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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919561

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The accurate detection and quantification of hepatic steatosis using a noninvasive method are important for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of the ultrasound-measured attenuation coefficient (AC) in the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for prospective studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of AC for assessing hepatic steatosis. The meta-analytic pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for any grade of steatosis (S≥1) and advanced steatosis (S≥2) were estimated using a bivariate random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to investigate the causes of heterogeneity among studies. @*Results@#Thirteen studies including 1,509 patients were identified. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for S≥1 were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 80%; I2=43%) and 84% (95% CI, 77% to 89%; I2=74%), respectively, while for S≥2 they were 87% (95% CI, 83% to 91%; I2=0%) and 79% (95% CI, 75% to 83%; I2=59%), respectively. Study heterogeneity was associated with body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis. @*Conclusion@#AC can be clinically useful for assessing hepatic steatosis, with good overall diagnostic performance. The data reported in the published literature differed according to BMI and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis, and careful interpretation with consideration of these factors might be needed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915522

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to examine the delay in antiviral initiation in rapid antigen test (RAT) false-negative children with influenza virus infection and to explore the clinical outcomes. We additionally conducted a medical cost-benefit analysis. @*Methods@#This single-center, retrospective study included children (aged < 10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI), hospitalized after presenting to the emergency department during three influenza seasons (2016–2019). RAT-false-negativity was defined as RAT-negative and polymerase chain reaction-positive cases. The turnaround time to antiviral treatment (TAT) was from the time when RAT was prescribed to the time when the antiviral was administered. The medical cost analysis by scenarios was also performed. @*Results@#A total of 1,430 patients were included, 7.5% were RAT-positive (n = 107) and 2.4% were RAT-false-negative (n = 20). The median TAT of RAT-false-negative patients was 52.8 hours, significantly longer than that of 4 hours in RAT-positive patients (19.2–100.1, P< 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, TAT of ≥ 24 hours was associated with a risk of severe influenza infection and the need for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 6.8, P = 0.009 and OR, 16.2, P = 0.033, respectively). The medical cost varied from $11.7–187.3/ILI patient. @*Conclusion@#Antiviral initiation was delayed in RAT-false-negative patients. Our findings support the guideline that children with influenza, suspected of having severe or progressive infection, should be treated immediately.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Hydrolyzed formula is often fed to infants with gastrointestinal or immune issues, such as malabsorption or cow's milk allergy, because enzymatic treatment has rendered it more digestible and less allergenic than standard cow's milk formula (SF). Partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) should be considered for those infants who are intolerant to extensively hydrolyzed formula. However, there are concerns about the nutritional insufficiencies of PHF. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PHF on the growth and health indicators in infants who were at high-risk of allergic disease and potential candidates for consuming PHF. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#A total of 83 infants aged 0–2 mon with a family history of allergies were assigned to consume either PHF or SF until 24 weeks of age. Anthropometric measures were obtained at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks; blood samples were drawn and evaluated at the end of the study. @*RESULTS@#No significant differences were observed in weight, height, and weight-for-height at any time point in each sex between the PHF and SF groups. At 24 weeks of age, the weightfor-age and height-for-age z-scores of the SF group were higher than those of the PHF group, but there was no significant difference in the weight-for-height z-score. There were no significant differences in levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin, ferritin, protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, eosinophil cationic protein, and immunoglobulin E. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, there were no differences in growth and blood panels between the infants consuming PHF or SF. Therefore, infants who are unable to tolerate SF can be fed PHF without nutritional concerns about growth.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the completeness of the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in a general radiology journal using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-four articles (systematic review and meta-analysis, n = 18; systematic review only, n = 6) published between August 2009 and September 2021 in the Korean Journal of Radiology were analyzed. Completeness of the reporting of main texts and abstracts were evaluated using the PRISMA 2020 statement. For each item in the statement, the proportion of studies that met the guidelines’ recommendation was calculated and items that were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the studies were identified. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers. @*Results@#Of the 42 items (including sub-items) in the PRISMA 2020 statement for main text, 24 were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the included articles. The 24 items were grouped into eight domains: 1) assessment of the eligibility of potential articles, 2) assessment of the risk of bias, 3) synthesis of results, 4) additional analysis of study heterogeneity, 5) assessment of non-reporting bias, 6) assessment of the certainty of evidence, 7) provision of limitations of the study, and 8) additional information, such as protocol registration. Of the 12 items in the abstract checklists, eight were incorporated in fewer than 80% of the included publications. @*Conclusion@#Several items included in the PRISMA 2020 checklist were overlooked in systematic review and meta-analysis articles published in the Korean Journal of Radiology. Based on these results, we suggest a double-check list for improving the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors and reviewers should familiarize themselves with the PRISMA 2020 statement and check whether the recommended items are fully satisfied prior to publication.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 126-135, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919510

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the test-retest repeatability and measurement variability of ultrasonographic shear wave elastography (SWE) for liver stiffness in a rat liver fibrosis model. Methods: In 31 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into three groups (high-dose, low-dose, and control), liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide for 8 weeks. A dedicated radiographer performed SWE to measure liver stiffness in kilopascals in two sessions at a 3-day interval. We calculated correlations between liver stiffness and histopathologic results, measurement variability in each session using coefficients of variation (CoVs) and interquartile/median (IQR/M), and test-retest repeatability between both sessions using the repeatability coefficient. Results: Different levels of liver fibrosis in each group were successfully induced in the animal model. The mean liver stiffness values were 8.88±1.48 kPa in the control group, 11.62±1.70 kPa in the low-dose group, and 11.91±1.73 kPa in the high-dose group. The correlation between collagen areas and liver stiffness values was moderate (r=0.6). In all groups, the second session yielded lower CoVs (i.e., more reliable results) for liver stiffness than the first session, suggesting a training effect for the operator. The mean IQR/M values were also lower in the second session than in the first session, which had four outliers (0.21 vs. 0.12, P<0.001). The test-retest repeatability coefficient was 3.75 kPa and decreased to 2.82 kPa after removing the four outliers. Conclusion: The use of ultrasonographic SWE was confirmed to be feasible and repeatable for evaluating liver fibrosis in preclinical trials. Operator training might reduce variability in liver stiffness measurements.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1137-1143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918719

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are growing interests on suicide risk screening in clinical settings and classifying high-risk groups of suicide with suicidal ideation is crucial for a more effective suicide preventive intervention. Previous statistical techniques were limited because they tried to predict suicide risk using a simple algorithm. Machine learning differs from the traditional statistical techniques in that it generates the most optimal algorithm from various predictors. @*Methods@#We aim to analyze the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles of child and adolescent patients who received outpatient psychiatric care using machine learning techniques, such as logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB), to develop and validate a classification model for individuals with high suicide risk. @*Results@#We developed prediction models using seven relevant features calculated by Boruta algorithm and subsequently tested all models using the testing dataset. The area under the ROC curve of these models were above 0.9 and the RF model exhibited the best performance. @*Conclusion@#Suicide must be assessed based on multiple aspects, and although Personality Assessment Inventory for Adolescent assess an array of domains, further research is needed for predicting high suicide risk groups.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#This study examined the differences in psychosocial factors and eating behaviors by the stages of change (SOC) in nutrition management among elementary and middle school athletes. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Subjects were young athletes recruited from the athletic clubs of 10 organizations. Subjects responded to a survey questionnaire, and data on 167 athletes were analyzed. Subjects were grouped into the pre-action or action stage in nutrition management. The χ2 test, t-test, analysis of covariance, and correlation analysis were used in data analysis. @*RESULTS@#Athletes in the action stage (62.3%) compared to the pre-action stage, showed a higher self-efficacy (P < 0.01), and felt more confidence in performing specific eating behaviors (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). Those in the action stage had more favorable beliefs regarding nutrition (P < 0.001) and agreed less strongly on the specific misconceptions/ disadvantages of nutrition (P < 0.01) than those in the pre-action stage. Eating behaviors (P < 0.001) and subscales of the eating behaviors (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) also differed significantly by the SOC group. Place of eating dinner (P < 0.05) and the person who prepares dinner (P < 0.05) showed significant differences by the SOC group. The relationship of self-efficacy, beliefs regarding nutrition, and eating behaviors to the SOC differed by sports type.Beliefs for football athletes, self-efficacy, and beliefs for baseball athletes were correlated significantly with the SOC, whereas all 3 variables were related to the SOC for handball and other athletes. @*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed differences in psychosocial factors and eating behaviors between the pre-action and action stages. Nutrition education should include strategies to help young athletes modify their beliefs, mainly misconceptions/disadvantages of nutrition, increase self-efficacy, and adopt specific and desirable eating behaviors. Nutrition education might employ different strategies considering the sports type that student-athletes participate.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1909-1917, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918199

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Muscle quantity and quality can be measured with an automated system on CT. However, the effects of contrast phases on the muscle measurements have not been established, which we aimed to investigate in this study. @*Materials and Methods@#Muscle quantity was measured according to the skeletal muscle area (SMA) measured by a convolutional neural network-based automated system at the L3 level in 89 subjects undergoing multiphasic abdominal CT comprising unenhanced phase, arterial phase, portal venous phase (PVP), or delayed phase imaging. Muscle quality was analyzed using the mean muscle density and the muscle quality map, which comprises normal and low-attenuation muscle areas (NAMA and LAMA, respectively) based on the muscle attenuation threshold. The SMA, mean muscle density, NAMA, and LAMA were compared between PVP and other phases using paired t tests. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the inter-phase variability between PVP and other phases. Based on the cutoffs for low muscle quantity and quality, the counts of individuals who scored lower than the cutoff values were compared between PVP and other phases. @*Results@#All indices showed significant differences between PVP and other phases (p < 0.001 for all). The SMA, mean muscle density, and NAMA increased during the later phases, whereas LAMA decreased during the later phases. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between PVP and other phases ranged -2.1 to 0.3 cm2 for SMA, -12.0 to 2.6 cm2 for NAMA, and -2.2 to 9.9 cm2 for LAMA.The number of patients who were categorized as low muscle quantity did not significant differ between PVP and other phases (p ≥ 0.5), whereas the number of patients with low muscle quality significantly differed (p ≤ 0.002). @*Conclusion@#SMA was less affected by the contrast phases. However, the muscle quality measurements changed with the contrast phases to greater extents and would require a standardization of the contrast phase for reliable measurement.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913324

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allergen sensitization is constantly changing, and understanding these changes can help manage and prevent allergic diseases. This research analyzed and compared the changes in allergen sensitization in children diagnosed with allergic diseases using the skin test and the multiple allergen simultaneous test. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the data on children who were diagnosed with allergic diseases and received immunotherapy at Yonsei Medical Center from 1980 to 1998 and they were screened for allergen sensitization at Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2019. @*Results@#Between 1980 and 1998, and between 2005 and 2019, data on 3,205 (male, 70.3%; mean age, 7.2 ± 2.9 years) and 15,318 children (male, 62.8%; mean age, 8.8 ± 4.5 years) were analyzed. The sensitized allergens that appeared in the 1980–1998 included Dermatophagoides farinae (91.0%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (76.3%), cockroach (13.5%), and Alternaria (11.5%), in order of frequency; further, the sensitized allergens that appeared in the 2005–2019 included D. farinae (45.0%), D. pteronyssinus (39.6%), cat dander (12.2%), and dog dander (9.1%), in order of frequency. D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus demonstrated the highest sensitization rates, although the rates decreased gradually. The sensitization to cat dander and dog dander showed a growing trend, and sensitization to Humulus japonicus, Candida, and cockroach decreased after 2005. @*Conclusion@#Over the past 40 years, the allergen sensitization in Korean children with allergic diseases has increased. These changes reflect lifestyle and environmental changes and influence allergic disease management approaches. Thus, changes in allergic sensitization should be monitored continuously.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902593

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared maternal age at childbirth, the number of live births, and the weight of live births between Korean women and immigrant women using statistical data from the Republic of Korea for 2018. @*Methods@#The analysis was conducted using data from the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea (https://mdis.kostat.go.kr/index.do). @*Results@#Korean women and immigrant women showed a higher age at childbirth in 2018 than in 2008. The percentage of newborns of Korean women with a birth weight of less than 2.5 kg increased slightly for 3 consecutive years from 2016 to 2018, whereas for immigrant women, this percentage increased in 2017 compared to 2016 and then decreased again in 2018. Very low birth weight (less than 1.5 kg) became more common among immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. Birth at a gestational age of fewer than 37 weeks increased both among Korean and immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. In both groups, the percentage of women who had their first child within their first 2 years of marriage decreased from 2008 to 2018. @*Conclusion@#Immigrant women had higher birth rates than Korean women, while both groups showed an increasing trend in premature birth. Greater attention should be paid to the pregnancy and birth needs of immigrant women, and steps are needed to ensure health equity and access in order to prevent premature births. It is also necessary to identify factors that affect preterm birth and birth of very low birth weight infants among immigrant women in the future.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1497-1513, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902502

ABSTRACT

The diagnostic and treatment methods of multiple myeloma (MM) have been rapidly evolving owing to advances in imaging techniques and new therapeutic agents. Imaging has begun to play an important role in the management of MM, and international guidelines are frequently updated. Since the publication of 2015 International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria for the diagnosis of MM, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or low-dose whole-body computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT have entered the mainstream as diagnostic and treatment response assessment tools. The 2019 IMWG guidelines also provide imaging recommendations for various clinical settings. Accordingly, radiologists have become a key component of MM management. In this review, we provide an overview of updates in the MM field with an emphasis on imaging modalities.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902409

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902400

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the reliability of CT measurements of muscle quantity and quality using variable CT parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#A phantom, simulating the L2–4 vertebral levels, was used for this study. CT images were repeatedly acquired with modulation of tube voltage, tube current, slice thickness, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Reference standard muscle compartments were obtained from the reference maps of the phantom. Cross-sectional area based on the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of muscle and its components, and the mean density of the reference standard muscle compartment, were used to measure the muscle quantity and quality using different CT protocols. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated in the images acquired with different settings. @*Results@#The skeletal muscle area (threshold, -29 to 150 HU) was constant, regardless of the protocol, occupying at least 91.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. Conversely, normal attenuation muscle area (30–150 HU) was not constant in the different protocols, varying between 59.7% and 81.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. The mean density was lower than the target density stated by the manufacturer (45 HU) in all cases (range, 39.0–44.9 HU). The SNR decreased with low tube voltage, low tube current, and in sections with thin slices, whereas it increased when the iterative reconstruction algorithm was used. @*Conclusion@#Measurement of muscle quantity using HU threshold was reliable, regardless of the CT protocol used. Conversely, the measurement of muscle quality using the mean density and narrow HU thresholds were inconsistent and inaccurate across different CT protocols. Therefore, further studies are warranted in future to determine the optimal CT protocols for reliable measurements of muscle quality.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902166

ABSTRACT

End-of-life assessments aim to help dying patients and their families plan clinical interventions in advance and prepare them for a peaceful end of life, in which the patient accepts life and death, and the family accepts the patient’s departure. It is important to assess whether death is imminent within a few days, because critical hospice care is provided intensively during that period. The following five changes constitute objective evidence of the end of life: diminished daily living performance, decreased food intake, changes in consciousness and increased sleep quantity, worsening of respiratory distress, and end-stage delirium. As subjective evidence, it is suggested that sensitive perceptions of experienced nurses and the feelings of family members caring for patients should also be considered. When notifying a patient or family members that the end of life is approaching, the members of the multidisciplinary hospice team must communicate with each other, share accurate information, and provide consistent explanations. They must also listen to non-verbal communication in an empathic and supportive manner.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894889

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared maternal age at childbirth, the number of live births, and the weight of live births between Korean women and immigrant women using statistical data from the Republic of Korea for 2018. @*Methods@#The analysis was conducted using data from the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea (https://mdis.kostat.go.kr/index.do). @*Results@#Korean women and immigrant women showed a higher age at childbirth in 2018 than in 2008. The percentage of newborns of Korean women with a birth weight of less than 2.5 kg increased slightly for 3 consecutive years from 2016 to 2018, whereas for immigrant women, this percentage increased in 2017 compared to 2016 and then decreased again in 2018. Very low birth weight (less than 1.5 kg) became more common among immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. Birth at a gestational age of fewer than 37 weeks increased both among Korean and immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. In both groups, the percentage of women who had their first child within their first 2 years of marriage decreased from 2008 to 2018. @*Conclusion@#Immigrant women had higher birth rates than Korean women, while both groups showed an increasing trend in premature birth. Greater attention should be paid to the pregnancy and birth needs of immigrant women, and steps are needed to ensure health equity and access in order to prevent premature births. It is also necessary to identify factors that affect preterm birth and birth of very low birth weight infants among immigrant women in the future.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1497-1513, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894798

ABSTRACT

The diagnostic and treatment methods of multiple myeloma (MM) have been rapidly evolving owing to advances in imaging techniques and new therapeutic agents. Imaging has begun to play an important role in the management of MM, and international guidelines are frequently updated. Since the publication of 2015 International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria for the diagnosis of MM, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or low-dose whole-body computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT have entered the mainstream as diagnostic and treatment response assessment tools. The 2019 IMWG guidelines also provide imaging recommendations for various clinical settings. Accordingly, radiologists have become a key component of MM management. In this review, we provide an overview of updates in the MM field with an emphasis on imaging modalities.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894705

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894696

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the reliability of CT measurements of muscle quantity and quality using variable CT parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#A phantom, simulating the L2–4 vertebral levels, was used for this study. CT images were repeatedly acquired with modulation of tube voltage, tube current, slice thickness, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Reference standard muscle compartments were obtained from the reference maps of the phantom. Cross-sectional area based on the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of muscle and its components, and the mean density of the reference standard muscle compartment, were used to measure the muscle quantity and quality using different CT protocols. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated in the images acquired with different settings. @*Results@#The skeletal muscle area (threshold, -29 to 150 HU) was constant, regardless of the protocol, occupying at least 91.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. Conversely, normal attenuation muscle area (30–150 HU) was not constant in the different protocols, varying between 59.7% and 81.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. The mean density was lower than the target density stated by the manufacturer (45 HU) in all cases (range, 39.0–44.9 HU). The SNR decreased with low tube voltage, low tube current, and in sections with thin slices, whereas it increased when the iterative reconstruction algorithm was used. @*Conclusion@#Measurement of muscle quantity using HU threshold was reliable, regardless of the CT protocol used. Conversely, the measurement of muscle quality using the mean density and narrow HU thresholds were inconsistent and inaccurate across different CT protocols. Therefore, further studies are warranted in future to determine the optimal CT protocols for reliable measurements of muscle quality.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894462

ABSTRACT

End-of-life assessments aim to help dying patients and their families plan clinical interventions in advance and prepare them for a peaceful end of life, in which the patient accepts life and death, and the family accepts the patient’s departure. It is important to assess whether death is imminent within a few days, because critical hospice care is provided intensively during that period. The following five changes constitute objective evidence of the end of life: diminished daily living performance, decreased food intake, changes in consciousness and increased sleep quantity, worsening of respiratory distress, and end-stage delirium. As subjective evidence, it is suggested that sensitive perceptions of experienced nurses and the feelings of family members caring for patients should also be considered. When notifying a patient or family members that the end of life is approaching, the members of the multidisciplinary hospice team must communicate with each other, share accurate information, and provide consistent explanations. They must also listen to non-verbal communication in an empathic and supportive manner.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the optimized image-based surrogate endpoints (IBSEs) in targeted therapies for glioblastoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of OVID-MEDLINE and EMBASE for phase III RCTs on glioblastoma was performed in December 2017. Data on overall survival (OS) and IBSEs, including progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS (6moPFS), 12-month PFS (12moPFS), median PFS, and objective response rate (ORR) were extracted. Weighted linear regression analysis for the hazard ratio for OS and the hazard ratios or odds ratios for IBSEs was performed. The associations between IBSEs and OS were evaluated. Subgroup analyses according to disease stage (newly diagnosed glioblastoma versus recurrent glioblastoma), types of test treatment, and types of response assessment criteria were performed.RESULTS: Twenty-three phase III RCTs published between 2000 and 2017, including 8387 patients, met the inclusion criteria. OS showed strong correlations with PFS (standardized β coefficient [R] = 0.719), 6moPFS (R = 0.647), and 12moPFS (R = 0.638). OS showed no correlations with median PFS and ORR. In subgroup analysis according to types of therapies, PFS showed the highest correlations with OS in targeted therapies for cell cycle pathways (R = 0.913) and growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways (R = 0.962). 12moPFS showed the highest correlation with OS in antiangiogenic therapy (R = 0.821). The response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria provided higher correlation coefficients between OS and IBSEs than the Macdonald criteria.CONCLUSION: Overall, PFS is an optimized IBSE in targeted therapies for glioblastoma; however, 12moPFS is optimal in antiangiogenic therapy.

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