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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 305-309, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366034

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Meningitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 416-422, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339143

ABSTRACT

Resumo Hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e diabetes mellitus (DM) são dois dos principais fatores de risco para a mortalidade por COVID-19. Descrever a prevalência e o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de óbito por COVID-19 ocorridos em Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 12 de março e 14 de maio de 2020 entre pacientes que possuíam hipertensão arterial sistêmica e/ou diabetes mellitus como doenças prévias. Estudo observacional transversal. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: município de procedência, sexo, faixa etária, tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o óbito, sinais/sintomas, tipo de comorbidades e hábitos de vida. Variáveis categóricas foram descritas por meio de frequências e variáveis contínuas por meio de medidas de tendência central e de dispersão. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis foram utilizados. Dos 1.276 registros incluídos no estudo, 410 apresentavam HAS e/ou DM. A prevalência de HAS foi 26,5% (n=338) e de DM foi 19,7% (n=252). Dos registros, 158 (12,4%) eram de pacientes que possuíam somente HAS, 72 (5,6%) somente DM e 180 (14,1%) apresentavam HAS e DM. Dos indivíduos com HAS, 53,3% apresentavam DM e 71,4% dos diabéticos apresentam HAS. A mediana (em dias) do tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o desfecho óbito foi 8,0 (IIQ 9,0), sem diferença significativa entre os grupos de comorbidades (p=0,633), sexo (p=0,364) e faixa etária (p=0,111). Observou-se maior prevalência de DM e HAS na população masculina (DM — 61,3% eram homens e 38,9% mulheres; HAS — 53,2% eram homens e 46,8% mulheres). Os sinais/sintomas mais frequentes foram dispneia (74,1%; n=304), tosse (72,2%; n=296), febre (68,5%; n=281) e saturação de O2<95% (66,1%; n=271). Dos hipertensos, 73,3% (n=100) apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados, e 54,2% (n=39) dos diabéticos apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados. Destacaramse as cardiopatias (19,5%; n=80), obesidade (8,3%; n=34), doença respiratória prévia (7,3%; n=30) e nefropatia (7,8%; n=32). A prevalência de tabagismo foi 8,8% (n=36) e de etilismo alcançou 3,4% (n=14). O estudo mostrou que a prevalência de HAS foi superior à prevalência de DM nos indivíduos que foram a óbito por COVID-19. Em idosos, a prevalência foi superior à observada em indivíduos não idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 51-60, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285244

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos As doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) são a primeira causa de mortes dentre as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). Objetivo Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e analisar tendência da taxa de mortalidade por DIC, segundo sexo e por faixa etária, nos estados da região Nordeste do Brasil, 1996-2016. Métodos Estudo ecológico envolvendo a mortalidade por DIC nos estados do Nordeste. Variáveis analisadas: sexo, idade, escolaridade, estado civil, categoria do CID-10 e estado de residências. Foram calculadas taxas brutas e padronizadas. Os dados de óbitos foram coletados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade; e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Nas análises temporais, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, com cálculo do percentual de variação anual (APC, Annual Percent Change) e do percentual de variação médio do período (AAPC, Average Annual Percent Change). Considerou-se intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. Resultados Registrou-se 405.916 óbitos por DIC na região Nordeste durante o período estudado. O perfil de óbitos caracteriza-se por homens (n=229.006; 56,42%), idosos (n=301.379; 74,25%), raça/cor parda (n=197.936; 48,76%), fundamental ou <4 anos na escola (n=232.599; 57,30%) e casados (n=179.599; 44,25%). Houve destaque incomum para o aumento na taxa de incremento anual na faixa etária de adolescentes (AAPC: 5,2%, p<0,01). A taxa de mortalidade regional padronizada cresceu de 30,7/100 mil habitantes, em 1996, para 53,8/100 mil, em 2016 (AAPC:2,8%; p<0,01). Todos os nove estados apresentaram tendência estatisticamente significante de crescimento, com ênfases para o Maranhão (AAPC:7,6%; p<0,01) e o Piauí (AAPC:6,0%; p<0,01). Conclusão O perfil prevalente observado foi de homens, idosos, raça/cor parda, baixa escolaridade e casados. A mortalidade por DIC apresentou tendência de crescimento em todos os estados, ainda que com padrão desigual entre as unidades federadas.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Objective To describe the sociodemographic profile and analyze the trend in the mortality rate due to IHD, according to sex and by age group, in the states of the Northeast region of Brazil, from 1996 to 2016. Methods Ecological study involving IHD mortality in the northeastern states. Variables analyzed: sex, age, education, marital status, ICD-10 category and state of residence. Crude and standardized rates were calculated. Death data were collected from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). In temporal analyzes the regression model by inflection points was used, with the calculation of annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change of the period (AAPC). A 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5% were considered. Results 405916 deaths due to IHD were registered in the northeast region during the study period. The death profile is characterized by men (n=229006; 56,42%), elderly (n=301379; 74,25%), race/color brown (n=197936; 48,76%), elementary or <4 years at school (n=232599; 57,30%) and married (n=179599; 44,25%). There was an unusual highlight to the increase in the annual growth rate in the age group of adolescents (AAPC: 5,2%, p <0.01). The standardized regional mortality rate grew from 30,7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996 to 53.8 per 100,000 in 2016 (AAPC 2.8%; p<0.01). All nine states presented a statistically significant growth trend, with emphasis on Maranhão (AAPC 7,6%; p<0.01) and Piauí (AAPC 6,0%; p<0.01). Conclusion The prevalent observed profile was male, elderly, race/color brown, low education level and married. Mortality due to IHD presented an upward trend in all states, although with an uneven pattern among the federated units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Educational Status , Geography
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1501-1510, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285933

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho objetivou analisar a tendência e a distribuição espacial da mortalidade de motociclistas em acidentes de transporte no estado de Alagoas. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico referente a todos os óbitos decorrentes de acidentes motociclísticos no estado no período 2001-2015. Os dados de mortalidade foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM). As taxas de mortalidade foram calculadas e estratificadas por sexo. Para a análise de tendência, foi empregado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão. Calculou-se a Variação Percentual Anual (VPA). Significância de 5%. Para a análise espacial, aplicou-se modelagem bayesiana empírica local, estatística de Moran e estatística de varredura espacial. Foram registrados 1.458 óbitos de motociclistas no período estudado, sendo 91,3% homens. Três comportamentos temporais foram observados nessa população: crescimento (2001-2005), padrão estacionário (2005-2013) e declínio a partir de 2013. As maiores taxas foram observadas no agreste e sertão. Cinco aglomerados espaciais foram evidenciados no que se refere à mortalidade geral e masculina, todos situados no agreste e sertão alagoanos. A modelagem mostrou redução da mortalidade a partir de 2013 e a análise espacial evidenciou que o problema é mais grave no interior do estado.


Abstract The scope of this work was to analyze the trend and distribution of mortality among motorcyclists in traffic accidents in the State of Alagoas. It involved an ecological study relating to all deaths resulting from motorcycle accidents in the state in the period from 2001 to 2015. Mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (MIS). Mortality rates were calculated and stratified by gender. The joinpoint regression model was used for trend analysis and the Annual Percentage Variation (APV) was calculated with a significance rate of 5%. For the spatial analysis, local empirical Bayesian modeling and Moran statistics and spatial scanning statistics were applied. There were 1,458 deaths of motorcyclists in the period studied, 91.3% of which were men. Three temporal behaviors were observed in this population group: growth (2001-2005), stationary pattern (2005-2013) and decline from 2013 onwards. The highest rates were observed in the 'agreste' and 'sertão' regions of the state of Alagoas. Five spatial clusters were revealed with relation to general and male mortality, all located in the 'agreste' and 'sertão' hinterlands of Alagoas. The modeling showed a reduction of mortality from 2013 onwards and the spatial analysis revealed that the problem is more acute in the interior of the state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Motorcycles , Accidents, Traffic , Brazil/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Spatial Analysis
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 89-99, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152977

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As doenças cerebrovasculares (DCBV) constituem a segunda causa de mortes no mundo. Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por DCVB no Brasil (1996-2015) e associação com o índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) e o índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS). Métodos Trata-se de estudo ecológico envolvendo as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por DCBV. Os dados dos óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para as análises temporais, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, sendo calculado o percentual de variação anual (annual percent change [APC]) e médio do período (average annual percent change [AAPC]), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. As tendências foram classificadas em crescente, decrescente ou estacionária. O modelo de regressão multivariada foi utilizado para testar a associação entre a mortalidade por DCBV, IDH e IVS. Resultados Foram registrados 1.850.811 óbitos por DCBV no período estudado. Observou-se redução da taxa de mortalidade nacional (APC: -2,4; p = 0,001). Vinte unidades federativas apresentaram tendências significativas, sendo 13 de redução, incluindo todos das regiões Centro-Oeste (n = 4), Sudeste (n = 4) e Sul (n = 3). O IDH teve associação positiva e o IVS, associação negativa com a mortalidade (p = 0,046 e p = 0,026, respectivamente). Conclusão O estudo mostrou comportamento epidemiológico desigual da mortalidade entre as regiões, sendo maior nos estados do Sudeste e Sul, porém com tendência significativa de redução, e menor nos estados do Norte e Nordeste, mas com tendência significativa de crescimento. O IDH e o IVS associaram-se com a mortalidade. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Abstract Background Cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) are the second major cause of death in the world. Objective To analyze the mortality trend of CBVD in Brazil (1996 to 2015) and its association with Human Development Index (HDI) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Methods This is an ecological study. We analyzed the mortality rate standardized by CBVD. Death data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and populational data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The model of regression by inflection points (Joinpoint regression) was used to perform the temporal analysis, calculating the Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC), with 95% of confidence interval and a significance of 5%. Trends were classified as increasing, decreasing or stationary. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between mortality by CBVD, HDI and SVI. Results During this period, 1,850,811 deaths by CBVD were recorded. We observed a reduction in the national mortality rate (APC -2.4; p = 0.001). Twenty federation units showed a significant trend, of which 13 showed reduction, including all states in the Midwest (n=4), Southeast (n=4) and South (n=3). The HDI was positively associated and the SVI was negatively associated with mortality (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion An unequal epidemiological course of mortality was observed between the regions, being higher in the Southeast and South states, with a significative tendency of reduction, and lower in the North and Northeast states, but with a significative tendency of increase. HDI and SVI showed an association with mortality. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Abstracting and Indexing , Geography
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 743-747, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142113

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy in Brazil, from 2001 to 2017. This was a time series study involving nine indicators. The inflection point regression model was used. Decreasing trends were observed for the following: general detection (−4.8%), children under 15 (−3.7%), prevalence (−7.0%), and grade 2/million inhabitants (−3.5%). The proportion of individuals with grade 2 disability showed an upward trend (2.0%) from 2001 as well as contacts examined from 2003 (5.0%). The proportions of cure and of individuals with a degree of disability assessed at the time of the diagnosis and the cure showed a stationary behavior. Although advances are noted, there are still challenges to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1355-1360, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136154

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality trend of young men who were victims of traffic injuries involving motorcycles in all Brazilian capitals from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: A time-series study on all deaths of men aged 20-39 years old due to traffic injuries involving motorcycles in all 27 Brazilian capitals. We used the joinpoint regression model for temporal analysis and calculated the Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) to verify the mortality trends. RESULTS: A total of 12,058 deaths of young men were recorded in the Brazilian capitals during the period studied. The highest mortality rates were observed in Boa Vista/Roraima (34.0/100,000 population) and Palmas/Tocantins (29.80/100,000). Twelve of the 27 capitals showed an increasing trend in mortality, with the highest percentage increase being observed in Salvador (APC: 29.0%) and São Paulo (APC: 13.1%). None of the capitals showed a decline in the trend of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the mortality of young men from traffic injuries involving motorcycles shows an increasing trend in 12 of the 27 capitals, which represents a public health problem that requires the implementation of more effective public policies.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal da mortalidade de homens jovens vítimas de acidente de trânsito envolvendo motocicletas em todas as capitais brasileiras de 2001 a 2015. MÉTODOS: Estudo de séries temporais incluindo as mortes de homens de 20 a 39 anos por lesões no trânsito envolvendo motocicletas nas 27 capitais brasileiras. Para a análise, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão do ponto de inflexão e calculada a Variação Percentual Anual (APC) e a Variação Percentual Anual Média (AAPC). RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 12.058 mortes de homens jovens nas capitais brasileiras durante o período estudado. As maiores taxas de mortalidade foram observadas em Boa Vista/Roraima (34,0/100.000 habitantes) e Palmas/Tocantins (29,80/100.000). Doze capitais apresentaram tendência crescente de mortalidade, sendo o maior aumento percentual em Salvador (APC: 29,0%) e São Paulo (APC: 13,1%). Nenhuma das capitais mostrou declínio nas taxas. CONCLUSÕES: A mortalidade de jovens por lesões no trânsito envolvendo motocicletas tem mostrado uma tendência crescente em 12 capitais, o que representa um problema de saúde pública que requer a implementação de políticas públicas mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9): 1196-1202, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136368

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trend, clinical profile, and the prevalence of risk factors and associated comorbidities in new cases of tuberculosis in the Northeast (2001-2016). METHODS: A prevalence study involving all tuberculosis cases registered in Northeast Brasil, 2001-2016. Data were obtained from the National System of Notification of Disorders. For statistical analysis, the inflection point regression model and descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: 331,245 cases of tuberculosis were reported. The overall incidence rate decreased from 44.84/100,000 inhabitants (2001) to 30.92/100,000 inhabitants (2016), with a decreasing trend (AAPC: −2.3; p<0.001). The profile was characterized by men (73.53%), age 20-59 years (73.56%), pulmonary tuberculosis (86.37%), positive smear microscopy (54.78%). The main risk factors and comorbidities were: AIDS (4.64%), HIV (12.10%), Diabetes mellitus (5.46%), alcohol (11.63%), institutionalized, (4.31%) and deprived of liberty (2.30%). The cure rate was 70.66% and the abandonment rate was 9.11%. CONCLUSIONS: Even with a reduced incidence, tuberculosis represents a real public health problem in the Northeast region. The profile was characterized by a male population, in economically-active age, lung smear-positive pulmonary presentation, and the risk factors and comorbidities of Aids, TB/HIV co-infection, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, institutionalized and deprived of freedom reflect the complexity of the challenges in facing the disease.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência temporal, o perfil clínico e a prevalência de fatores de risco e comorbidades associadas em casos novos de tuberculose no Nordeste (2001-2016). MÉTODOS: Estudo de prevalência envolvendo todos os casos de tuberculose registrados no Nordeste do Brasil, no período 2001-2016. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Nacional de Agravos de Notificação. Para a análise estatística, empregaram-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão e a estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 331.245 casos de tuberculose. A taxa de incidência geral reduziu de 44,84/100.000 habitantes (2001) para 30,92/100.000 habitantes (2016), com tendência decrescente (AAPC: −2,3; p<0,001). O perfil foi caracterizado por homens (73,53%), idade 20-59 anos (73,56%), tuberculose pulmonar (86,37%), baciloscopia positiva (54,78%). Os principais fatores de risco e comorbidade foram: Aids (4,64%), HIV (12,10%), Diabetes mellitus (5,46%), álcool (11,63%), institucionalizados (4,31%) e população privada de liberdade (2,30%). A taxa de cura foi 70,66% e a de abandono, 9,11%. CONCLUSÕES: Mesmo com redução da incidência, a tuberculose representa um real problema de saúde pública na região Nordeste. O perfil caracterizado pela população masculina, idade economicamente ativa, forma pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva e os fatores e comorbidade Aids, coinfecção TB/HIV, diabetes mellitus, consumo de álcool, institucionalizados e privados de liberdade refletem a complexidade dos desafios para o enfrentamento à doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190262, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057292

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze the relationship between visceral leishmaniasis mortality and social determinants of health (SDH). METHODS This was an ecological study of all leishmaniasis-related deaths in Brazil, from 2001 to 2015. We analyzed 49 indicators of human development and social vulnerability. The association was tested using the classical and spatial regression model. RESULTS Mortality was associated with indicators that expressed low human development and high social vulnerability: lack of garbage collection, low schooling, unemployment rate, low per capita income, and income inequality (Gini index). CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between high mortality by leishmaniasis and low SDH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Social Determinants of Health , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190199, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092218

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of syphilis cases among pregnant women in Brazil has increased. This study aimed to analyze the temporal trend of syphilis indicators among pregnant women in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A time-series study was performed. RESULTS: We observed an increase in the detection rate of syphilis among pregnant women, those aged 15-19 years, and those of brown ethnicity. A strong correlation was observed between the detection rate of syphilis and family health strategy coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in primary care coverage, The increase in cases of syphilis among pregnant women is still considered a challenge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Syphilis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Family Practice/statistics & numerical data , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1482-1488, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057088

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological profile and the Spatio-temporal distribution of mortality in motorcycle accidents in Alagoas before (2001-2007) and after the "Lei seca" (2008-2015). METHODS This is a mixed ecologic study. All deaths in the state with the codes V20-V29 (ICD-10) as the basic cause were included in the study. Sociodemographic variables and mortality rates per sex were analyzed. For the temporal analysis, the inflection point regression model was used. For spatial analysis, the rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayesian Model and, subsequently, the Global and Local Moran statistic was used to identify the spatial clusters of risk. RESULTS There were 1458 deaths caused by motorcycle accidents in the period studied; the following characteristics about the victims stand out: male (91.29%), economically active age (82.93%), and brown race (78.12%). In the male population, there was a growth trend between 2001 and 2007 (19.0%, p<0.001), and a decline from 2008 (-11.2%, p<0.001). Spatial modeling showed that the areas with the highest risk of mortality are located in the agreste and sertão of the state (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION Mortality in motorcycle accidents is an important public health problem in Alagoas, with an emphasis on male mortality and geographic concentration within the state.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o perfil epidemiológico e a distribuição espaço-temporal da mortalidade em acidentes motociclísticos em Alagoas antes (2001-2007) e após a lei seca (2008-2015). MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico misto. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os óbitos ocorridos no estado que tiveram como causa básica os códigos V20-V29 (CID-10). Foram analisadas as variáveis sociodemográficas e as taxas de mortalidade calculadas segundo sexo. Para a análise temporal, empregou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão. Para análise espacial, as taxas foram suavizadas pelo Modelo Bayesiano Empírico Local e, posteriormente, foi empregada a estatística de Moran Global e Local para a identificação dos aglomerados espaciais de risco. RESULTADOS Foram registrados 1.458 óbitos em acidentes motociclísticos no período estudado, destacando-se: sexo masculino (91,29%), idade economicamente ativa (82,93%) e raça parda (78,12%). Na população masculina, verificou-se tendência de crescimento entre 2001 e 2007 (19,0%; p<0,001) e de declínio a partir de 2008 (-11,2%; p<0,001). A modelagem espacial mostrou que as áreas de maior risco de mortalidade estão situadas no agreste e sertão do estado (p=0,01). CONCLUSÃO A mortalidade em acidentes motociclísticos é um importante problema de saúde pública em Alagoas, com destaque para a mortalidade masculina e concentração geográfica no interior do estado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Risk Factors , Bayes Theorem , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 603-607, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054864

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the trend of detection of the disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2016. The joinpoint regression model was used. There was a significant trend of decreased detection in the country (average annual percent change −1.8%) and in the South (average annual percent change = −3.5%) and Southeast regions (average annual percent change = −4.5%). The Northeast (average annual percent change = 0.2%), the Central-West (average annual percent change = −1.5%), and the North (average annual percent change = −2.6%) showed a stationary trend (p > 0.05). Eleven states showed a decreasing trend. Alagoas (average annual percent change = 2.1%) and Rio Grande do Norte (average annual percent change = 1.4%) presented significant increase (p < 0.001). The heterogeneous pattern of trend between regions and states shows that efforts are needed to eliminate the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Geography
17.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 43(1): 129-150, jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000226

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Each year, more than 70 thousand new cases of the disease are registered in Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the tendency and the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the state of Alagoas in the 2010-2015 period and to identify possible areas of under-reported cases or high risk of transmission. This was a mixed ecological study. Six indicators were analyzed: incidence of tuberculosis, incidence of bacilliferous pulmonary tuberculosis, mortality, HIV/TB coinfection, cure and treatment abandonment. In the temporal analysis, the regression model by inflection points (Joinpoint) was used to identify the APC (Annual Percentual Change) and the trends were classified as increasing, stationary and decreasing. In the spatial analysis, Local Empirical Bayesian Method and Global and Local Moran statistics were used. Significance adopted was 5% with a 95% confidence interval (CI 95%). There was a statistically significant tendency of reduction in the general rate of tuberculosis incidence (APC -5.6; p = 0.01) and the proportion of abandonment (APC -10.9; p = 0.048). However, the proportion of coinfection presented a growing tendency (APC 7.9; p = 0.01). The other indicators presented a stationary pattern. The Bayesian method reduced random data fluctuation. The Moran statistic showed a significant autocorrelation for the incidence of general and bacilliferous pulmonary tuberculosis, with a concentration in the Metropolitan Region of Maceió. Tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Alagoas. The Mesoregion of the Alagoano Sertão (woodlands) appears as an area where under-reporting of cases occurs. The study demonstrated the need to strengthen actions to cope with the disease


A tuberculose é uma doença infectocontagiosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A cada ano mais de 70 mil casos novos da doença são registrados no Brasil. Buscou-se analisar a tendência e a distribuição espacial da TB no estado de Alagoas no período de 2010 a 2015 e identificar áreas de possível subnotificação de casos ou de alto risco de transmissão. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico misto. Foram analisados seis indicadores: incidência de tuberculose, incidência de tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera, mortalidade, coinfecção HIV/TB, cura e abandono de tratamento. Na análise temporal, aplicou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão (joinpoint) para a identificação do APC (Annual Percentual Change) e classificação da tendência em crescente, estacionária e decrescente. Na análise espacial, utilizou-se a Modelagem Bayesiana Empírica Local e a estatística de Moran Global e Local. Adotou-se significância de 5% e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%). Observou-se tendência estatisticamente significativa de redução da taxa de incidência de tuberculose geral (APC -5,6; p=0,01) e da proporção de abandono (APC -10,9; p=0,048). Por outro lado, a proporção de coinfecção apresentou tendência de crescimento (APC 7,9; p=0,01). Os demais indicadores apresentaram padrão estacionário. A modelagem bayesiana permitiu a redução da flutuação aleatória dos dados. A estatística de Moran mostrou auto correlação significativa para a incidência de tuberculose geral e pulmonar bacilífera, com concentração na Região Metropolitana de Maceió. A tuberculose representa um problema de saúde pública importante em Alagoas, uma vez que a Mesorregião do Sertão Alagoano se configurou como área de subnotificação de casos demonstrando-se, nesse sentido, a necessidade de fortalecimento das ações de enfrentamento à doença


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology and Biostatistics
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180393, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040270

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze trends in the tuberculosis mortality rate in Brazil (1990-2015) in an ecological time-series analysis. The indicators were obtained from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health. A joinpoint regression model was applied for the temporal analysis, with a level of significance of 5%. During the period in question, there was a trend toward a reduction in mortality in the country as a whole (p < 0.001) and in each of its five regions. The states with the highest tuberculosis mortality rates were Rio de Janeiro (7.0/100,000 population) and Pernambuco (5.0/100,000 population). Eleven states and the Federal District of Brasília showed downward trends. Only the state of Alagoas showed a significant increase (p < 0.001). The temporal behavior observed indicates that tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem in Brazil.


RESUMO Objetivou-se analisar a tendência da taxa de mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil (1990-2015) em um estudo ecológico de séries temporais. Os indicadores foram obtidos do Ministério da Saúde. Aplicou-se o modelo por pontos de inflexão para a análise temporal. Houve uma tendência significativa de redução da mortalidade no Brasil (p < 0,001) e em suas cinco regiões no período estudado. Os estados com as maiores taxas foram Rio de Janeiro (7,0/100.000 habitantes) e Pernambuco (5,0/100.000 habitantes). Onze estados e o Distrito Federal apresentaram tendência de redução da taxa. Somente Alagoas mostrou um crescimento significativo (p < 0,001). O comportamento temporal verificado indica que a tuberculose ainda figura como um importante problema de saúde pública no país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Mortality/trends , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Social Determinants of Health
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180540, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041593

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring disability trends is required to evaluate leprosy elimination. We assessed the trends in disability indicators and its association with space in Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study in all leprosy cases from 2006 to 2016. Disability indicators were analyzed using the joinpoint regression model. RESULTS: The proportion of new cases with grade 2 disability at diagnosis ranged from 4.7% to 11.9% (annual percent change, 1.4; P= 0.7), while at discharge, it ranged from 0.0% to 12.3% (annual percent change, -21.8; P= 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Disability indicators had a stable trend over the study period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Leprosy/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Spatial Analysis , Leprosy/complications
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180458, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041548

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze trends in Schistosomiasis positivity, mortality, and hospitalization rates in Northeast Brazil. METHODS We conducted an ecological study using data from the Brazilian Schistosomiasis Control Program, and Hospital and Mortality Information Systems. A joinpoint regression model was used for temporal analysis. RESULTS The positivity(−4.7%;p<0.001) and hospitalization(−17.7%;p<0.001) rates declined globally, while the mortality remained stationary (−0.8%;p>0.05). However, the hospitalization in Alagoas(27.1%;p<0.001) and Pernambuco (35.1%;p<0.001), and the mortality in Bahia(2.9%;p<0.001) and Sergipe(4.1%;p<0.001), increased. CONCLUSIONS Schistosomiasis mansoni represents an important public health problem in Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis mansoni/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology
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