children without predisposing allergic diseases. In addition, the results suggested that formulation and production system of influenza vaccines could affect the probability of severe allergic reaction to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Child , Drug Hypersensitivity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Vaccines , Virion
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835516

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Iodine is known to be an important factor in the occurrence of goiter, and South Korea is a region with sufficient iodine supplementation. In this regard, we checked the size change of thyroid nodules found by health check-up in Koreans and examined which risk factors influence the size change. @*Materials and Methods@#A total 7753 subjects who underwent thyroid sonography two or more times were included. We defined that there was a change in the size of the nodule when the difference in diameter identified in the last ultrasound was more than 3 mm. @*Results@#Thyroid nodules were decreased in 895 subjects (11.5%) and increased in 1041 subjects (13.5%). The rate of increased nodule was on an increasing trend according to the duration (annual percent change 2.6%, p<0.001). In contrast, the rate of decreased nodule was unchanged. Predictive factors related to decrease of the nodule size were young age, male sex, larger initial nodule size and thyroiditis. Similarly, young age, larger initial nodule size and diffuse parenchymal abnormality were significant predictive factors for increased nodules. However, diffuse parenchymal abnormality was not a predictive factor when we analyzed only thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm. @*Conclusion@#In our study, 11.5-13.5% of benign thyroid nodules were increased or decreased during median 27 months of follow-up in iodine sufficient condition. Young age, larger initial size and diffuse parenchymal abnormality were common predictive factor affecting both the increase and decrease of thyroid nodules.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811194

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of skeletal muscle depletion measured on computed tomography (CT) in patients with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer.METHODS: This retrospective study included 577 consecutive women (mean age ± standard deviation: 48.9 ± 10.2 years with breast cancer who underwent a preoperative positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT scan and curative surgery between January 2012 and August 2014. The total abdominal muscle area (TAMA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured on CT images at the L3 vertebral level. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses were performed to evaluate whether there was an association between sarcopenia and overall survival (OS) outcome.RESULTS: Of the 577 women, 49 (8.5%) died after a mean of 46 months. The best TAMA threshold for predicting OS was 83.7 cm². The multivariate Cox proportional-hazard analysis revealed that sarcopenia (TAMA ≤ 83.70 cm²) was a strong prognostic biomarker (hazard ratio [HR], 1.951; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.061–3.586), along with large tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis, high nuclear grade, estrogen receptor status, and adjuvant radiation therapy. In the subgroup analysis of patients aged ≥ 50 years, TAMA (≤ 77.14 cm²) was a significant independent factor (HR, 2.856; 95% CI, 1.218–6.695).CONCLUSION: Skeletal muscle depletion measured on CT was associated with worse OS outcome in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Muscles , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Lymph Nodes , Muscle, Skeletal , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sarcopenia , Subcutaneous Fat
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the optimized image-based surrogate endpoints (IBSEs) in targeted therapies for glioblastoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of OVID-MEDLINE and EMBASE for phase III RCTs on glioblastoma was performed in December 2017. Data on overall survival (OS) and IBSEs, including progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS (6moPFS), 12-month PFS (12moPFS), median PFS, and objective response rate (ORR) were extracted. Weighted linear regression analysis for the hazard ratio for OS and the hazard ratios or odds ratios for IBSEs was performed. The associations between IBSEs and OS were evaluated. Subgroup analyses according to disease stage (newly diagnosed glioblastoma versus recurrent glioblastoma), types of test treatment, and types of response assessment criteria were performed.RESULTS: Twenty-three phase III RCTs published between 2000 and 2017, including 8387 patients, met the inclusion criteria. OS showed strong correlations with PFS (standardized β coefficient [R] = 0.719), 6moPFS (R = 0.647), and 12moPFS (R = 0.638). OS showed no correlations with median PFS and ORR. In subgroup analysis according to types of therapies, PFS showed the highest correlations with OS in targeted therapies for cell cycle pathways (R = 0.913) and growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways (R = 0.962). 12moPFS showed the highest correlation with OS in antiangiogenic therapy (R = 0.821). The response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria provided higher correlation coefficients between OS and IBSEs than the Macdonald criteria.CONCLUSION: Overall, PFS is an optimized IBSE in targeted therapies for glioblastoma; however, 12moPFS is optimal in antiangiogenic therapy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sequential imaging study for characterizing computed tomography (CT)-detected arterial-enhancing nodules that do not washout in patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 134 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 56.8 ± 10.0 years) with 151 arterial enhancing-only nodules measuring up to 2 cm during multiphasic CT that were subsequently evaluated using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in treatment-naïve at-risk patients from three tertiary referral centers were included. Tentative diagnostic criteria for HCC and hepatic malignancy were defined as the presence of one of eight MRI features favoring HCC in combinations of the following sequences: T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T1-weighted dual gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging (Dual-GRE), and hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP). Typical hemangiomas and arterioportal shunts were excluded from the analysis. Diagnostic performance for HCC and hepatic malignancy was calculated and compared between the abbreviated MRI and full-sequence gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.RESULTS: Of 151 nodules (mean size, 1.2 cm) 68 HCCs and 83 non-HCC benignities and malignancies were included. The combination of T2WI, DWI, and Dual-GRE showed per-lesion sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.2%, 90.4%, and 89.4%, respectively, comparable to those of full-sequence MRI. Applying the same sequence combination to diagnose hepatic malignancy had per-lesion sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 86.8%, 97.3%, and 92.1%. In nodules < 1 cm, adding HBP increased sensitivity by up to 13% without compromising the specificity or accuracy.CONCLUSION: The non-contrast MRI protocol comprising T2WI, DWI, and Dual-GRE showed reasonable and comparable performance to full-sequence MRI for discriminating HCC and primary liver malignancies in CT-detected indeterminate arterial enhancing-only nodules in at-risk patients, and can be potentially used for sequential imaging in place of a full-sequence MRI. In nodules < 1 cm, HBP may still be needed to preserve sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hemangioma , Humans , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831042

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the association of body composition with long-term oncologic outcomes innon-metastatic rectal cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 1,384 patients with stage(y)0-III rectal cancer treated at Asan Medical Centerbetween January 2005 and December 2012. Body composition at diagnosis was measuredusing abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT). Sarcopenia, visceral obesity (VO), andsarcopenic obesity (SO) were defined using CT measured parameters such as skeletal muscleindex (total abdominal muscle area, TAMA), visceral fat area (VFA), and VFA/TAMA. Inflammatorystatus was defined as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio of ! 3. Obesity was categorizedby body mass index (! 25 kg/m2). @*Results@#Among the 1,384 patients, 944 (68.2%) had sarcopenia and 307 (22.2%) had SO. The5-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly lower in sarcopenic patients (no sarcopeniavs. sarcopenia; 84% vs. 78%, p=0.003) but the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) ratewas not different (77.3% vs. 77.9% p=0.957). Patients with SO showed lower 5-year OS(79.1% vs. 75.5% p=0.02) but no difference in 5-year RFS (p=0.957). Sarcopenia, SO, VO,and obesity were not associated with RFS. However, obesity, SO, age, sex, inflammatorystatus, and tumor stage were confirmed as independent factors associated with OS on multivariateanalysis. In subgroup analysis, association of SO with OS was more prominent inpatients with (y)p stage 0-2 and no inflammatory status. @*Conclusion@#The presence of SO and a low body mass index at diagnosis are negatively associated withOS in non-metastatic rectal cancer patients.

11.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739517

ABSTRACT

With increasing need to prevent serious food allergy reactions, Korean food allergen labeling regulation has been revised repeatedly. This paper aims to summarize current statuses of food allergen labeling in Korea and foreign countries and to analyze the issue of food allergen labeling regulation. Korean food labeling regulation currently requires 19 items and 22 foods to be reported on labels (eggs, milk, buckwheat, peanut, soybean, wheat, mackerel, crab, shrimp, pork, peach, tomato, sulfite, walnut, chicken, beef, squid, shellfish, and pine nut). However, some common food triggers (for example, almond, cashew nut, and kiwi fruit) are not included in the current labeling regulation. Another issue is that the Korean labeling regulation has not yet been fully implemented for nonprepacked foods; thus, consumers still have difficulty in correctly identifying allergenic ingredients in food. It should be assessed whether warning statements for cross-contamination are reasonable. To prevent the occurrence of serious reactions from accidental ingestion, efforts must be made to solve recently raised issues including the items required to be listed on food labels, the system of standards for labeling and display methods.


Subject(s)
Anacardium , Arachis , Chickens , Decapodiformes , Eating , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Food Labeling , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Korea , Lycopersicon esculentum , Milk , Nuts , Perciformes , Prunus dulcis , Prunus persica , Red Meat , Shellfish , Soybeans , Triticum
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Assessing asthma control is important for proper management, and various indices for objective assessment of asthma control, such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and asthma control test (ACT) score have been proposed. Recently, bronchodilator response (BDR) was reported as a marker of poor asthma control in adults. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of BDR as a biomarker for childhood asthma. METHODS: A total of 305 children diagnosed with asthma were included. Spirometry with bronchodilator test was done at the time of diagnosis and about 14 months after asthma treatment. All children were evaluated by childhood asthma control test (c-ACT) and FeNO after asthma treatment. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to BDR results: the positive and negative BDR groups. Various biomarkers for asthma control, such as c-ACT, FeNO and changes of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Of the 305 patients, 143 (46.9%) were positive and 162 (53.1%) were negative for BDR. The BDR-positive group showed lower FEV1. In the BDR positive group, FEV1 was significantly increased after asthma treatment, especially in children with airflow limitation which was defined as below 80% of FEV1 or atopy. In atopic children, BDR showed a significant negative correlation with c-ACT and a positive correlation with FeNO. CONCLUSION: In asthmatic children with airflow limitation at the time of diagnosis, BDR can be a useful index for predicting improvement in lung function by asthma maintenance treatment. BDR could be a reliable marker for the assessment of asthma control in atopic children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Biomarkers , Child , Diagnosis , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung , Nitric Oxide , Spirometry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring's atopic dermatitis (AD) development, which is thought to be mediated by the oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the difference in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, according to the prenatal stress exposure and the later AD development. METHODS: From a birth cohort (the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases) that had displayed a good epidemiologic association between the exposure to prenatal stress and AD development in the offspring, we selected 68 pairs of samples from 4 subject groups based on the level of prenatal maternal stress and later AD development. The LTL was measured from both cord blood and 1-year peripheral blood, and their LTLs were compared between subject groups. Finally, the proportion of AD development was examined in the subject groups that are reclassified based on subjects' exposure to prenatal stress and there LTL. RESULTS: Cord-blood LTL was shorter in prenatally stressed infants than in unstressed ones (P = 0.026), which difference was still significant when subjects became 1 year old (P = 0.008). LTL of cord blood, as well as one of the 1-year peripheral blood, was not different according to later AD development at 1 year (P = 0.915 and 0.174, respectively). Shorter LTL made no increase in the proportion of later AD development in either prenatally high-stressed or low-stressed groups (P = 1.000 and 0.473, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cord-blood LTL may reflect subjects' exposure to maternal prenatal stress. However, the LTL shortening is not a risk factor of increasing AD development until the age of 1, and a longer investigation may be necessary for validation. Currently, the results doubt the role of LTL shortening as a marker for risk assessment tool for the prenatal stress associated with AD development in the offspring.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fetal Blood , Humans , Infant , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological , Telomere Shortening , Telomere
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739394

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, prescription pattern and burden of pediatric asthma in Korea by analyzing the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the insurance claim records from the Korean NHI claims database from January 2010 to December 2014. Asthmatic patients were defined as children younger than 18 years, with appropriate 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases codes (J45 or J46) and a prescription for 1 or more asthma maintenance medications at the same date. Hospitalization and emergency department visits for asthma were defined as use of short-acting beta2-agonists during hospital visits among asthmatic patients. RESULTS: There were 1,172,807 asthmatic children in 2010, which increased steadily to 1,590,228 in 2014 in Korea. The prevalence showed an increasing trend annually for all ages. The mean prevalence by age in those older than 2 years decreased during the study period (from 39.4% in the 2–3 year age group to 2.6% in the 15–18 year age group). In an outpatient prescription, leukotriene receptor antagonists were the most commonly prescribed medication for all ages. Patients older than 6 years for whom inhaled corticosteroids were prescribed comprised less than 15% of asthmatic patients. The total direct medical cost for asthma between 2010 and 2014 ranged from $376 to $483 million. Asthma-related medical cost per person reached its peak in $366 in 2011 and decreased to $275 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pediatric asthma increased annually and decreased with age. Individual cost of asthma showed a decreasing trend in Korean children.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Child , Cost of Illness , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Insurance , International Classification of Diseases , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , National Health Programs , Outpatients , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is increasing in young children. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of anaphylaxis in Korean infants, with a focus on food triggers. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of infants aged 0 to 2 years old who had been diagnosed with anaphylaxis in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: We identified 363 cases of infantile anaphylaxis (66.9% male). Cutaneous symptoms were most prevalent (98.6%), followed by respiratory (83.2%), gastrointestinal (29.8%), and neurologic (11.6%) symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms were noted in 7.7% of the cases. Most of the cases of anaphylaxis (338; 93.1%) were induced by foods. The most common trigger food was cow's milk and cow's milk products (43.8%), followed by hen's eggs (21.9%), walnuts (8.3%), wheat (7.7%), peanuts (4.8%), other nuts (3.0%), and fish (2.1%). In cow's milk-induced anaphylaxis cases, more than half the cases had cow's milk specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels that were lower than the diagnostic decision points (DDPs), which is 5 kUA/L for those under the age of 1 and 15 kUA/L for those over the age of 1. In anaphylaxis induced by hen's egg, most of the cases (91.8%) had hen's egg sIgE levels that were higher than the DDP, which is 2 kUA/L for those under the age of 2 and 7 kUA/L for those over the age of 2. Of the infantile anaphylaxis cases, 46.8% had been treated with epinephrine, and 25.1% had been prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector. CONCLUSION: Cow's milk is the most frequent trigger food of anaphylaxis in Korean infants. However, we found no significant correlation between the sIgE level and clinical severity. Education is required regarding the importance of epinephrine as the first line therapy for anaphylaxis and on properly prescribing epinephrine for infants with a history of anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Education , Eggs , Epinephrine , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764617

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to develop the Cultural Competence Scale for Registered Nurses (CCS-RN) and to examine its validity and reliability. METHODS: The item pool was generated based on related scales, a wide review of the literature, and in-depth interviews with nurses according to Purnell's cultural competence model. Content validity was verified by nursing experts. Construct validity using exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity using correlation coefficients, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability were examined. RESULTS: The CCS-RN consists of a 35-item/7-factor solution with 54.1% of the total variance explained. The convergent validity of CCS-RN was supported. Cronbach's α was .94 for the total scale and ranged from .77 to .90 for the seven factors. Test-retest reliability was moderate. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the CCS-RN shows that this scale is expected to be a valid and reliable measure of cultural competence among nurses. This scale may be useful for assessing nurses' own cultural competence and thus contribute to strengthening cultural competence.


Subject(s)
Cultural Competency , Humans , Nurses , Nursing , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Weights and Measures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763495

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is closely related to respiratory issues. We reported the case about the nutrition intervention given to a male infant with congenital bronchomalacia, GERD, and recurrent pneumonia. During the first and second pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stays, his nutrition status and nutrient intake were good. However, during the 18 days of the third PICU admission, his nutrient intake decreased to 75%–80% of his estimated calorie requirement and his Z-score for weight-for-age dropped to −1.4. We conducted nutritional interventions to improve GERD symptoms and nutritional status include avoiding overfeeding by feeding small amounts frequently, using a pre-thickened formula mixed with a high-calorie formula, and feeding through transpyloric tube. As a result, his daily nutrient intakes gradually increased and his Z-score for weight-for-age was normal. In conclusion, it is important to implement individualized intensive nutritional management to ensure adequate nutrition and growth status in infants with lung disease and GERD.


Subject(s)
Bronchomalacia , Enteral Nutrition , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases , Male , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with offspring allergic-disease development, and oxidative stress may mediate this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening, a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, in early life is associated with increased risk of asthma development during the preschool period. METHODS: We assessed the follow-up clinical data of a subgroup from a birth cohort whose LTLs had been measured from cord-blood and 1-year peripheral-blood samples. We examined whether the LTLs would be associated with asthma development at the age of 2–4 years. RESULTS: The data of 84 subjects were analyzed. LTLs were measured from the cord-blood and 1-year peripheral blood of 75 and 79 subjects, respectively. Among them, 14 subjects (16.7%) developed bronchial asthma between 2–4 years old. Prenatally stressed subjects had marginally increased odds of developing asthma (p = 0.097). There was no significant difference in the odds of preschool-asthma development between the groups with shorter and longer cord-blood LTLs (odds ratio [OR], 0.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.184–2.306) or in the odds between the groups with shorter and longer 1-year peripheral-blood LTLs (OR, 0.448; 95% CI, 0.135–1.483). Finally, subjects with both higher prenatal stress and shorter LTLs did not have significantly higher odds of preschool-asthma development (for cord-blood: OR, 1.242; 95% CI, 0.353–4.368; for 1-year peripheral-blood: OR, 1.451; 95% CI, 0.428–4.919). CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between early life LTLs and higher risk of bronchial-asthma development during the preschool years.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Diseases , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Telomere
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762154

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is highly expressed on dendritic cells. ALCAM and its receptor CD6 are co-stimulatory molecules in the immunological synapse; their interaction is required for T cell activation. While atopic dermatitis (AD) is recognized as a T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic disease, the role of ALCAM in its pathogenesis is unclear. METHODS: ALCAM levels were measured in the serum of AD patients and AD-induced murine model by ovalbumin treatment. We next investigated transepidermal water loss, clinical score, Th2-immune responses, skin barrier gene expression and T-cell activation using wild-type (WT) and ALCAM deficiency mice. An oxazolone-induced AD-like model was also established and analyzed using WT- and ALCAM-deficient mice. RESULTS: We found that serum ALCAM levels were elevated in pediatric AD patients as well as WT AD mice, whereas Th2-type cytokine production and AD symptoms were suppressed in ALCAM-deficient mice. In addition, CD4+ effector T-cell counts in murine skin and skin-draining lymph nodes were lower in ALCAM-deficient mice than in their WT counterparts. ALCAM deficiency was also linked to higher expression of skin barrier genes and number of lamellar bodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ALCAM may contribute to AD pathogenesis by meditating a Th2-dominant immune response and disrupting the barrier function of the skin.


Subject(s)
Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule , Animals , Dendritic Cells , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunological Synapses , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Ovalbumin , Skin , T-Lymphocytes , Water
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