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1.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 3-6, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995689

ABSTRACT

Reduction in both newly infection and mortality related to chronic hepatitis are key point for eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers are used in diagnosis and anti-viral treatment. Recently recommended screen strategy for HBV infection and HCV infection required more sensitive kit, which is helpful to linkage to care. Some new simply service is also proposed, including point-of-care, and reflex testing.

2.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1263-1270, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013924

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effect of microinjection of EX527, a selective SIRT1 antagonist, into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), and to explore the role of CREB/BDNF in it. Methods The cannulas were implanted bilaterally in the VLO of rats by brain stereotaxis surgery, and the model of morphine-induced CPP was established. The behavioral experiment consisted of four stages:habituation (d 1), pre-test (d 2-4), conditioning training (d 5-14) and test (d 15). At the stage of conditioning training, EX527 (1 μL, 5 g·L

3.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 241-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965048

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of perioperative use of tigecycline in preventing infection and the incidence of hypofibrinogenemia in liver transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data of 40 liver transplant recipients given with tigecycline to prevent infection were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of infection in recipients and donor-derived infection were analyzed. The changes of clinical indexes in recipients during, upon the completion and (7±2) d after tigecycline treatment were analyzed, respectively. The incidence and treatment of hypofibrinogenemia were summarized. Results Among 40 liver transplant recipients, 2 cases were infected by aspergillus niger and cytomegalovirus, out of the antibacterial spectrum of tigecycline. After adjusting the anti-infection regimen, the infection was properly controlled. Liver allografts were positive for relevant culture in 9 cases, whereas none of them progressed into donor-derived infection. Approximately at postoperative 2 weeks, all 40 recipients restored liver function and were discharged from hospital. Among them, 6 recipients developed hypofibrinogenemia complicated with coagulation disorder at postoperative 2-4 d, whereas transaminase level, bilirubin level and infection-related indexes were gradually decreased after liver transplantation, and albumin level was stable. After supplemented with human fibrinogen and prothrombin complex, coagulation function was improved, but fibrinogen level persistently declined. After terminating use of tigecycline, fibrinogen level was gradually restored to normal range, which might be an adverse drug reaction induced by tigecycline. Conclusions Perioperative anti-infection regimen including tigecycline may reduce the incidence of infection caused by sensitive bacteria in liver transplant recipients. Nevertheless, the incidence of hypofibrinogenemia should be intimately monitored throughout the use of tigecycline.

4.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 483-490, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979534

ABSTRACT

@#Committee of Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery (CMICS) annually investigates the minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery performed by departments of cardiovascular surgery of all hospitals in China of last year, and makes classification and summary according to the operation amount of minimally invasive surgery, regional and hospital distribution, and publishes it on the theme report of China Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery Conference (CMC). In 2021, CMICS published the 2018-2019 annual data of Chinese cardiovascular surgery in the form of a white paper for the first time in the Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, which attracted great attention from peers. In this statistical report, CMICS will focus on the volume of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery, regional and hospital distribution in China (excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Province) in the 2020—2021 for your reference.

5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 688-691, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986195

ABSTRACT

In the past 20 years, Chinese Medical Association had issued several versions of hepatitis C prevention and treatment guidelines. In the latest guidelines published in 2022, the Chinese Society of Hepatology and the Society of Infectious Diseases for the Chinese Medical Association organized experts to update their recommendations for hepatitis C screening and treatment. The updated key points on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment proposed in the guidelines are now interpreted, aiming to provide reference for more effective clinical application of the guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Asian People
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 385-388, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986142

ABSTRACT

Chinese Society of Hepatology and Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Medical Association update the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (version 2022) in 2022. The latest guidelines recommend more extensive screening and more active antiviral treating for hepatitis B virus infection. This article interprets the essential updates in the guidelines to help deepen understanding and better guide the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Gastroenterology
8.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 1485-1491, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953546

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To discuss the feasibility of establishment of animal model of "functional" bicuspid aortic valve with swine and observe its effect on the wall shear stress inside the aorta. Methods    Four common Shanghai White Swine with body weight between 50 kg to 55 kg were selected. Under general anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic transverse incision approach was used, continuous suture with 6-0 polypropylene to align the left and right coronary valve leaflets to create a bicuspid valve morphology. After the operation, echocardiography was used to observe the aortic valve morphology and the hemodynamic changes of the aortic valve orifice. The effect on the wall shear stress inside the aorta was studied with 4D-Flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results    A total of 4 swine "functional" bicuspid aortic valve models were established, with a success rate of 100.0%. Echocardiography showed that the blood flow velocity of the aortic valve orifice was faster than that before the operation (0.96 m/s vs. 1.80 m/s). 4D-Flow MRI showed abnormally increased wall shear stress and blood flow velocity in the aorta of the animal models. After the surgery, in model animals, the maximal wall shear stress inside the ascending aorta was greater than 1.36 Pa, and the maximum blood flow velocity was greater than 1.4 m/s. Conclusion    Establishment of the animal model of "functional" bicuspid aortic valve in swine is feasible, scientific and reliable. It can be used in researches on evaluating the pathophysiological changes.

9.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E692-E698, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961787

ABSTRACT

Objective To study mechanical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based textile valves woven with nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires by finite element method, and combined with in vitro hemodynamic testing, to analyze the effect of wire quantity and woven position on hemodynamic performance of PET textile valve. Methods The three-dimensional (3D) geometric models of PET valves without wires and models of PET valves with wires by different numbers and distributions in radial direction were constructed using modeling software. Material properties of PET valves and wires were given based on the literature and experimental data. The transvalvular pressure difference curves of PET valves obtained from in vitro pulsatile flow experiments were used as boundary conditions. Stress distributions of the valve during peak systole and diastole were studied by finite element analysis software. Hydrodynamic performance of the valve with wires was evaluated by in vitro pulsatile flow experiments. ResultsThe finite element analysis results showed that the radially woven NiTi wires could enhance support for the PET textile valve, and support force and area of the valve in belly region of the valve leaflet with evenly distributed metal wires increased with the number of metal wires. The situation of support force was similar for silk distributions on both sides of the belly. The weaving of wires reduced stress concentration on the PET textile valve to a certain extent. The pulsatile flow experiment results showed that the stability of opening and closing shapes, effective opening area (EOA), regurgitation fraction (RF) and transvalvular pressure differences for two kinds of the PET valves with woven wires were better than those of the PET valves without wires. Conclusions Weaving metal wires in radial direction of the PET textile valve can effectively reduce stress concentrations on the PET textile valve during the cardiac cycle, and reduce tearing possibility of the valve leaflet. The woven metal wires can improve opening and closing stability of PET textile valve in in vitro hydrodynamic test, increase EOA and reduce RF and transvalvular pressure difference of the PET valve.

10.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 357-375, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938119

ABSTRACT

Disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBIs) are common conditions in community and clinical practice. As specialized enteroendocrine cells, enterochromaffin (EC) cells produce up to 95% of total body serotonin and coordinate luminal and basolateral communication in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. EC cells affect a broad range of gut physiological processes, such as motility, absorption, secretion, chemo/mechanosensation, and pathologies, including visceral hypersensitivity, immune dysfunction, and impaired gastrointestinal barrier function. We aim to review EC cell and serotonin-mediated physiology and pathophysiology with particular emphasis on DGBIs. We explored the knowledge gap and attempted to suggest new perspectives of physiological and pathophysiological insights of DGBIs, such as (1) functional heterogeneity of regionally distributed EC cells throughout the entire GI tract; (2) potential pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by EC cell defect in DGBIs; (3) cellular and molecular mechanisms characterizing EC cells and gut microbiota bidirectional communication; (4) differential modulation of EC cells through GI segment-specific gut microbiota; (5) uncover whether crosstalk between EC cells and (i) luminal contents; (ii) enteric nervous system; and (iii) central nervous system are core mechanisms modulating gut-brain homeostasis; and (6) explore the therapeutic modalities for physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms mediated through EC cells. Insights discussed in this review will fuel the conception and realization of pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic clues to improve the management and clinical care of DGBIs.

11.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 219-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are common operative neurocognitive disorders, which places a heavy burden on patients, families and society. Therefore, it is very important to search for preventive drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a decrease the incidence of POD and POCD. But the specific effect of dexmedetomidine on elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and its potential mechanism are not clear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on preventing POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and the influence on the balance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.@*METHODS@#This trial was designed as a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. One hundred and twenty hospitalized patients from January 2019 to December 2020, aged 60-80 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III and scheduled for hepatic lobectomy, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=40) using a random number table: A C group, a Dex1 group, and a Dex2 group. After anesthesia induction, saline in the C group, dexmedetomidine [0.3 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex1 group, and dexmedetomidine [0.6 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex2 group were infused until the end of operation. The incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were compared among the 3 groups. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for assessing POD and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating POCD were recorded and venous blood samples were obtained for the determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 at the different time below: the time before anesthesia (T0), and the first day (T1), the third day (T2), the fifth day (T3), and the seventh day (T4) after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the incidences of bradycardia in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group increased (both P<0.05) and there was no difference in hypotension in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group (both P>0.05). The incidences of POD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 22.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. The incidences of POD in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). However, there is no difference in the incidence of POD between the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). The incidences of POCD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 30.0%, 12.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. The incidences of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). And no obvious difference was seen in the incidence of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased and the level of IL-10 increased at each time points (from T1 to T4) in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Dex1 group, the level of IL-1β at T2 and IL-10 from T1 to T3 elevated in the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the T0, the concentrations of NSE in C group at each time points (from T1 to T4) and in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group from T1 to T3 increased (all P<0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of NSE decreased from T1 to T4 in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion can reduce the incidence of POCD and POD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy, and the protective mechanism appears to involve the down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulation of IL-10 expression, which lead to rebalance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Bradycardia , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Delirium/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypotension/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Postoperative Cognitive Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1269-1274, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924695

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of the change in anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy indication on treatment rate and the features of the population requiring treatment. Methods The treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database were selected as subjects, and related demographic, virological, hematological, and biochemical data were collected. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups; the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results A total of 3640 treatment-naïve CHB patients were included in this study, among whom 64.4% were male, 68.7% had an age of 30-59 years, and 46.8% had an indeterminate clinical stage. According to the 2015 and 2019 editions of Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and the 2022 edition of expert consensus, the number of patients who had the indication for antiviral therapy was 625(17.2%), 1333(36.6%), and 2890(79.4%), respectively. The number of patients requiring treatment was increased by 1557 according to the 2022 edition of expert consensus, among whom 1424(91.5%) met the treatment threshold of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) > 30 U/L for male patients or ALT > 19 U/L for female patients. The additional patients requiring treatment according to the 2022 edition of expert consensus had significantly higher levels of ALT and HBV DNA and significantly lower scores of APRI and FIB-4 than the additional patients requiring treatment according to the 2019 edition of Guidelines (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The expansion of antiviral therapy indications for CHB may significantly increase the proportion of CHB patients receiving antiviral treatment and help mild CHB patients at the risk of disease progression to receive timely treatment and achieve the improvement in long-term prognosis.

13.
Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation ; (12): 529-533, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911681

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the efficacy of sirolimus-based immunosuppressive protocol on tumor recurrence and tumor-free survival after liver transplantation(LT)in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)patients.Methods:From January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018, a total of 114 HCC patients undergoing LT were recruited and divided into two groups of sirolimus(SRL)and tacrolimus. Univariate and multivariant analyses were performed for evaluating the risk factors of recurrence after LT. Tumor-free survival were compared using Cox logistic regression analysis.Results:Tumor recurrence and/or metastasis occurred in 45 patients. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis indicated that sirolimus was an independent protective factor for preventing tumor recurrence( P=0.005, HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.193~0.748). The median tumor-free survival time was 5(4~19)months in tacrolimus group and 23(13~31)months in sirolimus group. No inter-group statistical difference existed in incidence of infection or rejection complications( P>0.05). Conclusions:HCC patients benefit from sirolimus-based immunosuppressive protocol after LT. And sirolimus may reduce tumor recurrence rate and prolong tumor-free survival time.

14.
Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation ; (12): 39-42, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885309

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the early warning value of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) positivity in liver transplantation recipients with rectal swabs, examine the risk factors of CRKP bloodstream infection and provide the relevant treatments.Methods:From June 2018 to December 2019 in Organ Transplantation Research Institute Affiliated Tongji Hospital Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 148 cases of liver transplantation recipients with positive CRKP rectal swabbing were recruited. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. And the risk factors of CRKP bloodstream infections were examined for intervention and non-intervention groups to observe the effect of interventions of CRKP bloodstream infections.Results:Among them, 23 cases (15.5%) were positive for CRKP and 5 cases (21.7%) were infected with CRKP bloodstream. Rectal swab culture was negative in 125 cases and no bloodstream infection occurred. Long-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, severe basic diseases (severe hepatitis), postoperative delayed graft liver function recovery, acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) and postoperative anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction were risk factors. In intervention group, there were 2 cases (11.1%) of 18 patients with positive CRKP in rectal swab culture in late stage. Among 5 CRKP-positive recipients without intervention, 3 cases (60%) developed later CRKP bloodstream infection. The incidence of bloodstream infection was significantly lower in intervention group than that in non-intervention group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Rectal swab culture for liver transplantation recipients provides early warning for CRKP bloodstream infection. Interventions for CRKP positive high-risk recipients with rectal swab culture may reduce the occurrence of CRKP bloodstream infection and lower the risk of CRKP bloodstream infection in liver transplantation recipients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 1241-1258, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930869

ABSTRACT

The clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has significantly improved the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. With the widespread applica-tion of ICIs in HCC, the management of immune-related adverse events (irAE) gained more and more attention. However, the complicated disease characteristics and various combination therapies in HCC throw out challenges to irAE management. Therefore, the editorial board of the 'Chinese expert consensus on the management of immune-related adverse events of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (2021 edition)' organizes multidisciplinary experts to discuss and formulate this consensus. The consensus focuses on issues related to HCC irAE manage-ment, and puts forward suggestions, in order to improve standardized and safety clinical medication, so as to maximize the benefits of immunotherapy for patients.

16.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1245-1248, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877309

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, National Medical Products Administration of China issued Guidelines for Clinical Trials of Drugs for Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (Interim), which mainly targeted at adult patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with significant liver fibrosis and compensated liver cirrhosis (F2-F4). This article introduces related considerations from the aspects of clinical trial endpoint, overall clinical trial design, specific research and development stages, and safety. With reference to related guidelines of the United States and the European Union, this article attempts to explore the association between clinical trial and clinical practice.

17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 302-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876690

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of different anti-tumor therapies for recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation for primary liver cancer (liver cancer). Methods Clinical data of 145 recipients undergoing liver transplantation for liver cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The overall survival and recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation for liver cancer were analyzed. The clinical efficacy of different anti-tumor therapies for recipients with recurrence and metastasis were compared. Results Sixty-five recipients (44.8%) developed recurrence and metastasis. The median recurrence time was 6 months. Among them, 1 case underwent secondary liver transplantation after recurrence and died of intestinal perforation. Twenty-four recipients (37%) received targeted drug therapy with a median tumor-bearing survival of 22 months. Eleven recipients (17%) received radiotherapy or chemotherapy with a median tumor-bearing survival of 11 months. Nine recipients (14%) received local treatment (surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation), and the median tumor-bearing survival was 8 months. Twenty recipients (31%) abandoned anti-tumor therapy, and the median tumor-bearing survival was 3 months. The tumor-bearing survival of recipients receiving anti-tumor therapy was significantly longer than that of recipients without anti-tumor therapy (P < 0.001). The tumor-bearing survival of recipients receiving targeted drug therapy was significantly longer than that of those receiving other anti-tumor therapies (P=0.03). The tumor-bearing survival of recipients receiving local treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy was considerably longer than that of those who abandoned anti-tumor therapy (P=0.004). Conclusions Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation are the optimal therapies for recipients with recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation for liver cancer. For recipients with multi-focal tumors who fail to receive local treatment, those receiving targeted drug therapy obtain the longest survival. In addition, radiotherapy and chemotherapy can also prolong the survival of recipients with recurrence and metastasis.

18.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 19-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874868

ABSTRACT

Of all microorganisms in the human body, the largest and most complex population resides in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The gut microbiota continuously adapts to the host environment and serves multiple critical functions for their hosts, including regulating host immunity, procuring energy from food, and preventing the colonization of pathogens. Mounting evidence has suggested gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) as a core pathophysiology in the development of GI motility and metabolic disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. Current research has focused on discovering associations between these disorders and gut microbial dysbiosis; however, whether these associations are a consequence or cause is still mostly unexplored. State-of-the-art studies have investigated how gut microbes communicate with our body systems through microbiota-derived metabolites and how they are able to modulate host physiology. There is now mounting evidence that alterations in the composition of small intestinal microbes have an association with GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders. Although treatment options for gut microbial dysbiosis are currently limited, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, and dietary interventions are currently the best options. However, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics has been viewed with skepticism due to the risk of developing antibiotic resistant bacteria. Studies are warranted to elucidate the cellular and molecular pathways underlying gut microbiota-host crosstalk and for the development of a powerful platform for future therapeutic approaches. Here, we review recent literature on gut microbial alterations and/or interactions involved in the pathophysiology of GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders.

19.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 149-153, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873614

ABSTRACT

@#The minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery developed rapidly in last decades. In order to promote the development of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery in China, the Chinese Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery Committee (CMICS) has gradually standardized the collection and report of the data of Chinese minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery since its establishment. The total operation volume of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved substantial growth with a remarkable popularization of concepts of minimally invasive medicine in 2019. The data of Chinese minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery in 2019 was reported as a paper for the first time, which may provide reference to cardiovascular surgeons and related professionals.

20.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 437-443, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873418

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in China, and due to the lack of specific symptoms, more than half of these patients are in the advanced stage at the time of initial diagnosis. Targeted therapy and systemic chemotherapies are the main treatment methods for advanced HCC with limited efficacy. In recent years, immunotherapy has been developed rapidly. This article introduces the current status of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, in the treatment of HCC, summarizes the latest data of several clinical trials, and analyzes the safety and efficacy of monotherapy and combination therapy. The analysis shows that immunotherapy has become one of the important methods for systemic treatment, and combination therapy can significantly improve the outcome of HCC with a manageable safety profile, which is an important direction for future development.

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