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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909618

ABSTRACT

Polygonati Rhizoma is the dry rhizome of Liliaceae plants Polygonatum kingianum coil ethemsl, Polygona?tum sibiricum Redoute and Polygonatum cyrtonem Hua. It tastes sweet and has a flat nature. It belongs to the spleen, lung and kidney channels. Polygonati Rhizoma contains a variety of chemical components, including polysaccharides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins, lignans, phytosterols, and so on. Polygonati Rhizoma polysaccharide (PSP) is one of the main bioactive components of Polygonati Rhizoma. It is widely used. It has the effects of enhancing immunity, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and regulating blood lipid. In recent years, the immunomodulatory function of PSP has been paid more and more attention by researchers. PSP can play an immunomodulatory role through a variety of mecha?nisms. (1) Effects of PSP on innate immunity. ① Macrophages have a strong ability to phagocytize and clear foreign bodies. When polysaccharides bind to macrophage specific membrane receptors, the immune response will be officially activated. RAW264.7 cells can be activated by PSP MR and TLR4 mediated signal pathway to improve the pinocytosis and phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. ② Natural killer cell (NK cell) is a very important immune cell in the body. It is a non-specific immune killer cell naturally existing in the body. It has the dual functions of immune regulation and cytotoxic?ity. It was found that the signal pathway mediated by PSP CR3 and TRL2 may play a major role in the stimulation of NK cells. (2) Effects of PSP on adaptive immune response. ① Lymphocytes can be divided into two forms: T cells and B cells due to different differentiation and maturation sites. T lymphocytes are the general name of thymus dependent lym?phocytes. B lymphocytes differentiate and mature from animal bone marrow cells and exert their humoral immune func?tion by secreting different antibodies. It was found that PSP could activate T/B lymphocytes and increase the ratio of CD4+/CD8+in lymph cells to promote the regulation of immune system.②Thymus and spleen index refers to the level of body immunity through the development of immune organs and the functional status of immune cells. The higher the index of thymus and spleen, the higher the immune activity. A large number of studies have found that PSP can improve immune activity by promoting the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes and regulating organ index, so as to increase the weight and index of thymus and spleen induced by CY. ③ Antibody is a glycoprotein secreted by B cells after antigen stimulation and a series of proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells. Antibody production level is one of the main indicators of nonspecific immune function. PSP can not only improve the serum antibody level of mice by regulating the phagocytosis of mouse macrophages and the level of serum hemolysin, but also enhance the concentration of IL-2 secreted by spleen lymphocytes in vitro to increase the level of antibody response, and then improve the humoral immune function of the body. (3) Effect of PSP on cytokines. ① A large number of experiments have proved that PSP has a significant effect on promoting the production of interleukin (IL). PSP can combine with specific receptors on the surface of immune cells to activate various intracellular signal transduction pathways, enhance the secretion of cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 by spleen lymphocytes in vitro, make them directly kill target cells and regulate the immune function of the body at the molecular level. ② Interferon (IFN) is a special protein or glycoprotein produced by human or animal cells in response to various stimuli. It plays an important role in anti-virus, immune regulation and cell proliferation control. It was found that PSP could increase IFN-γsecreted by T cells and NK cells, activate macrophages to regulate immune function. ③ Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is mainly produced by activated macrophages, NK cells and activated T cells. It is a cytokine with important biological activity in antitumor immune response.④ Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is mainly produced by activated macrophages, NK cells and activated T cells. It is a cytokine with important biological activity in antitumor immune response. PSP can promote the proliferation and phagocytic activity of macro?phage RAW264.7 to reduce its apoptosis rate. By increasing the secretion of TNF-α, PSP can promote the dissociation between NF-κВprotein and IκВp65 protein after phosphorylation, so as to start the expression and transcription of related immune genes. In conclusion, PSP can improve immunity and has a good application prospect in the development of immunomodulatory drugs.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909617

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. It is an important cause of diabetes disability and death. DN is a systemic metabolic syndrome. In its pathogenesis, the interaction of various cell activities and a large number of cytokine biological activities, the activation of signal pathways and so on are involved in the development of DN. At present, the clinical treatment of DN is mainly Western medicine, but it has limitations such as strong toxicity, high side effects and poor compliance. Therefore, the discovery of natural anti-DN substances has also become an important means to treat DN. Mulberry leaves are the dry leaves of Morus alba L. It is not only a tradi?tional Chinese medicine, but also a dual-purpose medicinal material for medicine and food. It has the effects of dispelling wind and clearing heat, cooling blood and brightening eyes, tonifying and so on. Mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) is a kind of high molecular compound in mulberry leaves. It has many pharmacological effects, such as hypoglycemic, antiox?idant, anti-stress, anti-virus and so on. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of mulberry leaf polysaccharides on dia?betic nephropathy are reviewed in this paper, so as to provide references for further research and application. The patho?genesis of DN is complex, and the mechanism of renal injury has not been completely clarified. The current studies believe that DN is closely related to heredity, abnormal glucose metabolism, abnormal lipid metabolism, microcirculation disorder, cytokine action, oxidative stress and so on. Relevant studies show that the pharmacological effects of mulberry leaf polysaccharide in the prevention and treatment of DN mainly include: ① Effect on transforming factor-β1 (TGF-β1):TGF-β1 has become an important cytokine involved in the formation of renal fibrosis by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation and the production of extracellular matrix (ECM). MLP can significantly inhibit TGF-β1 protein, and then inhibit the synthesis of extracellular matrix by renal interstitial fibroblasts and inhibit the realization of fibrosis.②Effect on insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1): IRS-1 is an important signal molecule at the beginning of IR signal transduction. The decrease of IRS-1 gene expression or the decrease of expression can affect the effective transmission of IR signal and lead to the development and deterioration of diabetes. MPL can significantly increase the expression of IRS-1 mRNA in liver tissue of DN rats, so as to prevent and treat DN. ③ Effect on the expression of resistin protein in adipose tis?sue. Resistin is a secretory polypeptide derived from adipose tissue and is specifically expressed in white adipose tissue and is closely related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Experimental studies show that MLP can effectively reduce the expression of resistin protein in white adipose tissue of T2DM rats, indicating that MLP may reduce the level of IR by inhibiting the expression of resistin in adipose tissue, thereby reducing the insulin resistance state of T2DM rats, so as to achieve the goal of treating diabetes.④Effect on adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1):adiponectin can improve insulin resistance, reduce blood glucose and lipid. AdipoR1 is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and kidney. Studies have shown that AdipoR1 is closely related to the occurrence and development of DN. The results showed that MLP could reduce the blood glucose and blood lipid level and up regulate the expression of AdipoR1 mRNA in DN rats, suggesting that MLP may delay the occurrence and development of DN. This article reviewed the pharmacological effects of mulberry leaf polysaccharides on diabetic nephropathy, and provided a useful basis for further development and utilization of mul?berry leaf polysaccharides in the treatment of DN.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909593

ABSTRACT

Galangal (Alpinia officinaruim Hance) is the rhizome of the perennial herb belonging to Zingiberaceae family. There are many active components in galangal, such as volatile oil, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and glycosides, among which the content of volatile oil is higher. The bioactivities of galangal volatile oil on health effect includesanti-inflammatory, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a kind of diseases related to circulatory system, which is also called circulatory system diseases. Over the past decade, the number of people dying from CVD has increased by 12.5% worldwide, and it is now the leading cause of human death worldwide. Studies have shown that galangal volatile oil has good pharmacological effects in treating CVD. ① Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism: studies have found that abnormal lipid metabolism can lead to obesity, diabetes, CVD and other diseases. The serum total triglyceride (TG) content in liver and serum will increase in patients with abnormal fat metabolism. The results showed that the volatile oil of galangal could increase the excretion of neutral cholesterol, significantly reduce liver TG and serum TG, and thus regulate glucose and lipid metabo?lism, prevent lipid deposition and prevent CVD. ② Improving insulin resistance (IR): inhibition of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 activation and expression of TNF-α, improves IR, thereby protecting myocardium from IR-mediated damage. Through the establishment of endothelial cell injury model induced by high glucose in vitro, it was found that the volatile oil of galangal can significantly reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-αand IL-8, and inhib?it the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by high glucose, suggesting that it has protective effect on endothelial dysfunction and inflammation induced by high glucose.③Regulate blood oxygenation:during acute myocardial hypoxia, the activity of free radical scavenging system is decreased, and oxygen free radicals are produced in large quantity, which reacts with unsaturated fatty acids on the cell membrane and forms lipid peroxidation, resulting in myocardial structural damage. The results showed that the water extract of Galangal could reduce the content of MDA in blood and protect the SOD activity of ischemic and hypoxic myocardium.④ Protective effect of vascular endothelial cells (ES):ES injury is the pathological basis of some cardiovascular diseases. The results showed that the volatile oil of galangal had a protective effect on ES apoptosis. Compared with the morphology and activity of ES treated with oxidized LDL, galan?gal volatile oil could ameliorate these morphological changes and improve cell viability. ⑤ Antiplatelet agglutination:inhibit platelet aggregation and thromboxane release, improve blood circulation, and have obvious anti-thrombotic effect, which has a good effect on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The results showed that the volatile oil of galangal had inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant effect. In conclusion, the volatile oil of galangal can be used to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Based on the mechanism of CVD, this study summa?rized the role of the essential oil of Alpinia officinaruim in CVD, providing basis for the clinical application of alpiniaoffici?nalis essential oil in the prevention and treatment of CVD and the development of new drugs.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307156

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between commercial specifications of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix and quantitative indexes of sevent kinds of ginsenosides (ginsenosides Rg¹, Re, Rb¹, Rc, Rb₂, Rb₃, Rd) contained in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), explore the correlation between the characteristics of the traditional Panacis Quinquefolii Radix specifications and modern chemical quantitative indicators, and provide a theoretical basis for the quality grade evaluation of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. The HPLC fingerprint method was used to analyze 40 batches of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. A total of 19 peaks were marked, and the similarity was above 0.900 for all samples. On this basis, processing methods, product specifications, contents of 7 components, and the total contents of ginsenoside Rg¹, Re and Rb¹ were used as the original variables for cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results showed great correlation between the quality of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix and the information on their origins, but the difference was less with the characteristics of traditional commercial specifications, indicating some limitations in the division of commercial specifications of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. The results revealed the intrinsic relationship between the product specifications, traditional qualitative indexes, and quantitative indexes of chemical components of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix, providing a new idea for the objective comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286815

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in regulating radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cell lines.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We analyzed Sp1 expression in 6 different cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa, Caski, Me180, Ms751, and C33a) using Western blotting and real-time PCR. Clonogenic survival assay and curve fitting were used to assess the changes in radiosensitivity of Me180 cells transfected with lentivirus-mediated shRNA vector targeting sp1 and HeLa cells transfected with sp1 over-expression vector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the 6 cell lines tested, the cellular expression levels of Sp1 decreased gradually in the order of Me180, Caski, C33a, SiHa, Ms751, and HeLa. SP1 knockdown with lentivirus-mediated shRNA significantly lowered the survival rate of Me180 cells following radiation exposure (P<0.05), and obviously lowered the values of SF2, D0 and Dq but significantly increased α/β of the cells. Compared with the cells transfected with the mock vector, HeLa cells with sp1 over-expression showed a significantly increased survival following radiation exposure (P<0.05) with obviously increased values of SF2, D0 and Dq but significantly lowered α/β.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Silencing Sp1 can increase the radiosensitivity while Sp1 overexpression enhances the radioresistance of cervical cancer cell lines, suggesting an important role of Sp1 in radiotherapy for cervical cancer.</p>

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329176

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the prevalence of physical state of HPV-16 DNA in cervical cancer and cervical precancerous carcinoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Multiplex PCR was adopted to detect the physical state of HPV in samples from 252 patients with cervical carcinoma, including 48 samples of cervical cancer, 204 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN ) (125 CIN I, 46 CIN II and 33 CIN III) and 20 normal samples from the subjects with hysteromyoma undergoing hysterectomy, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 48 patients with cervical cancer, 31 (65.6%) were infected with HPV-16. Eighteen among 31 (58.1%) HPV-16 infected patients with cervical cancer were found to have integrated infection of HPV-16. The positive rates of HPV-16 infection in the patients with CIN I, CIN II and CIN III were 19.2%, 34.8% and 42.4%, and the integrated infection rates of HPV-16 were 16.7%, 18.8% and 35.7%, respectively. Compared with patients with different grades of CIN, the integrated rate of HPV-16 infection in those with cervical cancer was significantly elevated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among the patients with HPV-16 infection, the integrated state of HPV-16 is positively correlated with the severity of cervical lesions. Combined HPV typing test and detection of integrated viral state contribute to predicting the prognosis of patients with cervical precancerous lesions and increasing the accuracy of screening cervical cancer on the basis of HPV DNA detection.</p>


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Virology , DNA, Viral , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Human papillomavirus 16 , Physiology , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Virology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Virology , Virus Integration
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