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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899104

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Epidemiologic data suggest that cluster headache (CH) is significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine differences in features between patients with a smoking history and those who are never-smokers, using data from a prospective multicenter registry. @*Methods@#Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. We compared clinical and demographic features between ever-smokers (current or former smokers) and never-smokers. @*Results@#This study enrolled 250 patients who were diagnosed with CH, of which 152 (60.8%) were ever-smokers and 98 (39.2%) were never-smokers. The age at CH onset was significantly lower in the never-smoker group than in the ever-smoker group [27.1±12.9 years vs. 30.6± 10.9 years (mean±standard deviation), p=0.024]. Seasonal rhythmicity (58.1% vs. 44.7%, p= 0.038) and triptan responsiveness (100% vs. 85.1%, p=0.001) were higher in never-smokers, while other clinical features such as pain severity, duration, attack frequency, and associated autonomic symptoms did not differ significantly between the groups. The male-to-female ratio was markedly higher in ever-smokers (29.4:1) than in never-smokers (1.7:1). @*Conclusions@#Most of the clinical features did not differ significantly between patients with a smoking history and never-smokers. However, the age at CH onset, sex ratio, and seasonal rhythmicity were significantly associated with smoking history.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891400

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Epidemiologic data suggest that cluster headache (CH) is significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine differences in features between patients with a smoking history and those who are never-smokers, using data from a prospective multicenter registry. @*Methods@#Data used in this study were obtained from the Korean Cluster Headache Registry that collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with CH. We compared clinical and demographic features between ever-smokers (current or former smokers) and never-smokers. @*Results@#This study enrolled 250 patients who were diagnosed with CH, of which 152 (60.8%) were ever-smokers and 98 (39.2%) were never-smokers. The age at CH onset was significantly lower in the never-smoker group than in the ever-smoker group [27.1±12.9 years vs. 30.6± 10.9 years (mean±standard deviation), p=0.024]. Seasonal rhythmicity (58.1% vs. 44.7%, p= 0.038) and triptan responsiveness (100% vs. 85.1%, p=0.001) were higher in never-smokers, while other clinical features such as pain severity, duration, attack frequency, and associated autonomic symptoms did not differ significantly between the groups. The male-to-female ratio was markedly higher in ever-smokers (29.4:1) than in never-smokers (1.7:1). @*Conclusions@#Most of the clinical features did not differ significantly between patients with a smoking history and never-smokers. However, the age at CH onset, sex ratio, and seasonal rhythmicity were significantly associated with smoking history.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) can present with migrainous symptoms such as nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia. In addition, an overlap between CH and migraine has been reported. This study aimed to determine the differences in the characteristics of CH according to the presence of comorbid migraine. METHODS: This study was performed using data from a prospective multicenter registry study of CH involving 16 headache clinics. CH and migraine were diagnosed by headache specialists at each hospital based on third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3). We interviewed patients with comorbid migraine to obtain detailed information about migraine. The characteristics and psychological comorbidities of CH were compared between patients with and without comorbid migraine. RESULTS: Thirty (15.6%) of 192 patients with CH had comorbid migraine, comprising 18 with migraine without aura, 1 with migraine with aura, 3 with chronic migraine, and 8 with probable migraine. Compared to patients with CH without migraine, patients with CH with comorbid migraine had a shorter duration of CH after the first episode [5.4±7.4 vs. 9.0±8.2 years (mean±standard deviation), p=0.008], a lower frequency of episodic CH (50.0% vs. 73.5%, p=0.010), and a higher frequency of chronic CH (13.3% vs. 3.7%, p=0.033). Psychiatric comorbidities did not differ between patients with and without comorbid migraine. The headaches experienced by patients could be distinguished based on their trigeminal autonomic symptoms, pulsating character, severity, and pain location. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct characteristics of CH remained unchanged in patients with comorbid migraine with the exception of an increased frequency of chronic CH. The most appropriate management of CH requires clinicians to check the history of preceding migraine, particularly in cases of chronic CH.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cluster Headache , Comorbidity , Headache , Headache Disorders , Humans , Hyperacusis , Migraine Disorders , Migraine with Aura , Migraine without Aura , Nausea , Photophobia , Prospective Studies , Specialization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) is frequently either not diagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed. We addressed this issue by developing the self-administered Cluster Headache Screening Questionnaire (CHSQ). METHODS: Experts selected items from the diagnostic criteria of CH and the characteristics of migraine. The questionnaire was administered to first-visit headache patients at nine headache clinics. The finally developed CHSQ included items based on the differences in responses between CH and non-CH patients, and the accuracy and reliability of the scoring model were assessed. RESULTS: Forty-two patients with CH, 207 migraineurs, 73 with tension-type headache, and 18 with primary stabbing headache were enrolled. The CHSQ item were scored as follows: 3 points for ipsilateral eye symptoms, agitation, and duration; 2 points for clustering patterns; and 1 point for the male sex, unilateral pain, disability, ipsilateral nasal symptoms, and frequency. The total score of the CHSQ ranged from 0 to 16. The mean score was higher in patients with CH than in non-CH patients (12.9 vs. 3.4, p 8 points, the CHSQ had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 95.2%, 96%, 76.9%, and 99.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CHSQ is a reliable screening tool for the rapid identification of CH.


Subject(s)
Cluster Headache , Diagnosis , Dihydroergotamine , Headache , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Migraine Disorders , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tension-Type Headache
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56113

ABSTRACT

Cluster headache (CH) is a rare underdiagnosed primary headache disorder with very severe unilateral pain and autonomic symptoms. Clinical characteristics of Korean patients with CH have not yet been reported. We analyzed the clinical features of CH patients from 11 university hospitals in Korea. Among a total of 200 patients with CH, only 1 patient had chronic CH. The average age of CH patients was 38.1 ± 8.9 years (range 19–60 years) and the average age of onset was 30.7 ± 10.3 years (range 10–57 years). The male-to-female ratio was 7:1 (2.9:1 among teen-onset and 11.7:1 among twenties-onset). Pain was very severe at 9.3 ± 1.0 on the visual analogue scale. The average duration of each attack was 100.6 ± 55.6 minutes and a bout of CH lasted 6.5 ± 4.5 weeks. Autonomic symptoms were present in 93.5% and restlessness or agitation was present in 43.5% of patients. Patients suffered 3.0 ± 3.5 (range 1–25) bouts over 7.3 ± 6.7 (range 1–30) years. Diurnal periodicity and season propensity were present in 68.5% and 44.0% of patients, respectively. There were no sex differences in associated symptoms or diurnal and seasonal periodicity. Korean CH patients had a high male-to-female ratio, relatively short bout duration, and low proportion of chronic CH, unlike CH patients in Western countries.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Asia , Cluster Headache , Delayed Diagnosis , Dihydroergotamine , Headache Disorders, Primary , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Periodicity , Psychomotor Agitation , Seasons , Sex Characteristics , Sex Ratio , Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 366-370, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228164

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is very rare. Furthermore, intracranial vasospasm (ICVS) associated with spinal hemorrhage has been very rarely reported. We present an ICVS case without intracranial hemorrhage following SDH. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of severe headache. Multiple intracranial vasospasms were noted on a brain CT angiogram and transfemoral cerebral angiography. However, intracranial hemorrhage was not revealed by brain MRI or CT. On day 3 after admission, weakness of both legs and urinary incontinence developed. Spine MRI showed C7~T6 spinal cord compression due to hyperacute stage of SDH. After hematoma evacuation, her symptoms gradually improved. We suggest that spinal cord evaluation should be considered in patients with headache who have ICVS, although intracranial hemorrhage would not be visible in brain images.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cerebral Angiography , Female , Headache , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Urinary Incontinence , Vasospasm, Intracranial
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent advances in information technology have created opportunities for advances in the management of stroke. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using a smartphone software application (app) for the management of vascular risk factors in patients with stroke. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial developed a smartphone app, the 'Korea University Health Monitoring System for Stroke: KUHMS2,' for use by patients with stroke. During a 6-month follow-up period, its feasibility was assessed by measuring the changes in their vascular risk-factor profiles and the number of days per patient with data registration into the app. The effect of the app on the achievement rate of risk-factor targets was assessed by classifying subjects into compliant and noncompliant groups. RESULTS: At the end of the trial, data on 48 patients were analyzed. The number of days on which data were registered into the app was 60.42+/-50.17 (mean+/-standard deviation). Among predefined vascular risk factors, the target achievement rate for blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) improved significantly from baseline to the final measurement. The serial changes in achievement rates for risk-factor targets did not differ between the compliant and noncompliant groups. CONCLUSIONS: Many challenges must be overcome before mobile apps can be used for patients with stroke. Nevertheless, the app tested in this study induced a shift in the risk profiles in a favorable direction among the included stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Delivery of Health Care , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Mobile Applications , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Smartphone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58784

ABSTRACT

The author wishes to apologize for incorrectly displaying the references.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90158

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke atrial fibrillation has been frequently reported especially in the patients with right insular infarct as an evidence of cerebrogenic mechanism affecting on cardiac rhythm. However, conversion to normal sinus rhythm after stroke in patients who had atrial fibrillation has not been reported. A 88-year-old men who had untreated atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital due to left middle cerebral artery territory infarction. During admission, second ischemic attack occurred in right middle cerebral artery territory. At that time, his atrial fibrillation converted spontaneously to normal sinus rhythm. Restored sinus rhythm sustained until he died due to sepsis. This case is evidence supporting a theory that brain is associated with control of cardiac rhythm. If no risk factor is revealed by intensive investigation in patients with acute cerebral infarctions that cardioembolism is strongly suspected as a cause, physicians should concern transformation of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm after stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Autonomic Nervous System , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Infarction , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Stroke
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies both suggest that frontal lobe dysfunction is present in migraineurs. Since P3a abnormalities manifest in other diseases associated with attention problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, we hypothesized that migraine patients have P3a abnormalities, particularly in the frontal region. METHODS: Event-related potentials were measured using a passive auditory oddball paradigm in 16 female migraineurs (aged 22.9+/-2.0 years, mean+/-SD) during the interictal period and in 16 age-matched healthy females (22.6+/-2.0 years). The amplitudes and latencies were analyzed independently using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Nonparametric statistical testing using a cluster-level randomization method was performed to localize the abnormalities. RESULTS: The mean P3a amplitude at frontal areas during the third trials was significantly lower in migraineurs (1.06 microV) than in controls (1.69 microV, p=0.026). P3a amplitudes were negatively correlated with the duration of the migraine history (r=-0.618, p=0.014). Cluster-based nonparametric statistical analysis showed that the amplitudes over left frontal areas were significantly lower in migraine patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: A reduced P3a amplitude of migraineurs reflects attentional deficits and frontal dysfunction. The negative correlation between P3a amplitude and the duration of the migraine history suggests that attentional deficits and frontal dysfunction are either the cause or the result of headache.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Evoked Potentials , Female , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Neuroimaging , Oxalates , Random Allocation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Frovatriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist with a long duration of action and a low incidence of side effects. Although several placebo-controlled trials have documented the clinical efficacy and safety of frovatriptan in adults with migraine, this drug has not previously been studied in Asian including Korean patients. METHODS: In this double-blind multicenter trial, 229 patients with migraine were randomized to receive frovatriptan 2.5 mg or placebo upon the occurrence of a moderate-to-severe migraine. The primary outcome was the 2-hour headache response rate. RESULTS: Frovatriptan significantly increased the 2-hour headache response rate compared with placebo (52.9% vs. 34.0%, p=0.004). The headache response rates at 4, 6, and 12 hours were significantly higher in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group, as was the pain-free rate at 2 hours (19.0% vs. 5.7%, p=0.004), 4 hours (40.7% vs. 23.0%, p=0.006), and 6 hours (56.1% vs. 34.0%, p=0.002). The median time to a headache response was significantly shorter in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group (2.00 hours vs. 3.50 hours, p<0.001). The use of rescue medications was more common in the placebo group (p=0.005). Chest tightness associated with triptan was infrequent (2.5%), mild, and transient. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that 2.5-mg frovatriptan is effective and well tolerated in Korean migraineurs for acute treatment of migraine attacks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carbazoles , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Migraine Disorders , Oxalates , Thorax , Tryptamines
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic effects of increased intrathoracic pressure (ITP) have been the focus of many investigations. However, very little is known about the effects of elevated ITP on the occurrence of stroke. CASE REPORT: Four young patients with a cardioembolic source of stroke were examined. In all cases the stroke was preceded by an increase in ITP that occurred during coughing, vomiting, or sexual intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that cardioembolic stroke is facilitated by situations in which ITP is elevated.


Subject(s)
Cough , Embolism , Hemodynamics , Humans , Stroke , Vomiting
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) is one of the major risk factors for ischemic stroke, particularly in Asian populations. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of ICAS in asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 835 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily visited a tertiary referral hospital for a health screening examination that included brain magnetic resonance angiography. The subjects had no history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks; those who had potential cardiac sources of emboli were excluded. ICAS and extracranial atherosclerosis were defined as a reduction in luminal diameter of at least 50%. Vascular risk factors were screened through questionnaires, interviews, and examinations. RESULTS: ICAS was found in 25 subjects (3.0%) and extracranial atherosclerosis was found in 4 patients (0.5%). No patient had combined lesions. ICAS was distributed in 31 arteries in 25 subjects: anterior cerebral arteries (5 subjects, 16%), middle cerebral arteries (16 subjects, 52%), posterior cerebral arteries (8 subjects, 26%), and distal internal carotid arteries (2 subjects, 7%). The ratio of ICAS of the anterior circulation (23 of 31 arteries with ICAS, 74%) to that of the posterior circulation (8 of 31 arteries with ICAS, 26%) was 3:1. The ratio of ICAS (23 of 27 arteries with atherosclerosis in the anterior circulation, 85%) to extracranial atherosclerosis (4 of 27 arteries with therosclerosis in the anterior circulation, 15%) was 6:1. An older age [odds ratio (OR)=1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.00-1.10] and hypertension (OR=2.41, 95% CI=1.01-5.72) were independent risk factors for ICAS. CONCLUSIONS: ICAS is more prevalent than extracranial atherosclerosis among neurologically asymptomatic Korean adults. Subjects with ICAS are significantly older and have an increased frequency of hypertension compared to those subjects without atherosclerotic stenosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atherosclerosis , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Mass Screening , Middle Cerebral Artery , Phenobarbital , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48110

ABSTRACT

Orthostatic headache after suboccipital craniectomy has been rarely reported. A 32-year-old man underwent emergent suboccipital craniectomy due to acute bilateral cerebellar infarctions with massive brain edema. Although his neurological deterioration halted after the craniectomy, he still suffered from a severe disabling orthostatic headache. We performed two epidural blood patches at the levels of the lumbar and thoracic spine. He improved considerably a few days after the repetitive epidural blood patches. Epidural blood patches may be a useful treatment modality for post-craniectomy postural headaches.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Patch, Epidural , Brain Edema , Headache , Humans , Infarction , Spine
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61743

ABSTRACT

The authors report jerky seesaw nystagmus, extorsional downbeating in the right eye and intorsional upbeating in the left eye, in a patient with right internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). This pattern of nystagmus may occur by disrupting pathways from contralateral posterior and anterior semicircular canals by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Depending on damage to the pathways from contralateral vertical canals, various patterns of dissociated torsional-vertical nystagmus may accompany INO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ocular Motility Disorders , Semicircular Canals
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16335

ABSTRACT

Obesity-Hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is characterized by morbid obesity, hypoxia, and hypercapnea during wakefulness without parechymal lung disease or severe obstructive sleep apnea. A woman was admitted because of mental deterioration and diagnosed as OHS on the basis of obesity and hypoventilation, while awake, after ruling out other causes. By bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, hypercapnea and hypoxia were resolved. We report that BiPAP can be an effective treatment for severe hypercapnea and hypoxia in OHS, which obviate the need for invasive endotracheal intubation.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Female , Humans , Hypoventilation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung Diseases , Obesity , Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome , Obesity, Morbid , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Wakefulness
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