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1.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 77-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001658

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Dysphagia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty in swallowing. It is sub-classified into oropharyngeal dysphagia, which refers to problems in the mouth and pharynx, and esophageal dysphagia, which refers to problems in the esophageal body and esophagogastric junction. Dysphagia can have a significant negative impact one’s physical health and quality of life as its severity increases. Therefore, proper assessment and management of dysphagia are critical for improving swallowing function and preventing complications. Thus a guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations for assessment and management in patients with dysphagia. @*Methods@#Nineteen key questions on dysphagia were developed. These questions dealt with various aspects of problems related to dysphagia, including assessment, management, and complications. A literature search for relevant articles was conducted using Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and one domestic database of KoreaMed, until April 2021. The level of evidence and recommendation grade were established according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. @*Results@#Early screening and assessment of videofluoroscopic swallowing were recommended for assessing the presence of dysphagia. Therapeutic methods, such as tongue and pharyngeal muscle strengthening exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation with swallowing therapy, were effective in improving swallowing function and quality of life in patients with dysphagia. Nutritional intervention and an oral care program were also recommended. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents recommendations for the assessment and management of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, including rehabilitative strategies.

2.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 31-36, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967055

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures cause socioeconomic concerns, and medical system and policies appear insufficient to prepare for these issues in Korea, where the older adult population is rapidly increasing. Many countries around the world are already responding to osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures by adopting fracture liaison service (FLS), and such an attempt has only begun in Korea. In this article, we introduce the operation methods for institutions implementing FLS and characteristics of services, and activities of the FLS Committee for FLS implementation in the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research. In addition, we hope that the current position statement will contribute to the implementation of FLS in Korea and impel policy changes to enable a multidisciplinary and integrated FLS operated under the medical system.

3.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937372

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography is an essential imaging tool to diagnose and treat the musculoskeletal pathologies of the elbow. In this review article, ultrasound findings of common elbow pathologies were described according to the pain areas. In addition, various injections such as steroids, biologics (platelet-rich plasma and autologous whole blood), dextrose, and botulinum toxin were explained focusing on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

4.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 260-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898075

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUmbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell.MethodsInsulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell.ResultsGlucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSC-CM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance.ConclusionUC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

5.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 7-14, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897870

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal ultrasound has evolved as the essential tool to diagnose and guide intervention procedures in people with neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Image optimization and understanding device operations are core components for ultrasound guided intervention procedure training. All ultrasound machines share the common operative features and there are various buttons for the features in the device control panel. Ultrasound “knobology” refers to the thorough understanding of imaging optimization. This review addressed basic information for the transducers, depth setting, gain and focus control, different modes focusing on brightness and doppler modes.

6.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 225-259, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896936

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The incidence of hip fractures is increasing worldwide with the aging population, causing a challenge to healthcare systems due to the associated morbidities and high risk of mortality. After hip fractures in frail geriatric patients, existing comorbidities worsen and new complications are prone to occur. Comprehensive rehabilitation is essential for promoting physical function recovery and minimizing complications, which can be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach. Recommendations are required to assist healthcare providers in making decisions on rehabilitation post-surgery. Clinical practice guidelines regarding rehabilitation (physical and occupational therapies) and management of comorbidities/complications in the postoperative phase of hip fractures have not been developed. This guideline aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for various treatment items required for proper recovery after hip fracture surgeries. Methods Reflecting the complex perspectives associated with rehabilitation post-hip surgeries, 15 key questions (KQs) reflecting the complex perspectives associated with post-hip surgery rehabilitation were categorized into four areas: multidisciplinary, rehabilitation, community-care, and comorbidities/complications. Relevant literature from four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed) was searched for articles published up to February 2020. The evidence level and recommended grade were determined according to the grade of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation method. Results A multidisciplinary approach, progressive resistance exercises, and balance training are strongly recommended. Early ambulation, weigh-bearing exercises, activities of daily living training, community-level rehabilitation, management of comorbidities/complication prevention, and nutritional support were also suggested. This multidisciplinary approach reduced the total healthcare cost. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents comprehensive recommendations for the rehabilitation of adult patients after hip fracture surgery.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 260-269, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890371

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUmbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell.MethodsInsulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell.ResultsGlucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSC-CM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance.ConclusionUC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

8.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 7-14, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890166

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal ultrasound has evolved as the essential tool to diagnose and guide intervention procedures in people with neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Image optimization and understanding device operations are core components for ultrasound guided intervention procedure training. All ultrasound machines share the common operative features and there are various buttons for the features in the device control panel. Ultrasound “knobology” refers to the thorough understanding of imaging optimization. This review addressed basic information for the transducers, depth setting, gain and focus control, different modes focusing on brightness and doppler modes.

9.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 225-259, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889232

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The incidence of hip fractures is increasing worldwide with the aging population, causing a challenge to healthcare systems due to the associated morbidities and high risk of mortality. After hip fractures in frail geriatric patients, existing comorbidities worsen and new complications are prone to occur. Comprehensive rehabilitation is essential for promoting physical function recovery and minimizing complications, which can be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach. Recommendations are required to assist healthcare providers in making decisions on rehabilitation post-surgery. Clinical practice guidelines regarding rehabilitation (physical and occupational therapies) and management of comorbidities/complications in the postoperative phase of hip fractures have not been developed. This guideline aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for various treatment items required for proper recovery after hip fracture surgeries. Methods Reflecting the complex perspectives associated with rehabilitation post-hip surgeries, 15 key questions (KQs) reflecting the complex perspectives associated with post-hip surgery rehabilitation were categorized into four areas: multidisciplinary, rehabilitation, community-care, and comorbidities/complications. Relevant literature from four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed) was searched for articles published up to February 2020. The evidence level and recommended grade were determined according to the grade of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation method. Results A multidisciplinary approach, progressive resistance exercises, and balance training are strongly recommended. Early ambulation, weigh-bearing exercises, activities of daily living training, community-level rehabilitation, management of comorbidities/complication prevention, and nutritional support were also suggested. This multidisciplinary approach reduced the total healthcare cost. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents comprehensive recommendations for the rehabilitation of adult patients after hip fracture surgery.

10.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 16-22, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897858

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recent studies have shown that repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) reduces pain in various conditions. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of rPMS depending on the pain characteristics. Method: Adult patients aged 19∼85 years evaluated at our institution between September 1, 2017 and February 28, 2018 for subacute to chronic musculoskeletal pain equivalent to a numeric rating scale of 3 or higher for at least one month were enrolled. Pain scores as determined using a numeric rating scale at baseline and at the end of treatment were set as the primary outcome. Additionally, we classified the pain into nociceptive, intermediate, or neuropathic pain using the PainDETECT questionnaire and compared the responsiveness to rPMS according to the type of pain. @*Results@#The average pain scores significantly decreased after the 2-week rPMS treatment in all enrolled subjects (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in pain reduction between groups divided by PainDETECT questionnaire. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that rPMS could safely relieve various types of pain.

11.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 16-22, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890154

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recent studies have shown that repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) reduces pain in various conditions. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of rPMS depending on the pain characteristics. Method: Adult patients aged 19∼85 years evaluated at our institution between September 1, 2017 and February 28, 2018 for subacute to chronic musculoskeletal pain equivalent to a numeric rating scale of 3 or higher for at least one month were enrolled. Pain scores as determined using a numeric rating scale at baseline and at the end of treatment were set as the primary outcome. Additionally, we classified the pain into nociceptive, intermediate, or neuropathic pain using the PainDETECT questionnaire and compared the responsiveness to rPMS according to the type of pain. @*Results@#The average pain scores significantly decreased after the 2-week rPMS treatment in all enrolled subjects (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in pain reduction between groups divided by PainDETECT questionnaire. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that rPMS could safely relieve various types of pain.

12.
Neurology Asia ; : 215-219, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877218

ABSTRACT

@#The right hand of a 58-year-old female was compressed by a compression machine and subsequently began to show pain. She was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 2 according to the Budapest criteria. Conventional therapy was ineffective for her allodynia. After subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin, the subject’s allodynia substantially improved. Subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin could effectively treat patients with complex regional pain syndrome and intractable allodynia. Clinical studies with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate the efficacy of and selection of patients for botulinum toxin treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

13.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : e39-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832349

ABSTRACT

Background@#Umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell. @*Methods@#Insulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell. @*Results@#Glucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSCCM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance. @*Conclusion@#UC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

14.
Neurology Asia ; : 267-270, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751082

ABSTRACT

@#Isolated musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) lesion is rare and usually associated with direct trauma. Along with the rarity of this condition, other muscles involved in elbow flexion, such as brachioradialis and pronator teres, can mask the weakness induced by the MCN injury and make it difficult to identify it. Here, we report a 17-year-old patient with isolated MCN palsy following a single episode of anterior shoulder contusion. A lack of suspicion for this rare condition delayed diagnosis until 7 months post injury, when atrophy of muscles in the left upper arm became prominent and weakness of the elbow flexors persisted. After 6 months of rehabilitation therapy rather than undergoing surgical exploration, elbow flexor strength was nearly fully recovered but sensory symptoms remained. The mechanism of injury is speculated to be a sudden overloading of the anterior shoulder with extension and external rotation, which overstretched and compressed the MCN within the coracobrachialis muscle where the nerve is relatively fixed. Although isolated peripheral nerve injury is rare, it can be caused by a single episode of vigorous impact. Therefore, even in patients without any external wounds, careful physical examination with suspicion of peripheral nerve injury as one of the differential diagnoses is needed.

15.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 814-821, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To suggest rotation angles of fluoroscopy that can bypass the carotid sheath according to vertebral levels for cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). METHODS: Patients who underwent cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from January 2009 to October 2017 were analyzed. In axial sections of cervical spine MRI, three angles to the vertical line (α, angle not to insult carotid sheath; β, angle for the conventional TFESI; γ, angle not to penetrate carotid artery) were measured. RESULTS: Alpha (α) angles tended to increase for upper cervical levels (53.3° in C6-7, 65.2° in C5-6, 75.3° in C4-5, 82.3° in C3-4). Beta (β) angles for conventional TFESI showed a constant value of 45° to 47° (47.5° in C6-7, 47.4° in C5-6, 45.7° in C4-5, 45.0° in C3-4). Gamma (γ) angles increased at higher cervical levels as did α angles (25.2° in C6-7, 33.6° in C5-6, 43.0° in C4-5, 56.2° in C3-4). CONCLUSION: The risk of causing injury by penetrating major vessels in the carotid sheath tends to increase at upper cervical levels. Therefore, prior to cervical TFESI, measuring the angle is necessary to avoid carotid vessels in the axial section of CT or MRI, thus contributing to a safer procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Arteries , Fluoroscopy , Jugular Veins , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Needles , Spine , Vascular System Injuries
16.
Neurology Asia ; : 369-372, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732050

ABSTRACT

Auriculotemporal neuropathy is a rare aetiology of orofacial pain. A 66-year old female patientpresented with severe, throbbing pain around the right ear after herpes zoster. The pain was consistentwith post-herpetic neuropathy and was not relieved by oral medications. To alleviate neuropathicpain, ultrasound-guided auriculotemporal nerve block was done. The pain was relieved completelyand the patient remained symptom-free until the last follow up at eight months after treatment. Withunderstanding of the anatomy and related symptoms of auriculotemporal nerve, auriculotemporalneuropathy can be controlled by ultrasound-guided auriculotemporal nerve block.

17.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 969-978, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify different contributions of motor and sensory variables for independent ambulation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and reveal the most significant contributors among the variables. METHODS: The retrospective study included 30 patients with incomplete SCI and lesions were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Motor and sensory scores were collected according to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The variables were analyzed by plotting ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves to estimate their differential contributions for independent walking. The most significant functional determinant was identified through the subsequent logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Motor and sensory scores were significantly different between the ambulators and non-ambulators. The majority was associated to the function of lower extremities. Calculation of area under ROC curves (AUC) revealed that strength of hip flexor (L2) (AUC=0.905, p < 0.001) and knee extensor (L3) (AUC=0.820, p=0.006) contributed the greatest to independent walking. Also, hip flexor strength (L2) was the single most powerful predictor of ambulation by the logistic regression analysis (odds ratio=6.3, p=0.049), and the model fit well to the data. CONCLUSION: The most important potential contributor for independent walking in patients with incomplete SCI is the muscle strength of hip flexors, followed by knee extensors compared with other sensory and motor variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Gait , Hip , Knee , Locomotion , Logistic Models , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle Strength , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Walking
18.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 318-325, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare quantitative muscle activation between erect and slouched sitting postures in the muscles around the scapula, and to investigate the correlation between the angle of thoracic kyphosis and the alteration of muscle activity depending on two different sitting postures. METHODS: Ten healthy males participated in the study. Unilateral surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed for serratus anterior, middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT), which are scapular stabilizer muscles, as well as latissimus dorsi. Participants elevated their shoulders for 3 seconds up to 90° abduction in the scapular plane, tilting 30° anterior in the coronal plane. They were told to hold the position for 10 seconds and voluntary isometric contractions were recorded by SEMG. These movement procedures were conducted for three times each for erect and slouched sitting postures and data were averaged. RESULTS: Activities of MT and LT increased significantly more in the slouched sitting posture than in the erect one. There was no significant correlation between kyphotic angle and the area under curve of each muscle. CONCLUSION: Because MT and LT are known as prime movers of scapular rotation, the findings of this study support the notion that slouched sitting posture affects scapular movement. Such scapular dyskinesis during arm elevation leads to scapular stabilizers becoming overactive, and is relevant to muscle fatigue. Thus, slouched sitting posture could be one of the risk factors involved in musculoskeletal pain around scapulae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Arm , Electromyography , Isometric Contraction , Kyphosis , Muscle Fatigue , Muscles , Musculoskeletal Pain , Posture , Risk Factors , Scapula , Shoulder , Superficial Back Muscles
19.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 1071-1081, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoroscopic factors regarding the effects of transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) in low back pain (LBP) patients with lumbosacral radiating pain. METHODS: A total of 51 patients who had LBP with radiating pain were recruited between January 2011 and December 2012. The patient data were classified into the two groups ‘favorable group’ and ‘non-favorable group’ after 2 weeks of follow-up results. The favorable group was defined as those with a 50%, or more, reduction of pain severity according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) for back or leg pain. The clinical and radiological data were collected for univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the predictors of the effectiveness of TFESIs between the two groups. RESULTS: According to the back or the leg favorable-VAS group, the univariate analysis revealed that the corticosteroid approach for the enhanced nerve root, the proportion of the proximal flow, and the contrast dispersion of epidurography are respectively statistically significant relative to the other factors. Lastly, the multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the corticosteroid approach and the enhanced nerve root in the favorable VAS group. CONCLUSION: Among the variables, MRI showed that the corticosteroid approach for the enhanced target root is the most important prognostic factor in the predicting of the clinical parameters of the favorable TFESIs group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Injections, Epidural , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Leg , Logistic Models , Low Back Pain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis
20.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 425-431, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe changes in pharyngeal pressure during the swallowing process according to postures in normal individuals using high-resolution manometry (HRM). METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers drank 5 mL of water twice while sitting in a neutral posture. Thereafter, they drank the same amount of water twice in the head rotation and head tilting postures. The pressure and time during the deglutition process for each posture were measured with HRM. The data obtained for these two postures were compared with those obtained from the neutral posture. RESULTS: The maximum pressure, area, rise time, and duration in velopharynx (VP) and tongue base (TB) were not affected by changes in posture. In comparison, the maximum pressure and the pre-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) maximum pressure of the lower pharynx in the counter-catheter head rotation posture were lower than those in the neutral posture. The lower pharynx pressure in the catheter head tilting posture was higher than that in the counter-catheter head tilting. The changes in the VP peak and epiglottis, VP and TB peaks, and the VP onset and post-UES time intervals were significant in head tilting and head rotation toward the catheter postures, as compared with neutral posture. CONCLUSION: The pharyngeal pressure and time parameter analysis using HRM determined the availability of head rotation as a compensatory technique for safe swallowing. Tilting the head smoothes the progress of food by increasing the pressure in the pharynx.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Epiglottis , Esophageal Sphincter, Upper , Head , Healthy Volunteers , Manometry , Pharynx , Posture , Tongue , Water
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