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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864246

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of cervical neuroblastoma (NB) subjected to multi-disciplinary treatment.Methods:The clinical features of cervical NB patients who were admitted to Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University from February 2015 to October 2018, were retrospectively analyzed.The tumor makers [lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), neuron-specific enolase(NSE), urine homovanillic acid/creatinine(HVA/Crn), and urine vanillyl-mandelic acid/creatinine(VMA/Crn)], index of tumor burden(KTB), bone marrow examination, histopathologic types, N- MYC, gene amplification and 11q23 depletion type, staging and grouping, treatment and outcomes were analyzed.Follow-up was ended on March 31 st, 2019. Results:The 13 cervical NB patients aged from 1 month to 47 months (median age: 10 months), and 8 patients (61.5%) were younger than 18 months old.The course of disease ranged from 0.5 to 24.0 months (median course: more than 1 month). Seven patients (53.8%) presented with cervical masses.According to International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS), 8 patients (61.5%) were identified as stage Ⅱ, 3 patients (23.1%) as stage Ⅲ, and 2 patients (15.4%) as stage Ⅳ.There were 8 patients (61.1%) at low risk, 4 patients (30.8%) at intermediate risk, 1 patient (7.7%) at high risk.As for the laboratory examinations, LDH was increased in 7 patients (53.8%), and normal in 5 patients (38.5%). NSE was increased in 9 patients (69.2%), and normal in 4 patients (30.8%). Urine VMA/Crn was increased in 5 patients (38.5%), and normal in 8 patients (61.5%). HVA/Crn was increased in 8 patients (61.5%), and normal in 5 patients (38.5%). KTB was increased in 5 patients (38.5%), and normal in 5 patients (38.5%). No NB cell was detected in bone marrow of 13 patients.The pathologic type was NB in 9 patients (69.2%), and ganglioneuroma in 4 patients (30.8%). N-MYC gene amplification and 11q depletion were not detected.All the 13 patients accepted regular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and primary tumor resection in accordance with the staging and clinical risk grouping.The range of follow-up time was 5 to 48 months (median: 24 months). All of the patients fi-nished their treatment and were followed up regularly.Nine patients (69.2%) achieved complete remission, 4 patients (30.8%) achieved partial remission, and none of the patients had progression of disease.Conclusions:Cervical NB subjected to multi-disciplinary treatment has a smaller age at admission, mostly presented with cervical masses and rarely accompanied with distant metastasis.They are mostly at low risk or intermediate risk, and can achieve good outcomes after regular treatment.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864191

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS), and further understand these tumors.Methods:Twenty-nine NRSTS children were admitted to the Hematological Oncology Ward of Beijing Children′s Hospital from June 2011 to May 2018.The clinical and pathological data of these children were collected, and the relationships of the prognosis with clinical characteristics Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study(IRS) stage, Children′s Oncology Group(COG) risk grouping were analyzed.All the patients were followed up until October 31, 2018.The survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.Results:There were 14 boys and 15 girls in the enrolled 29 children, aging from 7 to 169 months, with a median age of 59.5 months.There were 10 pathological types, including synovial sarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma and malignant rhabdomyoid tumors in 5 cases, and other pathological types in 14 cases.Tumors originated from the head and neck in 10 cases, limbs or trunk in 6 cases, visceral sites in 13 cases.Ten cases showed distant metastasis.There were 12 cases at IRS stage Ⅰand Ⅱ, and 17 cases of stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ.All the children were treated with surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.Nine cases received preoperative chemotherapy, 17 cases received postoperative chemotherapy, 3 cases could not be resected surgically.The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 89 months, with a median follow-up of 16 months.Six of 29 children died, including 3 cases of malignant rhabdomyoid sarcoma.The 2-year overall survival(OS) rate of all the children was 77.4% and the 2-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of all the children was 53.2%.By analyzing the clinical factors, it was found that the IRS stage, COG risk group, primary sites were related to prognosis.The 2-year EFS rate of children with IRS Ⅰ-Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ were 75.0% and 35.9%, respectively ( χ2=7.303, P=0.007), the 2-year OS rate was 100% and 61.8%, respectively( χ2=4.81, P=0.028); The 2-year EFS of children in COG low-risk group and median/high-risk group were 66.7% and 44.7%, respectively( χ2=4.155, P=0.042), the 2-year OS rate of children in COG low and median/high-risk was 100% and 66.3%, respectively( χ2=3.383, P=0.066); the 2-year OS rate of children in visceral and non-visceral sites were 59.3% and 92.9%, respectively ( χ2=4.202, P=0.04). Conclusions:NRSTS in children is heterogeneous, and surgery is the main treatment. Children with primary tumors located in visceral sites and at IRS Ⅲ-Ⅳ had poor outcomes.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864143

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the clinical features, therapeutic effects and prognostic factors of children with extracranial malignant germ cell tumor (MGCT), and further to improve the recognition of this disease.Methods:The clinical information and therapeutic effects of children patients diagnosed with MGCT and treated in Hematology-Oncology Center in Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2008 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively, and the risk factors affecting the prognosis were discussed.Results:A total of 35 patients were collected in this study, including 19 girls and 16 boys, with a median age of 71 months.Forty-two point four percent (14/33 cases) of them were <3 year-old, and 39.3% (13/33 cases) of them were >6 year-old.The primary tumors were located at the gonad in 9 cases (6 cases in the ovary and 3 cases in the testis), and extragonadal sites in 26 cases (8 cases in the pelvic cavity, 8 cases in the mediastinum, and 10 cases in the sacrococcygeal region). Five cases were in stage Ⅱ, 16 cases in stage Ⅲ, and 14 cases in stage Ⅳ.Eleven cases were at intermediate risk, and 24 cases were at high risk.All children were followed up for (25.43±4.82) months, and given standard treatment of surgery plus chemotherapy.The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate and event-free survival (EFS) rate were 87.4% and 67.1%, respectively.The 2-year OS rate and EFS rate in patients at stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ (93.8% and 80.4%, respectively) were significantly higher than those at stage Ⅳ (66.7% and 45.1%, respectively) ( χ2=0.649, 0.739; P=0.021, 0.037). The 2-year EFS rate in patients with and without distant metastasis at the early stage of the disease was 43.8% and 86.9%, respectively, and the differences were significant ( χ2=0.694, P=0.028). The complete remission (CR) rates of intermediate-risk and high-risk children with tumor completely resected at the early stage of the disease were 100.0% (8/8 cases) and 71.4% (5/7 cases), respectively.The CR rate of patients who received 2-4 cycles of chemotherapy and had complete tumor resection after diagnosis by puncture was 72.7% (8/11 cases), and 40.0% (2/5 cases) of the children with incomplete resection got tumor progression.For eight patients with events, their alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels decreased slowly at the early stage of the disease and increased significantly as the disease progressed. Conclusions:The onset-age of MGCT is mainly <3 year-old and >6 year-old.The stan-dard treatment that combines surgery and chemotherapy can achieve a good overall prognosis.Incomplete surgical resection and a slow decline of AFP during treatment contribute to adverse prognosis.The outcomes of patients with tumor progression can be improved by increasing chemotherapy courses, secondary surgery and autologous stem cell transplantation.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863991

ABSTRACT

Objective:To improve the awareness of neuroblastoma (NB) with cervical lymph node metastasis in children patients by summarizing the clinical features of such patients and analyzing their survival situation.Methods:The research analyzed the medical records of 225 patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of NB from April 1, 2007 to May 31, 2017 in Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University.The treatment were divided into 2 phases according to treatment time (one from April 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 and the other from January 1, 2012 to May 31, 2017). The survival situation and treatment effect in each phase were analyzed.The following up time ended at Jan 1, 2018.Results:(1)Clinical features: total 225 cases admitted in the research with about 37.3% of all the NB patients.One hundred girls(44.4%) and 125 boys(55.6%). The age from 2 months to 147 months, the me-dian age of patients was 37 months.The age under 18 months were 27 cases(12.1%). The majority primary site of tumor was located in retroperitoneal(174 cases, 77.3%) and mediastinum(48 cases, 21.3%). There were 33 cases which metastasic site confined to cervical lymph node(4N stage, 14.7%); 139 cases (62.1%) with bone marrow metastasis, 159 cases (71.0%) with bone metastasis.The number of patients in high-risk group was 208 cases(91.2%), while the low-risk and the medium-risk group was 17 cases(7.5%). (2)Treatment effect and survival analysis: a total of 200 cases received systemic treatment and followed-up in our hospital.The follow up time from 2 months to 123 months, the median follow up time was 23 months.The 3 year overall survival (OS) rate of all the patients was 56.4%, the 3 year event free survival (EFS) rate was 52.0%.While the 5-year OS was 46.5%, and the 5-year EFS was 39.7%.According to the first phase of treatment(April 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011), the 3-year EFS was 49.6%, and the 3-year OS was 54.4%, the 5-year EFS was 39.5%, and the 5-year OS was 44.7%.According to the second phase of treatment(January 1, 2012 to May 31, 2017), the 3-year EFS was 58.1%, and the 3-year OS was 57.3%.The 5-year EFS was 48.7%, and the 5-year OS was 46.8%.About the 4N patients, the 3-year EFS was 71.2%, and the 3-year OS was 82.2%.The 5-year EFS was 61.5%, and the 5-year OS was 76.7%.Conclusions:Cervical lymph node is one of the most common distant metastasis of NB.More than half of the patient with bone or bone marrow metastasis.The prognosis of patients′ metastatic disease limited to cervical lymph nodes(4N stage), but still worse than the foreigner haver reported.The probable reason is the proportion of high-risk patients in the center is higher than the foreign research.

5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 134-138, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799497

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinicopathological manifestations, molecular genetic, diagnostic histology and differential diagnosis of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) in children.@*Methods@#A total of 13 cases of ASPS diagnosed at Beijing Children′s Hospital from August 2009 to November 2018 were collected. HE staining, histochemical staining for PAS and D-PAS, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for TFE3, INI1 and CD68 and florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for TFE3 gene translocation were performed.@*Results@#There were four males and nine females, age ranged from 1 year and 2 months to 13 years and 8 months (mean 7.8 years); and four patients were under 5 years old. Histologically, the tumors showed a distinctive and characteristic nested or organoid growth pattern (11 cases) or solid, diffuse growth (2 cases). The tumor cells possessed abundant eosinophilic, or glycogen-rich and clear to vacuolated cytoplasm. The chromatin was relatively dispersed, with prominent and pleomorphic nucleoli; mitotic figures were rare. Vascular invasion was frequently seen. IHC staining showed specific nuclear TFE3 staining. The tumor cells were also positive for INI1,CD68 and vimentin; but were negative for MyoD1, Myogenin, CK and S-100 protein. Seven cases showed PAS and D-PAS staining, with fuchsia acicular or rod-shaped crystals in tumor cytoplasm. Nine cases showed TFE3 break-apart signals by FISH.@*Conclusions@#ASPS is a rare soft tissue sarcoma in children. Compared with ASPA in adults, it has both similarities and unique clinicopathologic characteristics. The diagnosis needs to be confirmed by combining clinical, pathologic, IHC and genetic testing.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803166

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze and summarize the results of genomic DNA test findings of chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in children, and to analyze the relationship between adverse reactions to chemotherapy toxicity and genomic DNA polymorphisms, so as to provide evidence for guiding treatment.@*Methods@#Retrospective analysis was conducted in RMS children admitted at Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2017 to June 2018.The criteria for enrollment were definite diagnosis of RMS, regular treatment and follow-up at Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University, and detection of peripheral blood DNA fluorescence hybridization sequence for several commonly chemotherapy drugs.The toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs was detected based on the National Cancer Institute routine toxicity criteria (NCI-CTCAE version 4.0). Summary and analysis indicators included primary and metastatic site, size, international RMS clinical stage (TNM-UICC), Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study(IRS) Clinical Grouping Classification, risk grouping, pathological type, changes in major organ functions, as well as processes of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the association between toxicity and DNA polymorphism of drug genes was analyzed.SPSS 22.0 software was used for χ2 test.@*Results@#A total of 32 children were enrolled, and 20 cases were male and 12 cases were female, their median age was 50 months (15-120 months). The primary tumor of 9 cases were sited in the chest, abdomen and basin, 8 cases in the head and neck (non-meningeal), 7 cases in bladder prostate, 3 cases in limbs, 2 cases in the meningeal area, 1 case in urogenital tract (non-bladder prostate), 2 cases in other parts.Seventeen cases were embryonic type and 15 cases were alveolar type.Five cases were TNM-Ⅰ stage, 5 cases were TNM-Ⅱ stage, 10 cases TNM -Ⅲ stage, 12 cases were TNM-Ⅳ stage, 21 cases were IRS-Ⅲ, 11 cases were IRS-Ⅳ.Twenty-two cases were moderate-risk (MR), 10 cases were high-risk (HR). Twenty-two cases were detected UGT1A1*6 gene, 18 cases in GG type, 13 cases in GA type, and 1 case in AA type.ABCB1 gene monitoring was performed in 27 children, 14 cases of CT type and 13 cases of TT type; 29 cases were detected GSTP1 gene, 7 cases of GA type and 2 cases of GG type, 19 cases of AA type, 1 case of AG type; 30 cases were detected CYP3A5 gene, 2 cases of GA type, 13 cases of GG type, AG 15 cases.All patients were treated according to the BCH-RMS-2007 protocol using VAC (Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Cyclophosphamide) as the basis for chemotherapy.From 2017, VAC and VI regimen (Vincristine, Irinotecan) were defined as the standard of backbone chemotherapeutic regimen for MR.Nine cases underwent surgery before chemotherapy and 10 cases had surgery after chemotherapy, among them, 5 cases underwent twice operation.Local radiotherapy was performed on the 12th week of chemotherapy, and the central nervous system involvement cases started in the first week.Hematological toxicity was mainly caused by neutropenia, with 2 cases of grade 3 and 30 cases of grade 4.Liver function damage of grade 2 was 6 cases, grade 3 was 3 cases.Four patients with grade 1 diarrhea, 3 patients with grade 2, 5 patients with grade 3, 3 patients with grade 4.There was significant diffe-rence between the severity of diarrhea and UGT1A1*6 genotype polymorphism(P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#Chemothe-rapy for RMS patients is highly safety.If the genomic DNA test of chemotherapy drugs show a slow metabolism type, the dose of chemotherapy should be reduced, and the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs should be monitored dynamically.

7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 851-855, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801208

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical, pathological features and differential diagnosis of testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH) .@*Methods@#Clinical data, histological features, immunohistochemical findings, ultrastructural characteristics and follow-up data were analyzed in three cases of LCH. The cases were collected from 2011 to 2014 at Beijing Children′s Hospital. A literature review was performed.@*Results@#Two males (1.8 years and 2.9 years of age) showed isosexual pseudoprecocity with elevated serum testosterone. Imaging study showed bilateral testicular enlargement with multiple small nodules in the parenchyma. Another 13 years-old patient showed male pseudohermaphroditism and cryptorchism. Gross examination showed the bilateral markedly enlarged testis without discrete lesion. Histologically, LCH was seen in both nodular and diffuse patterns without destruction of seminiferous tubules. Adjacent spermatogenesis was noted. Immunohistochemically, the Leydig cells were positive for inhibin, calretinin and Melan A and ultrastructural analysis showed enriched cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum. Two cases had followed up for 7 years. One patient was symptom-free and one was stable.@*Conclusion@#LCH is a rare benign condition, which is easily misinterpreted as testicular tumor or non-neoplastic diseases. Clinical presentation, imaging study and pathological evaluation are required for the diagnosis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 705-709, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797838

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate histopathological characteristics, and differential diagnoses of childhood synovial sarcoma.@*Methods@#HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and fusion gene detection by FISH were performed in 12 cases of synovial sarcoma in childhood at Beijing Children′s Hospital from 2016 to 2018.@*Results@#There were 6 cases of biphasic type, 1 case of monophasic epithelial type, 3 cases of monophasic spindle cell type and 2 cases of poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas. EMA, CKpan, bcl-2, CD99, TLE1 and CD34 immunostain positivities were observed in 10/12, 9/12, 12/12, 10/12, 10/12 and 0/12 cases respectively. Unique INI1 immunohistochemical staining was observed in 9/12 cases. SS18-SSX gene fusion was detected in 8 of 11 cases by FISH.@*Conclusions@#Synovial sarcoma is rare in children. Histological morphology combined with immunohistochemistry and FISH SS18-SSX fusion gene detection are important for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of synovial sarcoma in children.

9.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 767-773, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the clinical characteristics, treatment response and prognostic factors of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in children.@*Methods@#The clinical characteristics such as age at diagnosis, primary tumor site, tumor size, pathological type, clinical stage, and risk grouping of 213 RMS patients (140 males and 73 females) treated in Hematology Oncology Center of Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University, from May 2006 to June 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics, overall survival (OS), event free survival (EFS) and prognostic factors of children treated with the Beijing Children′s Hospital-Rhabdomyosarcoma (BCH-RMS) regimen were analyzed. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and single factor analysis was performed by Log-Rank test.@*Results@#The diagnostic age of 213 cases was 48.0 months (ranged 3.0-187.5 months), of which 136 cases (63.8%) were younger than 10 years old. The head and neck region was the most common primary site of tumor (30%, 64 cases), followed by the genitourinary tract (26.8%, 57 cases). Among pathological subtypes, embryonal RMS accounted for 71.4% (152 cases), while alveolar RMS and anaplastic RMS accounted for only 26.8% (57 cases) and 1.9% (4 cases), respectively. According to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS), IRS-Ⅲ and Ⅳ accounted for 85.0% (181 cases) of all RMS patients. In all patients, 9.4% (20 cases) patients were divided in to low-risk group, 52.1% (111 cases) patients in to intermediate -risk group, 25.8% (55 cases) patients in to high-risk group, and 12.7% (27 cases) patients in to the central nervous system invasion group, respectively. All patients with RMS received chemotherapy. The cycles of chemotherapy were 13.5 (ranged 5.0-18.0) for patients without event occurrence, while 14.2 (ranged 3.0-30.0) for patients with event occurrence. Among the 213 patients, 200 patients had surgical operation, of whom 103 patients underwent surgery before chemotherapy and 97 patients at the end of chemotherapy, 21 patients had secondary surgical resection. Radiotherapy was performed in 114 patients. The follow-up time was 23.0 months (ranged 0.5-151.0 months) . There were 98 patients with relapsed or progressed disease and 67 patients with death. The median time to progression was 10 months, of which 67 (68.4%) relapse occurred within 1 year and no recurrence occurred after follow-up for more than 5 years. The 3-year EFS and 5-year EFS were (52±4) % and (48±4) %, while the 3-year OS and 5-year OS were (65±4) % and (64±4) % by survival analysis. The 5-year OS of the low-risk, intermediate-risk, the high-risk were 100%, (74±5) %, (48±8) %, and the 2-year OS of the central nervous system invasion group was (36±11) % (χ2=33.52, P<0.01). The 5-year EFS of the low-risk, intermediate-risk, the high-risk were (93±6) %, (51±5) %, (36±7) % and the 2-year EFS of the central nervous system invasion group was (31±10) % (χ2=24.73, P<0.01) . Survival factor analysis suggested that the OS of children was correlated with age(χ2=4.16, P=0.038), tumor TNM stage (χ2=22.02, P=0.001), IRS group (χ2=4.49, P<0.01) and the risk group (χ2=33.52, P<0.01).@*Conclusions@#This study showed that the median age of newly diagnosed RMS patients was 4 years. The head and neck and the genitourinary tract were the most common primary origin of RMS. The OS was low in single-center RMS children. The median time to recurrence was 10 months, and recurrence was rare 3 years later.

10.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 17-21, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinicopathological and ultrastructural characteristics of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children.@*Methods@#A total of 345 cases of LCH from the Department of Pathology, Beijing Children Hospital from January 2012 to March 2016 were investigated by hematoxylin-eosin stain, EnVision immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy.@*Results@#The rate of primary clinical diagnosis of LCH in children was 46.0%(210/457). Among 345 patients of LCH, 213 were male and 132 were female, the male to female ratio was 1.6∶1.0, and the median age was 21 months (range from 2 days after birth to 13.3 years). There were total 597 lesions, including bony lesions (258, 43.2%), skin lesions (206, 34.5%) , followed by lymph node (16, 2.7%), lung (28, 4.7%), liver (25, 4.2%) and head-neck (50, 8.4%). Single organ system LCH (SS-LCH) was seen in 295 cases (85.5%) and 50 cases (14.5%) presented with multiple organ system involvement LCH (MS-LCH). There was no significant difference in age and gender between SS-LCH and MS-LCH groups. Regarding sites, more lesions were seen in bone and skin in SS-LCH group, in contrast lymph node, lung, liver and head-neck involvements were often seen in MS-LCH group. Immunohistochemically, the expression of CD1a and Langerin was seen in 99.7% (341/342) and 98.8% (338/342) of the cases respectively. The diagnostic rates by light and transmission electron microscopy were 98.8% (341/345) and 97.4% (112/115) respectively (P>0.05).@*Conclusions@#LCH of children occurs predominantly in SS-LCH pattern, frequently involving bone, skin, lymph node, lung and liver and other sites with unique histopathological, immunophenotypical and ultrastructural features. Accurate diagnosis relies on the morphology, immunophenotype and ultrastructural features. Further refinement of specimen processing may improve the accuracy of pathological diagnosis.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823687

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and summarize the results of genomic DNA test findings of chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in children,and to analyze the relationship between adverse reactions to chemotherapy toxicity and genomic DNA polymorphisms,so as to provide evidence for guiding treatment.Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted in RMS children admitted at Hematology Oncology Center,Beijing Children's Hospital,Capital Medical University from January 2017 to June 2018.The criteria for enrollment were definite diagnosis of RMS,regular treatment and follow-up at Hematology Oncology Center,Beijing Children's Hospital,Capital Medical University,and detection of peripheral blood DNA fluorescence hybridization sequence for several commonly chemotherapy drugs.The toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs was detected based on the National Cancer Institute routine toxicity criteria (NCI-CTCAE version 4.0).Summary and analysis indicators included primary and metastatic site,size,international RMS clinical stage (TNM-UICC),Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) Clinical Grouping Classification,risk grouping,pathological type,changes in major organ functions,as well as processes of surgery,chemotherapy and radiotherapy,and the association between toxicity and DNA polymorphism of drug genes was analyzed.SPSS 22.0 software was used for x2 test.Results A total of 32 children were enrolled,and 20 cases were male and 12 cases were female,their median age was 50 months (15-120 months).The primary tumor of 9 cases were sited in the chest,abdomen and basin,8 cases in the head and neck (non-meningeal),7 cases in bladder prostate,3 cases in limbs,2 cases in the meningeal area,1 case in urogenital tract (non-bladder prostate),2 cases in other parts.Seventeen cases were embryonic type and 15 cases were alveolar type.Five cases were TNM-Ⅰ stage,5 cases were TNM-Ⅱ stage,10 cases TNM-Ⅲ stage,12 cases were TNM-Ⅳ stage,21 cases were IRS-Ⅲ,11 cases were IRS-Ⅳ.Twenty-two cases were moderate-risk (MR),10 cases were high-risk (HR).Twenty-two cases were detected UGT1A1 * 6 gene,18 cases in GG type,13 cases in GA type,and 1 case in AA type.ABCB1 gene monitoring was performed in 27 children,14 cases of CT type and 13 cases of TT type;29 cases were detected GSTP1 gene,7 cases of GA type and 2 cases of GG type,19 cases of AA type,1 case of AG type;30 cases were detected CYP3A5 gene,2 cases of GA type,13 cases of GG type,AG 15 cases.All patients were treated according to the BCH-RMS-2007 protocol using VAC (Vincristine,Doxorubicin,and Cyclophosphamide) as the basis for chemotherapy.From 2017,VAC and Ⅵ regimen (Vincristine,Irinotecan) were defined as the standard of backbone chemotherapeutic regimen for MR.Nine cases underwent surgery before chemotherapy and 10 cases had surgery after chemotherapy,among them,5 cases underwent twice operation.Local radiotherapy was performed on the 12th week of chemotherapy,and the central nervous system involvement cases started in the first week.Hematological toxicity was mainly caused by neutropenia,with 2 cases of grade 3 and 30 cases of grade 4.Liver function damage of grade 2 was 6 cases,grade 3 was 3 cases.Four patients with grade 1 diarrhea,3 patients with grade 2,5 patients with grade 3,3 patients with grade 4.There was significant difference between the severity of diarrhea and UGT1A1 * 6 genotype polymorphism (P < 0.05).Conclusions Chemotherapy for RMS patients is highly safety.If the genomic DNA test of chemotherapy drugs show a slow metabolism type,the dose of chemotherapy should be reduced,and the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs should be monitored dynamically.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743506

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the short-term efficacy in children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HN-RMS) treated by multidisciplinary therapy,and to analyze the prognostic factors,so as to guide the diagnosis and treatment.Methods Patients with HN-RMS admitted at Hematology Oncology Center of Beijing Children's Hospital (BCH),Capital Medical University between December 2012 and May 2017,were included in this case-observation study.The clinical characteristics were analyzed and the treatment effect and prognostic factors were summarized.Results A total of 48 cases were collected,including 36 boys and 12 girls,with a median age of 4.6 years.Primarysite parameningeal RMS(PM-RMS) (34 cases,70.8%),orbital (2 cases,4.2%) and non-orbital,non-parameningeal region(12 cases,25.0%) were found.Twenty cases belonged to alveolar type(41.7%),and 28 cases were of embryonaltype(58.3%).The diameter of the tumor was >5 cm(n =25,52.1%),and ≤5 cm(n =23,47.9%).IRS staging:there were 29 cases(60.4%) of stage Ⅱ-Ⅲ,19 cases (39.6%) of stage Ⅳ;29 cases (60.4%) of low-medium risk,and 19 cases (39.6%) of high risk.Twenty-three patients (47.9%) received surgery,and 25 cases (52.1%) received biopsy only.All patients (48 cases) received systemic chemotherapy.Twenty patients (41.6%) received external radiation,15 cases (31.3%) received 125I particle implantation,6 cases (12.5%) received proton therapy,but 3 cases (6.2%)did not receive radiation.The follow-up time lasted 13-57 months[(24.1 ± 12.3) months].The 2-year overall survival(OS) rate was (66.4 ± 7.2)%,and 2-year event free survival (EFS) rate was (59.9 ± 7.5) %.Patients with tumor diameter ≤ 5 cm had higher OS and EFS than patients with tumor diameter >5 cm [2-year OS (87.4±6.8)% vs.(42.9 ±6.8)%,2-year EFS (78.8 ±8.6%) vs.(38.5 ±10.8)%],and the differences were statistically significant (all P =0.006).Patients with orbital and non-orbital,non-parameningeal RMS had higher OS and EFS than PM-RMS [2-year OS 100% vs.(87.5% ± 11.7) % vs.(57.0 ± 8.8) %;2-year EFS 100% vs.(88.9 ± 10.5)% vs.(51.1 ± 8.9)%],and the differences were statistically significant (P =0.008,P =0.030).Patients who received surgery had higher OS and EFS than those who did not received surgery [2-year OS (80.7±8.8)% vs.(53.3 ± 10.4)%;2-year EFS (71.1 ±10.1)% vs.(49.5±10.4)%],and the differences were statistically significant (P =0.008,P =0.026).COX regression analysis showed tumor diameter > 5 cm was an adverse prognostic factor (OR =4.124,95% CI:1.213-14.025,P =0.023).Conclusions PM-RMS accounted for a high proportion in RMS patients.The primary site and the size of the tumor are the main prognostic factors.Intensive therapy is expected to improve the prognosis of HN-RMS with meningeal invasion.

13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 142-147, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809813

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the clinical and pathological features of small vessel-childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (SV-cPACNS), discuss the immune therapy and increase the attention to brain biopsy in SV-cPACNS.@*Methods@#The clinical data, pathology of brain biopsy, treatment and outcome of an SV-cPACNS patient hospitalized in Beijing Children's Hospital in February 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The cases reported at Pubmed, CNKI and Wanfang databases from 2007 to 2017 were searched, the clinical and pathological features, immunotherapy and prognosis of the disease were summarized according to the literature review.@*Results@#A 70 months old girl had 6 times relapses during 5 months' disease course. Symptoms included convulsions, limb paralysis, blurred vision and speech difficulty. Multiple cortical lesions were found successively in brain MRI but CT angiography was negative. The pathology of brain biopsy revealed thickening of small vessel walls together with lymphocytic infiltration. After the treatment with rituximab, remission was achieved and remained stable without recurrence in 1 year follow up. A total of 44 pathologically confirmed cases reported in nearly 10 years were retrieved. Male to female ratio was 1∶3.5. The average onset age was 9.8 years. Clinical manifestations included seizures (37/45, 82%), headache (35/45, 78%), cognitive decline (28/45, 62%), speech regression(20/45, 44%), paralysis (15/45, 33%), and so on; 70% (19/27) patients experienced relapses. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein slightly elevated, antinuclear antibody and other autoimmune antibodies were mostly negative. Mild lymphocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid was found in 67%(29/43) patients. 53%(23/43) patients had elevated CSF protein level, several had elevated IgG and positive oligoclonal band. Bilateral multifocal lesions were revealed in 80% (36/45) brain MRIs, meanwhile all angiographies were unremarkable. The pathology showed small angiitis and immunohistochemistry positive for CD3 and CD20. Twenty-seven patients had detailed therapeutic information; 25 of them received immunosuppressive agents, including cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil and rituximab. One patient died, 26 patients achieved remission with 54% (22/44) had neurological sequelae.@*Conclusions@#SV-cPACNS had varied clinical manifestations, there was no specificity in laboratory and imaging examination and angiography was often negative. The definite diagnosis relied on brain biopsy, which showed lymphocytic inflammation of small vessels. SV-cPACNS tended to relapse and induce neurologic deterioration. Treatment required long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Rituximab could be an effective agent.

14.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 706-709, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807365

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Objective@#To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chest wall hamartoma of infancy.@*Methods@#The clinical data, histopathologic features and immunophenotype of five chest wall hamartomas were analyzed, and the relevant literature was reviewed.@*Results@#The patients′ age ranged from seven months and eight days to 20 months at time of resection, although the lesions were detected in the neonatal period. The male-to-female ratio was 4∶1. Three cases were unilateral, two presented with multiple lesions; and four were located on the right side. CT-scan of the chest showed expansile soft tissue masses with heterogeneous density containing calcifications or ossifications in one or more ribs showing partial bone destruction. Patients were all treated by complete resection. Grossly, the lesions comprised solid and cystic areas, the latter showing hemorrhage. Microscopic examination revealed the solid areas were composed of islands of multilobulated hyaline cartilage interspersed within spindle or oval mesenchymal cells, waved bone and collagen fibers. Around the chondroid tissue, there were focal endochondral ossification and mucus-like background. In addition, there were areas of aneurysmal bone cyst-like changes formed by hemorrhagic dilated cystic spaces. Immunohistochemistry was generally not necessary to establish the diagnosis.@*Conclusions@#Chest wall hamartoma is a rare but benign lesion of infancy, showing characteristic clinicopathologic features. The prognosis are excellent after complete surgical excision.

15.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 471-475, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809005

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Objective@#To investigation the diagnostic utility of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemically as a marker of peripheral neuroblastic tumors(pNT).@*Methods@#The study included 1 024 cases, 643 primary and metastatic pNT cases, 381 non-pNT cases, including small round cell tumors such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphoma, nephroblastoma, as well as other more common tumors (medulloblastoma, hepatoblastoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, renal clear cell sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lipoblatoma etc). Tissue slides of these 1 024 cases were stained with TH and other common antibodies to evaluate whether TH was useful to identify pNT.@*Results@#TH showed cytoplasmic staining in 100.0% (643/643) of pNT and 3.9% (15/381) of non-pNT. TH expression was seen in some poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors with focal or scattered patterns. In some cases, more scattering was seen in neuroblastoma with poor differentiation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TH was 100.0% (643/643), 96.1%(366/381), 97.7%(643/658) and 100.0% (366/366), respectively. There was no TH expression in the 248 cases of other small round cell tumors (PNET, rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphoma, etc), thus suggesting TH was useful to differentiate between PNET and neuroblastoma. As CD99 was positive in 95% PNET, some PNET would be CD99 negative. In those cases, particularly with diffuse rosettes forming, TH immunostaining would be useful.@*Conclusion@#TH is sensitive and specific for pNT in the differential diagnosis from other tumors of childhood and shows high diagnostic utility.

16.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 747-752, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304400

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features, histogenesis and prognosis of pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PPB specimens from 16 pediatric cases with an age ranging from 1 year and 7 months to 5 years and 3 months (mean age of 3 years) were retrieved and analyzed by routine histological, immunohistochemical and electron methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 16 patients, there were 2 type I, 7 type II and 7 type III PPB cases. Type I PPB as multilocular cystic structure, consisted of thin fibrous wall lining the respiratory epithelium, subepithelial primitive blastema or immature mesenchymal cells, with or without rhabdomyoblastic differentiation or cartilage; Type II PPB as cystic-solid tumor, comparing with type I, consisted of intracystic components with appearance of anaplastic tumor cells. Type III PPB consisted of completely solid mass, the same as the solid region of type II, had mixed pattern including blastema, undifferentiated spindle-cell proliferations and sarcomas. In addition, anaplastic tumor cells and intra-and extra- cytoplasmic eosinophilic globules were also commonly present. Epithelial components in PPB were benign. Immunohistochemical study showed primitive mesenchymal differentiation of tumors. All cases were positive for vimentin, desmin, myogenin and SMA in tumors with skeletal muscle differentiation, S-100 was positive in tumors with cartilage differentiation. All tumors were negative for synaptophysin, CD99, and CD117. Benign epithelial components were positive for AE1/AE3 and EMA. In 12 cases, electron microscopy revealed few organelles in the primitive mesenchymal cells and rich heterochromatin in mesenchymal cells, the latter also demonstrating cytoplasmic myofilament dysplasia. Nine cases had clinical follow-up ranging from 5 to 48 months, of which 4 patients died.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PPB is a rare lung neoplasm of children under the age of 6 years, with distinct pathological morphology. PPB may arise from lung or pleura mesenchymal cells and has a poor clinical outcome.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Cysts , Pathology , Desmin , Female , Humans , Infant , Lung Neoplasms , Chemistry , Pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Myogenin , Prognosis , Pulmonary Blastoma , Chemistry , Pathology , Sarcoma , Pathology , Vimentin
17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 810-813, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-442069

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the unique biological,histological and clinical features of pediatric renal cell carcinoma (RCC).Methods A retrospective review and biological analysis of all RCC cases presenting to our hospital from January 1973 to March 2012 was undertaken.Results Twenty-nine RCC pediatric patients (16 boys,13 girls) with mean age of 9.6 (range 2.5-16.0) years were identified.The presentations included hematuria in 17 (58.6%) cases with 3 who developed hematuria after trauma,abdominal mass with hematuria in 3 (10.3%),abdominal mass in 3,abdominal pain in 2,abdominal pain with hematuria in 1,and incidentally finding in 3.The diameter of tumor was from 2.5 cm to 25.0 cm,mean 6.8 cm.According to TNM stage grouping system,16 cases were stage Ⅰ,10 stage Ⅲ,and 3 stage Ⅳ.Xp1 1.2 translocation RCC was identified in 21 patients,clear cell RCC 6,papillary RCC 2.Of the 29 cases,3 patients with the tumor less than 7-cm had nephron-sparing surgery.A 15-cm tumor was incompletely removed in 1 patient and another patient with a 25 cm× 18 cm×15 cm tumor had gross residual.Nephrectomy was performed for the affected kidney in the remaining 24 patients.Twenty-one patients (Xp1 1.2 translocation RCC 13 patients,clear cell RCC 6,papillary RCC only 2) were followed up from 1.5 to 34.0 years,18 were living well (T1N0M0 in 11 cases,T1N1M0 in 2,T2N1M0 in 3,T3N1M0 in 1 and T4N1M1 in 1) and 3 died of recurrence.Conclusions Although RCC is rare in children,pediatric RCC behaves in a distinct fashion compared with adult forms of RCC.Hematuria is the main symptom in pediatric RCC.Xp11.2 translocation RCC is the predominant form,associated with an advanced stage at diagnosis.Nephrectomy is the common treatment for RCC and nephron sparing surgery could be a reasonable option for patients with tumor smaller than 7 cm.For localized RCC (T1-2 N0-1 M0),simple kidney removal surgery is sufficient for treatment without lymph node dissection and postoperative adjuvant treatment.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-551949

ABSTRACT

Objective To improve the diagnostic level by analysing and the CT features of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of liver(UES) in 6 cases all proved by pathology. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical,pathologic,and imaging features in 6 cases.6 cases underwent unenchanced CT scan,5 case enchanced CT Results CT scan revealed a large uniloculated cyst in 3 and multiloculated cyst within hyperdense septations of variable shapes and thickness in 3.The margins of the lesions were well defined. Some solid portions at the periphery or adjacent to the septa were found in all cases. Punctate calcification at the periphery of the lesion was found in 1 case. A thin rim was seen surrounding the cystic tumor in all cases corresponding to the pathologic psedcapsule. The solid portions and the psedcapsule of the tumor had increased attenuation values and the cystic areas showed low attenuation after injection of contrast material. US demonstrated a single echogenic mass within some anechoic spaces of variable size in 4 cases. Conclusion CT scan showed well defined uniloculated or multiloculated cyst within variable amount of solid portions and an enhancing rim and predominantly solid at US. Discrepancy of internal architecture between US and CT was one of the important characteristic of UES.

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