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1.
Blood Research ; : 159-168, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831005

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. The genetic spectrum of PCM has been expanded to mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF genes in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of these mutations and their significance, including baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We explored 50 patients who were newly diagnosed with PCM between 2009 and 2012 at a single Korean institute. Clinical and laboratory parameters were gathered through careful review of medical records. Mutation analysis was carried out using DNA from the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis. Pyrosequencing was performed to detect KRAS G12V,KRASG13D, and NRAS G61R. BRAF V600E was analyzed by allele-specific real-time PCR. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters was carried out according to those mutations. @*Results@#We identified 14 patients (28%) with activating mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway (RAS/RAF mutations):KRAS (N=3), KRAS (N=4),BRAF (N=7), and both KRAS and BRAF (N=1). RAS/RAF mutations were more frequently observed in patients with complex karyotypes and showed poorer progression free survival (PFS). Specifically, the BRAF V600E mutation had a significantly negative impact on median PFS. @*Conclusion@#We first showed the frequency of RAS/RAF mutations in Korean patients with PCM.Screening of these mutations could be considered as a routine clinical test at the time of diagnosis and follow-up due to their influence on clinical outcome, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739121

ABSTRACT

We reviewed our leukemia database to reclassify 610 patients previously diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the updated 2016 WHO classification. Nine patients were categorized as having myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition. AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities accounted for 57.4% (345/601) of the patients under the 2016 WHO classification. AML with mutated NPM1 was the most common form (16.5%), with the majority associated with monocytic differentiation (63.6%). AML with double CEBPA mutations accounted for 8.3% of these cases, and the majority were previously diagnosed as AML with/without maturation (78.0%). These newly classified mutations were mutually exclusive without overlapping with other forms of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities. AML with mutated NPM1 and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes comprised the oldest patients, whereas AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 included the youngest patients. The leukocyte count was highest in AML with mutated NPM1, and the percentage of peripheral blood blasts was the highest in AML with double CEBPA mutations. Our results indicate that implementation of the 2016 WHO classification of AML would not pose major difficulties in clinical practice. Hematopathologists should review and prepare genetic tests for the new classification, according to their clinical laboratory conditions.


Subject(s)
Classification , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be useful in laboratories that cannot afford automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel rapid automated fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). METHODS: A fluorescent LFIA using a small bench-top fluorescence reader, Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS; Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea), was developed for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) within 20 minutes. We compared the diagnostic performance of AFIAS with that of automated CLIAs—Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) and ARCHITECT (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)—using 20 seroconversion panels and 3,500 clinical serum samples. RESULTS: Evaluation with the seroconversion panels demonstrated that AFIAS had adequate sensitivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection. From the clinical samples, AFIAS sensitivity and specificity were 99.8% and 99.3% for the HBsAg test, 100.0% and 100.0% for the anti-HBs test, and 98.8% and 99.1% for the anti-HCV test, respectively. Its agreement rates with the Elecsys HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV detection assays were 99.4%, 100.0%, and 99.0%, respectively. AFIAS detected all samples with HBsAg genotypes A-F and H and anti-HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4, and 6. Cross-reactivity with other infections was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The AFIAS HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV tests demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to current automated CLIAs. AFIAS could be used for a large-scale HBV or HCV screening in low-resource laboratories or low-to middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Immunoassay , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion
6.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 114-118, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715908

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is caused by mutations in the SPTA1, SPTB, ANK1, SLC4A1, and EPB42 genes, all of which encode erythrocyte membrane proteins. Mutations in SLC4A1, which encodes band 3 protein, have rarely been reported as the causative factor among Korean patients with HS. Here, we report two Korean patients with HS carrying mutations in SLC4A1. Patient 1 was a 3-year-old girl with unremarkable past and family histories and was evaluated for anemia that was detected after a complete blood count. She was suspected of having HS considering the spherocytosis of her peripheral blood smear, increased osmotic fragility, hemolytic features in blood chemistry tests, and splenomegaly. Sequence analysis revealed that the patient harbored a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2278C>T (p.Arg760Trp) in exon 17 of SLC4A1. Patient 2 was a 23-year-old man who had a prior history of intermittent jaundice. Although the patient did not have anemia, a genetic test for HS was performed due to evidence of hemolytic features in the blood chemistry test, splenomegaly, and a family history of HS. The test confirmed a single heterozygous missense mutation, c.2423G>T (p.Arg808Leu) in exon 18 of SLC4A1.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte , Blood Cell Count , Chemistry , Child, Preschool , Erythrocyte Membrane , Exons , Female , Humans , Jaundice , Mutation, Missense , Osmotic Fragility , Sequence Analysis , Splenomegaly , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the tumor markers available for evaluating disease progression status after initial therapy and monitoring subsequent treatment modalities in colorectal, gastrointestinal, lung, and breast carcinoma. We evaluated the correlations and differences between widely used, automated CEA immunoassays at four different medical laboratories. METHODS: In total, 393 serum samples with CEA ranging from 3.0 to 1,000 ng/mL were analyzed on ADVIA Centaur XP (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA), ARCHITECT i2000sr (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA), Elecsys E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and Unicel DxI800 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), and the results were compared. Deming regression, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the data correlation and % differences among these assays. RESULTS: Deming regression analysis of data from Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800 showed good correlation (y=3.1615+0.8970x). According to Bland-Altman plot, no statistically significant bias (−1.78 ng/mL [95% confidence interval: −4.02 to 0.46]) was observed between Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800. However, the relative differences of CEA concentrations between assays exceeded the acceptable limit of 30%. Regarding the agreement of positivity with cut-off value 5.0 ng/mL, ARCHITECT i2000sr and Elecsys E170 showed the highest agreement (95.2%), whereas ADVIA Centaur XP and ARCHITECT i2000sr showed the lowest agreement (70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Agreements between automated CEA immunoassays are variable, and individual CEA concentrations may differ significantly between assays. Standardization of serum CEA concentrations and further harmonization are needed.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Disease Progression , Immunoassay , Lung , Statistics as Topic
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129953

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kansas
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129939

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kansas
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167184

ABSTRACT

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic–pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Bone Marrow , Chromosome Aberrations , Disease Progression , Fibrosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Hyperplasia , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151576

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of the combined use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) bacterial identification and Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. METHODS: Direct identification and AST were performed in parallel to the standard methods in monomicrobial positive blood culture bottles. In total, 254 isolates grown on aerobic and/or anaerobic bottles were identified with MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (bioMerieux, France), and 1,978 microorganism/antimicrobial agent combinations were assessed. For isolates from anaerobic bottles, an aliquot of the culture broth was centrifuged, washed, and filtered through a nylon mesh. For isolates from aerobic/pediatric bottles, a lysis step using 9.26% ammonium chloride solution and 2% saponin solution was included. RESULTS: The overall correct identification rate was 81.8% (208/254) and that for gram-positive/gram-negative isolates was 73.9%/92.6%, respectively, and it was 81.8%, 87.6%, and 57.9% for isolates from aerobic, anaerobic, and pediatric bottles, respectively. Identification was not possible in 45 cases, and most of these isolates were streptococci (N=14) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (N=11). Misidentification occurred only in one case. Compared with standard methods, direct AST showed 97.9% (1,936/1,978) agreement with very major error of 0.25%, major error of 0.05%, and minor error of 1.8%. CONCLUSIONS: This simple and cost-effective sample preparation method gives reliable results for the direct identification and AST of bacteria. For the identification of streptococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the method should be further improved.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ammonium Chloride/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Child , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Saponins/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
14.
Blood Research ; : 117-118, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184122

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gray Platelet Syndrome , Korea
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. METHODS: In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing 0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). CONCLUSIONS: The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Neutrophils/cytology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. METHODS: We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. RESULTS: Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. CONCLUSION: A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry.


Subject(s)
Lewis X Antigen/metabolism , CD24 Antigen/metabolism , CD55 Antigens/metabolism , CD59 Antigens/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Cell Count , Erythrocytes/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Granulocytes/cytology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for cardiovascular effects mediated by angiotensin II. This study aimed to investigate the impact of antibodies directed against AT1R (anti-AT1R) in renal allograft rejection. METHODS: We evaluated 53 patients who had biopsy-proven rejection including antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) (N=22), T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) (N=29), and mixed AMR and TCMR (N=2). Donor specific HLA antibodies (DSA) and anti-AT1Rs were simultaneously determined. RESULTS: Anti-AT1Rs were detected in 9.4% (5/53) of rejection patients (one with acute AMR, two with chronic active AMR, one with acute TCMR, and one with mixed acute AMR & TCMR). HLA antibodies and DSA were detected in 75.5% (40/53) and 49.1% (26/53) of patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in transplant characteristics between anti-AT1R(+) and anti-AT1R(-) patients except for the association of HLA class-I DSA(+) and anti-AT1R(+). Four of five anti-AT1R(+) patients had DSA and were also found to have AMR. A single anti-AT1R(+)/DSA(-) patient developed acute TCMR. Detection rates of DSA, HLA antibodies, or anti-AT1R were not different between AMR and TCMR. However, DSA(+)/anti-AT1R(+) was more frequently found in AMR than in TCMR (P=0.036). Patients with anti-AT1R showed a greater tendency to develop high-grade rejection as Banff IIA/IIB or AMR. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of anti-AT1R was significantly associated with HLA class-I DSA in renal allograft rejection patients. Both anti-AT1R and DSA positivity was associated with AMR in patients with renal allograft rejection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Graft Rejection/etiology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous
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