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Rev. chil. nutr ; 48(3)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388505


ABSTRACT Excess body fat is a serious problem for increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as obesity, compromising the health and quality of life of the population. In this sense, resistance training (RT) is type of physical exercise which improves body composition by increasing lean mass and reducing fat mass. RT in combination with nutrition (i.e. protein supplementation) is a key intervention to improve body fat metabolism and reducing obesity. Concerning protein supplementation, the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine that has demonstrated positive effects on body fat reduction. However, the effects of combining HMB supplementation with RT related to adipose tissue metabolic activity are controversial and warrant further investigation. This study analyzed the effects of HMB supplementation associated with RT on body fat concentration and lipid metabolism signaling pathways.

RESUMEN El exceso de grasa corporal es un problema grave que aumenta tu riesgo de enfermedades y problemas de salud, tales como enfermedad cardíaca, diabetes, presión arterial alta y ciertos tipos de cáncer. En este sentido, y dentro del ejercicio físico, el entrenamiento de resistencia (ER) es un tipo de entrenamiento con pesos que mejora la composición corporal aumentando la masa magra y perdiendo masa grasa. El ER asociado con la nutrición (ej. suplementación proteica) es una excelente intervención para mejorar el metabolismo de los lípidos al reducir la grasa corporal. En relación con la suplementación proteica el β-hidroxi-β-metilbutirato (HMB) es un metabolito del aminoácido de cadena ramificada esencial leucina que ha demostrado efectos positivos en la reducción de grasa corporal. Sin embargo, los efectos de la suplementación con HMB asociados con TR relacionados con la actividad metabólica del tejido adiposo son controvertidos y necesita la realización de investigaciones adicionales. Este estudio analizó los efectos de la suplementación con HMB asociados con TR en la concentración de grasa corporal y en las vías de señalización que participan en la regulación del metabolismo de los lípidos.

Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355822


Abstract Obtaining low cost lignocellulolytic enzymes and efficient biomass pretreatment are key to increase the competitiveness of second-generation ethanol in comparison with fossil fuels. The enzymatic cocktail produced by the Chrysoporthe cubensis fungus as well as the mixture prepared with the cocktails of the Chrysoporthe cubensis and Penicillium pinophilum fungi have already proven to be efficient for hydrolyzing biomass pretreated with alkali. In this study, they were evaluated in saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with dilute acid or hot water at 121°C using an enzyme loading equal to 8 filter paper units per gram of biomass. The most promising results were obtained from the hydrolysis of biomass pretreated with hot water by the C. cubensis-P. pinophilum enzymes blend. In this condition, the glucose and xylose production were 25.2 g.L-1 and 4.6 g.L-1, respectively, that resulted in the conversion of 68% of glucan and 23% of xylan in only 48 hours. This study shows that the hydrothermal pretreatment is a promising alternative to improve the enzymes performance, produced by the fungi C. cubensis and P. pinophilum, in the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis without the need of chemical compounds, generally used in the acid and alkali pretreatments. Furthermore, the hydrothermal pretreatment for 60 min allowed all cocktails applied to convert the cellulose efficiently with only 24 h of saccharification, which contributes to the energy savings employed in the process.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 172-179, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950219


Abstract Background: Regulation of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in cardiomyocytes is altered by hypertension; and aerobic exercise brings benefits to hypertensive individuals. Objective: To verify the effects of aerobic exercise training on contractility and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients of cardiomyocytes and on the expression of microRNA 214 (miR-214) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: SHR and normotensive Wistar rats of 16 weeks were divided into 4 groups -sedentary hypertensive (SH); trained hypertensive (TH); sedentary normotensive (SN); and trained normotensive (TN). Animals of the TH and TN groups were subjected to treadmill running program, 5 days/week, 1 hour/day at 60-70% of maximum running velocity for 8 weeks. We adopted a p ≤ 0.05 as significance level for all comparisons. Results: Exercise training reduced systolic arterial pressure in hypertensive rats. In normotensive rats, exercise training reduced the time to 50% cell relaxation and the time to peak contraction and increased the time to 50% decay of the intracellular Ca2+ transients. In SHR, exercise increased the amplitude and reduced the time to 50% decay of Ca2+ transients. Exercise training increased the expression of miR-214 in hypertensive rats only. Conclusion: The aerobic training applied in this study increased the availability of intracellular Ca2+ and accelerated the sequestration of these ions in left ventricular myocytes of hypertensive rats, despite increased expression of miR-214 and maintenance of cell contractility.

Resumo Fundamento: A regulação intracelular de cálcio (Ca2+) em cardiomiócitos é alterada pela hipertensão, e o exercício físico aeróbico traz benefícios para hipertensos. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento físico aeróbico sobre a contratilidade e a concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória em miócitos e a expressão do microRNA 214 no ventrículo esquerdo (VE) de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: SHR e ratos Wistar normotensos com 16 semanas de idade foram divididos em 4 grupos de 13 animais cada: hipertenso sedentário (HS); hipertenso treinado (HT); normotenso sedentário (NS); normotenso treinado (NT). Os animais dos grupos HT e NT foram submetidos a um programa de treinamento progressivo de corrida em esteira, 5 dias/semana, 1 hora/dia, em intensidade de 60-70% da velocidade máxima de corrida, durante 8 semanas. Adotou-se p ≤ 0,05 como nível de significância em todas as comparações. Resultados: O treinamento físico reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica nos animais hipertensos. Nos animais normotensos, o treinamento físico reduziu o tempo para 50% de relaxamento celular e o tempo para o pico de contração celular, mas aumentou o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória. Nos animais SHR, o treinamento físico aumentou a amplitude e reduziu o tempo para 50% de decaimento da concentração intracelular de Ca2+ transitória, sem alterar a contratilidade celular. O treinamento físico aumentou a expressão do miR-214 apenas nos animais hipertensos. Conclusão: O treinamento aeróbico utilizado aumenta a disponibilidade e acelera o sequestro de Ca2+ intracelular em miócitos do VE de ratos hipertensos, apesar do aumento da expressão de miR-214 e da manutenção da contratilidade celular.

Animals , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Calcium Signaling , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology