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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920748

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effects of levo-praziquantel (L-PZQ) and dextro-praziquantel (D-PZQ) on the proliferation and activation of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 in vitro. Methods LX-2 cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). LX-2 cell proliferation was measured using the CCK-8 assay after 24 h stimulation with 0 to 50 μg/mL concentrations of praziquantel, and the gene and protein expression of type Ⅰ collagen (collagen Ⅰ), type Ⅲ collagen (collagen Ⅲ) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was quantified in LX-2 cells using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting assays 24 h and 48 h following stimulation with 15 μg/mL praziquantel to detect LX-2 cell activation. Results There were significant differences in the survival rate of LX-2 cells between L-PZQ and D-PZQ treatments at all concentrations (F = 6.119 and 79.180, both P values < 0.05). Either L-PZQ or D-PZQ at a concentration of < 30 μg/mL showed no remarkableeffectsonthe LX-2 cell proliferation (both P values > 0.05), and L-PZQ at a concentration of > 50 μg/mL and D-PZQ at a concentration of > 40 μg/mL inhibited the LX-2 cell proliferation (both P values < 0.05), while D-PZQ at concentrations of 40 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL showed greater inhibition on LX-2 cell proliferation than L-PZQ (t = 3.419 and 8.776, both P values < 0.05). There were significant differences in the collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA expression in LX-2 cells at both transcriptional (F = 21.55, 79.99 and 46.70, all P values < 0.05) and translational levels (F = 20.12, 30.29 and 32.93, all P values < 0.05) among the blank control group, TGF-β stimulation group, L-PZQ treatment group and D-PZQ treatment group. L-PZQ treatment resulted in remarkable inhibition on collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA gene expression in LX-2 cells (both P values < 0.05); however, the treatment showed no remarkable inhibition collagen Ⅰ gene expression or collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ or α-SMA protein expression in LX-2 cells (all P values > 0.05). In addition, D-PZQ treatment resulted in significant inhibition on collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA expression in LX-2 cells at both translational and transcriptional levels (all P values < 0.05), and D-PZQ showed higher inhibition on collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA gene expression in LX-2 cells than L-PZQ (all P values < 0.05). Conclusions Both L-PZQ and D-PZQ inhibit the proliferation and activation of LX-2 cells, and D-PZQ shows a higher inhibitory activity than L-PZQ.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923775

ABSTRACT

Objective To test the activity of aromatic pyrrole-based compounds against cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and test their acute toxicity to fish. Methods A series of aromatic pyrrole-based compounds were synthesized using 4-benzyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-nitrile as the lead compound. The synthesized compounds were prepared into solutions at concentrations of 10.00, 1.00, 0.10, 0.01 mg/L, and the activity of these solutions against S. japonicum cercariae was tested in 30 min, while 0.10 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L niclosamide solutions served as a positive control and dechlorinated water with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a negative control, with 10 to 30 cercariae of S. japonicum in each group. In addition, the compounds were prepared into solutions at concentrations of 0.50, 0.25, 0.12, 0.06, 0.03 mg/L, and their toxicity to zebrafish was tested in 72 h, while 0.15 mg/L and 0.30 mg/L niclosamide solutions served as a positive control and dechlorinated water with 1% DMSO was used as a negative control, with 10 zebrafishes in each group. Results A total of 7 aromatic pyrrole-based compounds were successfully synthesized. Treatment with compounds 102, 104 and 106 at a concentration of 0.01 mg/L for 30 min killed all S. japonicum cercariae, and compounds 105 and 107 showed no activity against cercariae. No death of cercariae was found in the blank control group, while treatment with 0.10 mg/L niclosamide for 10 min caused a 100% mortality rate of S. japonicum cercariae and 0.01 mg/L niclosamide failed to kill S. japonicum cercariae. No zebrafish death was found 72 h post-treatment with compounds 101, 104 and 105 at a concentration of 0.03 mg/L, and exposure to compounds 102, 103 and 106 at a concentration of 0.03 mg/L for 12 h resulted in a 100% mortality rate of zebrafish. No zebrafish death occurred 72 h post-treatment with 0.50 mg/L Compound 104, and no zebrafish death was found in the blank control group, while treatment with 0.30 mg/L niclosamide for 24 h resulted in a 100% mortality rate of zebrafish. Conclusions Compound 104 achieves a 100% mortality rate against S. japonicum cercariae at a concentration of 0.01 mg/L for 30 min, and causes no death of zebrafish at a concentration of 0.50 mg/L for 72 h, which may serve as a cercaricide candidate.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904628

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the sensitivity of adult worms of filial generations from praziquantel-resistant and -sensitive Schistosoma japonicum mixed infections to praziquantel. Methods Mice were infected with the cercariae of an experimentally generated praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum isolate [median effective dose (ED50) = 277.4 mg/kg] and a laboratory-maintained praziquantel-sensitive S. japonicum isolate (ED50 = 99.6 mg/kg) at a mixture ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, which was maintained in the laboratory via the mouse-snail cycle for 8 generations. Then, mice were infected with the cercariae of the 8th filial-generation parasite, and grouped 35 days post-infection. Mice in the 5 treatment groups were given praziquantel treatment by gavage at a single oral dose of 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, while animals in the control group was administered orally with 2.5% cremophor EL. All mice were sacrificed 14 days post-treatment and adult worms were collected by perfusion of the portal vein. The worm burden reductions and praziquantel ED50 values were calculated. The praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum isolate generated from experimental induction with 12 rounds of praziquantel treatment with sub-curative doses was maintained in the laboratory via the mouse-snail cycle, and mice were infected with the cercariae of the 8th filial-generation parasite. The praziquantel ED50 value against the 8th filial-generation adults was measured. Results After mice were infected with the mixture of cercariae of PZQ-resistant and -sensitive S. japonicum isolates at a ratio of 1:1, the praziquantel ED50 was 135.2 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial-generation parasite. After mice were infected with the mixture of cercariae of PZQ-resistant and -sensitive S. japonicum isolates at a ratio of 2:1, the praziquantel ED50 was 129.2 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial-generation parasite. In addition, the praziquantel ED50 was 208.4 mg/kg against the adults of the 8th filial-generation S. japonicum without the selection pressure of praziquantel. Conclusions Compared with the experimentally induced praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum isolate, the adult worms of the filial-generation S. japonicum show a reduced sensitivity to praziquantel in the same host following infection with the mixture of cercariae of praziquantel-resistant and -sensitive S. japonicum isolates. The adult worms of the filial generation of the praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum isolate without the selection pressure of praziquantel may still maintain the resistance to praziquantel.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921341

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the associations of sarcopenia, handgrip strength and calf circumference with cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults.@*Methods@#Totally 2,525 older adults were recruited from the Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study. Cognitive impairment was assessed by the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination. Handgrip strength was calculated from the means of the right and left hand values. Calf circumference was measured at the site of maximum circumference of the non-dominant leg. The formula developed by Ishii was used to define sarcopenia. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of sarcopenia, handgrip strength, and calf circumference with cognitive impairment.@*Results@#The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 34.36%. The adjusted odds ratio ( @*Conclusion@#Sarcopenia, identified by low handgrip strength and low calf circumference, was positively associated with cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Leg/anatomy & histology , Logistic Models , Male , Sarcopenia/pathology
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1063-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886991

ABSTRACT

Abnormal aggregation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in brain plays a vital role in the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, inhibiting Aβ aggregation is one major tactic for therapy of AD. Previous studies have found that tolcapone can inhibit Aβ42 aggregation and reduce the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregates, but clinical studies have found that tolcapone has strong liver toxicity. To reduce the liver toxicity of tolcapone, its side chain structure was modified to obtain its derivative phenethyl (E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4 dihydroxy-5-nitrobenzene)-acrylate (PCDNA). Thioflavin T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assays were used to explore the inhibitory effect of PCDNA on Aβ42 fibrillogenesis. The cytotoxicity assays were used to explore the inhibitory effect of PCDNA against the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregates. In addition, the depolymerization effect of PCDNA on mature Aβ42 fibrils was also explored. Finally, molecular docking was used to explore the interaction between PCDNA and Aβ42 pentamer. These results lay the foundation for the study of the structural analogues of tolcapone as Aβ inhibitors.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837610

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the factors affecting the degradation of niclosamide in the soil, so as to provide the evidence for the assessment of the environmental safety in the field snail control with niclosamide. MethodsA high performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of niclosamide in the field. Then, the degradation of niclosamide was investigated in soils with different moistures (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%), temperatures [(15 ± 1), (25 ± 1), (35 ± 1) °C], initial concentrations (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) and in sterilized and non-sterilized soils. In addition, the degradation of niclosamide was fitted with the first-order kinetics equation, and the degradation half-life was calculated. Results The niclosamide residues gradually decreased over time in soils with different moistures, and a higher rate of degradation was seen in soils with a higher moisture. The degradation half-life of niclosamide reduced from 4.258 d in the soil with a 10% moisture to 2.412 d in the soil with a 90% moisture. The niclosamide residues gradually decreased over time in soils with different temperatures, and a higher rate of degradation was seen in soils with a higher temperature. The degradation half-life of niclosamide reduced from 4.398 d in the soil with a temperature of (15 ± 1) °C to 2.828 d in the soil with a temperature of (35 ± 1) °C. The degradation half-lives of niclosamide were 3.212, 3.333 d and 3.448 d in soils containing niclosamide at initial concentrations of 1, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, and > 30 d and 3.273 d in sterilized and non-sterilized soils. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that soil microorganisms (P = 0.010), moisture (P = 0.000) and temperature (P = 0.002) affected the half-life of niclosamide degradation. Conclusions The degradation of niclosamide in soils fits the first-order kinetics equation, and presence of microorganisms, a high temperature and high moisture may accelerate the degradation of niclosamide in the soil.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787713

ABSTRACT

To analyze influencing factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly aged 65 years and older in 8 longevity areas in China. We recruited 2 180 participants aged 65 years and older in 8 longevity areas from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study, a sub-cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2017. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships of socio-demographic characteristics, behavioral lifestyle, chronic disease prevalence, functional status, family and social support with depressive symptoms in the elderly. The detection rate of depression symptoms was 15.0 in the elderly aged 65 years and older in 8 longevity areas of China, and the detection rate of depression symptoms was 11.5 in men and 18.5 in women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis results showed that the detection rate of depressive symptoms was lower in the elderly who had regular physical exercises (=0.44, 95: 0.26-0.74), frequent fish intakes (=0.57, 95: 0.39-0.83), recreational activities (=0.65, 95: 0.44-0.96), social activities (=0.28, 95: 0.11-0.73) and community services (=0.68, 95: 0.50-0.93). The elderly who were lack of sleep (=2.04, 95: 1.49-2.80), had visual impairment (=1.54, 95: 1.08-2.18), had gastrointestinal ulcer (=2.97, 95: 1.53-5.77), had arthritis (=2.63, 95: 1.61-4.32), had higher family expenditure than income (=1.80, 95: 1.17-2.78) and were in poor economic condition (=4.58, 95: 2.48-8.47) had higher detection rate of depressive symptoms. The status of doing physical exercise, fish intake in diet, social activity participation, sleep quality or vision, and the prevalence of gastrointestinal ulcers and arthritis were associated with the detection rate of depressive symptoms in the elderly.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787712

ABSTRACT

To understand the current status of BMI of the elderly and related factors in longevity areas in China, and provide scientific evidence for the control of BMI level in elderly population. Data used in this study were obtained from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study, a sub-cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A total of 2 825 elderly in 8 longevity areas in China were surveyed and measured in 2017. The BMI levels of 2 217 elderly aged 65 years and older were calculated and in follow up. The ordered classification logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencd factors for the BMI in the elderly. The BMI of the elderly in 8 longevity areas in China was (22.36±3.87) kg/m(2), and it was (22.76±3.58) kg/m(2) for males and (21.75±3.98) kg/m(2) for females. The BMI levels were normal in 1 165 elderly persons. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were 15.8, 24.0 and 7.7, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the main factors affecting the BMI of people under 100- years old were age (65-: =2.78, 95: 1.87-4.15; 80-: =1.47, 95: 1.00-2.17), smoking status (=0.46, 95: 0.32-0.66), annual household income (<30 000 Yuan: =1.26, 95: 1.07-1.47; 30 000-70 000 Yuan: =1.52, 95: 1.12-1.86), and frequency of tea intake(=1.36, 95: 1.01-1.71), while the factor in people aged ≥100 years was gender (=3.68, 95: 1.32-10.36). The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were high in the elderly from longevity areas in China. It is necessary to pay attention to the trend of overweight and obesity due to smoking, higher annual household income and regular tea drinking in the elderly men.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787711

ABSTRACT

To understand the relationship between visual impairment and risk of all-cause mortality in the elderly aged 65 years and older in 8 longevity areas in China. The data of the elderly aged 65 years and older in the project in 2012 were obtained from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study, a sub-cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, including physical measurement and survival status, and a follow-up for survival outcomes were conducted in 2014 and 2017 respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze the influence of visual impairment on mortality. Gender and age specific analysis was conducted. A total of 1 736 elderly adults were included. A total of 943 deaths occurred during the 5-year follow-up period with a 5-year mortality rate of 54.3. The 5-year mortality rate was 76.7 in the group with visual impairment, and 47.6 in the group without visual impairment (<0.001). After adjusting for demographic information, life style and some disease factors, the risk of 5-year mortality in the group with visual impairment group was 1.30 times higher than that in the group without visual impairment (=1.30, 95: 1.09-1.55). In the females, the risk for mortality in the group with visual impairment was 1.48 times higher than that in the group without visual impairment (=1.48, 95:1.20-1.84). However, vision status was not associated with the risk for mortality in males (=1.02, 95: 0.72-1.43). The risk for mortality in the group with visual impairment was 1.39 times higher than that in the group without visual impairment in the elderly aged over 90 years (=1.39, 95: 1.13-1.70). Vision status was not associated with mortality risk in the elderly aged 65-79 years and 80-89 years (=1.37, 95: 0.61-3.07; =0.95, 95: 0.61-1.48). In the elderly people in China, visual impairment is a risk factor for mortality.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787710

ABSTRACT

To investigate the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and all-cause mortality in the elderly aged 65 years and older in longevity areas in China. Data used in this study were obtained from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study, a sub-cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, 1 802 elderly adults were collected in the study during 2012-2017/2018. In this study, the elderly were classified into 4 groups, moderate-to-severe group [<45 ml·min(-1)·(1.73 m(2))(-1)], mild-to-moderate group [45- ml·min(-1)·(1.73 m(2))(-1)], mild group [60- ml·min(-1)·(1.73 m(2))(-1)] and normal group [≥90 ml·min(-1)·(1.73 m(2))(-1)] according to their eGFR levels. After 6 years of follow-up, 852 participants died, with a mortality rate of 47.3. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the levels of eGFR were negatively correlated with all-cause mortality risk in the elderly (the of elderly was 0.993 and the 95 was 0.989-0.997 for every unit of eGFR increased, =0.001), while compared with the group with normal eGFR, the (95) of the elderly in the moderate-to-severe group, mild-to-moderate group, and mild group were 1.690 (1.224-2.332, =0.001), 1.312 (0.978-1.758, =0.070), 1.349 (1.047-1.737, =0.020) respectively [trend test <0.001]. The decrease in eGFR was associated with higher mortality risk among the elderly in longevity areas in China.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787709

ABSTRACT

To establish a prediction model for 6-year incidence risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly aged 65 years and older in China. In this prospective cohort study, we used the data of 3 742 participants collected during 2008/2009-2014 and during 2012-2017/2018 from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study, a sub-cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Two follow up surveys for renal function were successfully conducted for 1 055 participants without CKD in baseline survey. Lasso method was used for the selection of risk factors. The risk prediction model of CKD was established by using Cox proportional hazards regression models and visualized through nomogram tool. Bootstrap method (1 000 resample) was used for internal validation, and the performance of the model was assessed by C-index and calibration curve. The mean age of participants was (80.8±11.4) years. In 4 797 person years of follow up, CKD was found in 262 participants (24.8). Age, BMI, sex, education level, marital status, having retirement pension or insurance, hypertension prevalence, blood uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and total cholesterol levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate in baseline survey were used in the model to predict the 6-year incidence risk of CKD in the elderly. The corrected C-index was 0.766, the calibration curve showed good consistence between predicted probability and observed probability in high risk group, but relatively poor consistence in low risk group. The incidence risk prediction model of CKD established in this study has a good performance, and the nomogram can be used as visualization tool to predict the 6-year risk of CKD in the elderly aged 65 years and older in China.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818949

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the difference of fertility of Biomphalaria glabrata snails between self-fertilization and cross-fertilization and to observe the circadian rhythm of laying eggs, the effect of light on laying eggs and the tolerance of the snail to water and food deficiency, so as to provide the evidence for control and elimination of B. glabrata snails in the field. Methods Under laboratory conditions, a single B. glabrata egg for self-fertilization was separated and hatched individually, and young snails were raised in different plastic boxes individually. The eggs for cross-fertilization were hatched and the young snails were fed in the same plastic box. The ability of spawn, the development of the eggs, and the number of snails growing from young to adult snails were compared between the self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. The snails were in the water under four environments, all day illumination, all day without illumination, daytime lighting and night without illumination, and daytime without illumination but night lighting. The eggs were collected and counted daily. The circadian rhythm of spawn and the effect of illumination on spawn were observed. The adult snails were divided into 6 groups and exposed to the environments with relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100%, respectively. The survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the different environments after different time were observed. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were observed. Results In the 25 °C water, the average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (8.77 ± 16.92) eggs/snail in the self-fertilization snail. The average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (149.71 ± 142.28) eggs/snail in the cross-fertilization snails. There was a significant difference between the self-fertilization snail and cross-fertilization snail (t = 0.999 999, P < 0.01). The hatching rate and reproductive maturation rate of the self-fertilization snails and cross-fertilization snails were 50.1% and 78.9%, and 19.3% and 3.8%, respectively, There was a significant difference (the hatching rate: χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.01, the reproductive maturation rate: χ2 = 11.83, P < 0.01) . In the natural environment of daytime with illumination and nighttime with darkness, the amount of laying 20 eggs of B. glabrata snail was (944.07 ± 392.53) eggs/day during a whole day, among them the amount of laying eggs during daytime account for 10.1% and the amount of laying eggs during nighttime account for 89.9%, and the laying egg was given priority to with the night. The above results suggested that the dark environment was conducive to B. glabrata snails to lay eggs. The above results suggested that light can promote the increase of spawning of B. glabrata. When B. glabrata was exposed to the environments with the relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100% at 25 °C, respectively, and the longest survival times of snails were 7, 70, 150 d and 100 d, respectively. In the 25 °C water, the snails could survive for 50 days without food. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 70%, 30%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively. Conclusions B. glabrata can achieve the reproductive process by cross-fertilization or self-fertilization. There is a significant difference in reproductive ability between the cross-fertilization snail and self-fertilization snail, cross-fertilization is stronger than self-fertilization, but the rate of reproduction in the self-fertilization is higher than that in the cross-fertilization. It is indicated that B. glabrata that survive after the dry season plays an important role in the maintenance of local snail populations and transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818497

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the difference of fertility of Biomphalaria glabrata snails between self-fertilization and cross-fertilization and to observe the circadian rhythm of laying eggs, the effect of light on laying eggs and the tolerance of the snail to water and food deficiency, so as to provide the evidence for control and elimination of B. glabrata snails in the field. Methods Under laboratory conditions, a single B. glabrata egg for self-fertilization was separated and hatched individually, and young snails were raised in different plastic boxes individually. The eggs for cross-fertilization were hatched and the young snails were fed in the same plastic box. The ability of spawn, the development of the eggs, and the number of snails growing from young to adult snails were compared between the self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. The snails were in the water under four environments, all day illumination, all day without illumination, daytime lighting and night without illumination, and daytime without illumination but night lighting. The eggs were collected and counted daily. The circadian rhythm of spawn and the effect of illumination on spawn were observed. The adult snails were divided into 6 groups and exposed to the environments with relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100%, respectively. The survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the different environments after different time were observed. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were observed. Results In the 25 °C water, the average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (8.77 ± 16.92) eggs/snail in the self-fertilization snail. The average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (149.71 ± 142.28) eggs/snail in the cross-fertilization snails. There was a significant difference between the self-fertilization snail and cross-fertilization snail (t = 0.999 999, P < 0.01). The hatching rate and reproductive maturation rate of the self-fertilization snails and cross-fertilization snails were 50.1% and 78.9%, and 19.3% and 3.8%, respectively, There was a significant difference (the hatching rate: χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.01, the reproductive maturation rate: χ2 = 11.83, P < 0.01) . In the natural environment of daytime with illumination and nighttime with darkness, the amount of laying 20 eggs of B. glabrata snail was (944.07 ± 392.53) eggs/day during a whole day, among them the amount of laying eggs during daytime account for 10.1% and the amount of laying eggs during nighttime account for 89.9%, and the laying egg was given priority to with the night. The above results suggested that the dark environment was conducive to B. glabrata snails to lay eggs. The above results suggested that light can promote the increase of spawning of B. glabrata. When B. glabrata was exposed to the environments with the relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100% at 25 °C, respectively, and the longest survival times of snails were 7, 70, 150 d and 100 d, respectively. In the 25 °C water, the snails could survive for 50 days without food. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 70%, 30%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively. Conclusions B. glabrata can achieve the reproductive process by cross-fertilization or self-fertilization. There is a significant difference in reproductive ability between the cross-fertilization snail and self-fertilization snail, cross-fertilization is stronger than self-fertilization, but the rate of reproduction in the self-fertilization is higher than that in the cross-fertilization. It is indicated that B. glabrata that survive after the dry season plays an important role in the maintenance of local snail populations and transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803576

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the new ideas and methods for training nurses, and improve the training effect of specialist nurses through the Internet + micro-course platform training model.@*Methods@#Sixty-four nurses who participated in the training of specialist nurses in Department of Cardiology for 2017-2018 years were divided into two groups with 32 cases each according to the year. The control group received the traditional training mode, the experimental group applied the Internet + micro curriculum platform training mode, and after the training, two groups of students were investigated for nursing operation examination, theoretical examination, critical thinking scale, and feedback surveys were conducted to analyze the Internet + micro course platform training.@*Results@#Before training, the theoretical examination, the operation examination, critical thinking scale were (85.78 ± 2.59), (85.66 ± 2.60), (347.50 ± 6.61) points in the experimental group and (86.75 ± 2.63), (86.38 ± 2.59), (348.81 ± 5.28) points in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). After training, the theoretical examination, the operation examination, critical thinking scale were (94.25 ± 1.75), (95.68 ± 2.02), (407.81 ± 5.45) points in the experimental group and (90.34 ± 1.40), (94.25 ± 1.75), (380.40 ± 11.20) points in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (t=-9.572, -2.960, 12.445, all P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#The training mode of the Internet + micro course platform is superior to the traditional training mode, which can improve the critical thinking ability of the specialist nurses in Department of Cardiology, and is conductive to the training of clinical nurses′ ability of clinical strain.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704270

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict the colonization risk and potential geographical distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata in the Mainland China based on the past period temperature data.Methods The survival extreme high temperatures and low tem-peratures of B.glabrata eggs,young and adult B.glabrata snails and the average effective accumulated temperature of genera-tion development were determined in laboratory conditions.The temperature data in January and July from 1955 to 2010 were collected from the national meteorological monitoring sites in the southern part of China,including Chongqing,Zhejiang,Yun-nan,Sichuan,Jiangxi,Hunan,Hainan,Guizhou,Guangdong,Guangxi and Fujian provinces(11 provinces).A database of ambient temperature related to B.glabrata was established based on the Geographic Information System(GIS).The colonization risk and potential geographical distribution of B.glabrata in the southern part of China were analyzed and predicted by ArcGIS 10.1 software.Results The half lethal low temperatures of B.glabrata eggs,young and adult B.glabrata snails were 6.80,6.34℃ and 6.60℃ respectively;the half lethal high temperatures of B.glabrata eggs,young and adult B.glabrata snails were 35.99,33.59℃ and 32.20℃,respectively.The developmental threshold temperature was 7.16℃;the average effective accumu-lated temperature of generation development was(1 970.07 ± 455.10)days-degree.The GIS overlay analysis of the half lethal low and high temperatures of B.glabrata showed that the local temperature conditions in all Hainan and part regions in Yunnan,Guangxi,Guangdong and Fujian were conformed to the survival temperature of B.glabrata snails.The regions,where the aver-age effective accumulated temperature was more than the average effective accumulated temperature of generation development of B.glabrata,were Guangdong and Hainan,and part regions of other 9 provinces.The overlay analysis of GIS maps of the sur-vival extreme high temperatures and low temperatures of B.glabrata with the GIS map of the average effective accumulated tem-perature of generation development in 2010 showed that the whole region of Hainan and part regions of Guangdong,Guangxi,Yunnan and Fujian were potential geographical distribution regions of colonization risk of B.glabrata.The overlay analysis of GIS maps of the survival extreme high temperatures and low temperatures of B.glabrata with the GIS map of the average effective accumulated temperature of generation development from 1955 to 2010 showed that the potential geographical distribution re-gions of B.glabrata was expanding from the whole region of Hainan and part regions of Guangdong in 1955 to the whole region of Hainan and part regions of Guangdong,Guangxi,Yunnan and Fujian in 2010.Conclusions If B.glabrata snails were intro-duced into the Mainland China,the potential geographical distribution regions would be the whole region of Hainan and part re-gions of Guangdong,Guangxi and Yunnan.The changes of risk range and risk intensity present the trends of expanding and in-creasing from the south to the north gradually.

16.
Chinese Circulation Journal ; (12): 463-468, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-703881

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the relationships between the stability of carotid plaque and serum Lp-PLA2, A-FABP levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods: 195 postmenopausal women with hypertension were selected and divided into non-plaque group, stable plaque group and unstable plaque group according to the results of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque types derived from color doppler ultrasonography. In addition, 40 healthy postmenopausal women were recruited as normal control group. The serum Lp-PLA2 and A-FABP levels of all subjects were measured. Lp-PLA2 and A-FABP levels were compared among four groups by One-Way ANOVA. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were also performed. Results: Plaque group included 123 subjects (unstable plaque group: 29 cases; stable plaque group: 94 cases), and non-plaque group included 72 subjects. The average serum A-FABP level was significantly higher in unstable plaque group [(172.60±33.70) ng/L] than in non-plaque group[(133.04±29.49) ng/L], P<0.05. Serum Lp-PLA2 level was similar between the four groups, P>0.05. Serum A-FABP level was positively correlated with the carotid plaque (r=0.3446, P=0.0049);serum Lp-PLA2 level was not correlated with the carotid plaque (r=0.2058, P=0.0996). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high A-FABP level was associated with stable plaque in hypertensive postmenopausal women (P=0.040, OR=1.017, 95%CI: 1.001~1.033), which was also associated with unstable plaque in this population (P=0.003, OR=1.031, 95%CI: 1.010~1.052). Conclusions: The level of A-FABP is a determinant responsible for the occurrence and stability of carotid plaque among hypertensive postmenopausal women. There was no correlation between Lp-PLA2 level and the stability of carotid plaque in this patient cohort.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691252

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether vimentin (VIM) mediates the activation of inflammasome in mice with EV71 infection in the central nervous system.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty VIM knockout mice (VIM, 3 to 5 days old) were randomly divided into control group and infection group. The infection group was intraperitoneally injected with EV71 (10 TCID), while the control group was injected with PBS (10 µL); another 40 wild-type mice (WT, 3 to 5 days old) were grouped in the same manner. The general conditions of mice were observed each day. Western blotting, ELISA, and RT-PCR were used to measure the levels of IL-1β and casepase-1 in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathological changes in the cerebella and brain were observed using immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, the VIM mice infected with EV71 showed no significant changes in NLRP3, IL-1β or caspase-1 expression. The WT mice infected with EV71 showed obviously increased NLRP3, IL-1β, and caspase-1 expressions in the central nervous system. The neurons of infected VIM mice exhibited milder cell damage than the those in WT mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>VIM mediates the activation of inflammasome and promotes brain inflammation and neuronal damage in mice with EV71 infection in the central nervous system.</p>

18.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 1140-1145, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-668689

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of targeted therapy for lung cancer , dramatic changes are under way in the therapeutic means , drugs as well as the treatment concept .This article gives representation of the precision targeted therapy from the following 3 aspects:basic requirements for detection before treatment , higher requirements for selecting targeted drugs according to the subtypes of driver genes , and perfect requirements for dynamic adjustment with molecular changes for drug resistance .Through this review , the essence of precision medicine and whole process management for lung cancer might be better understood .

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812104

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix (AR) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Wild AR is believed to be of high quality, and substitution with cultivated AR is frequently encountered in the market. In the present study, two types of ARs (wild and cultivated) from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, growing in different regions of China, were analyzed by NMR profiling coupled with multivariate analysis. Results showed that both could be differentiated successfully and cultivation patterns or growing years might have greater impact on the metabolite compositions than the variety; the metabolites responsible for the separation were identified. In addition, three extraction methods were compared and the method (M1) was used for further analysis. In M1, the extraction solvent composed of water, methanol, and chloroform in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 2 was used to obtain the aqueous methanol (upper layer) and chloroform (lower layer) fractions, respectively, showing the best separation. The differential metabolites among different methods were also revealed. Moreover, the sucrose/glucose ratio could be used as a simple index to differentiate wild and cultivated AR. Meanwhile, the changes of correlation pattern among the differential metabolites of the two varieties were found. The work demonstrated that NMR-based non-targeted profiling approach, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be used as a powerful tool for differentiating AR of different cultivation types or growing years.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , China , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Metabolomics , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Classification , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Metabolism
20.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E240-E246, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804034

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the validity of screw-rod system for fixing pelvic fractures by comparing the biomechanical behaviors from using screw-rod system or steel plate for fixing Tile B2 type pelvic fractures. Methods The finite element models of normal pelvis including ligaments, and Tile B2 fractured pelvis fixed by different screw-rod fixations (2 screws at fractured side, 3 screws at fractured side and at healthy side), and steel plate fixation were established. The vertical load (500 N) was applied on the upper terminal plate of the first body of the sacrum to simulate pelvis load during double-leg standing, single-leg standing and sitting. The displacement and stress distributions on normal pelvis and fractured pelvis with screw-rod fixation or with steel plate fixation were compared and analyzed. Results Both the screw-rod system and steel plate could effectively fix the fractured pelvis, and the fixation models showed similar displacement and stress distribution as normal pelvis. The largest displacement of fractured pelvis with 3-screw fixation on the diseased side was smallest under each working condition, and its stress level was also obviously lower than that of the other internal fixation models. During double-leg standing, compared with 2 screws fixation, 3 screws at healthy side fixation, and steel plate fixation, the Von Mises stress for 3 screws at fractured side fixation was reduced by 30.4%, 20.8%, 20.3%; during single-leg standing, the Von Mises stress for 3 screws at fractured side fixation was reduced by 31.8%,25.4%,18.5%; during sitting, the Von Mises stress for 3 screws at fractured side fixation is reduced by -6.5%,28.0%,61.1%,respectively. Conclusions The screw-rod system can fix Tile B2 pelvic fracture effectively, especially for 3-screw fixation on the fractured side. The results can provide the theory basis for clinical treatment of pelvic fracture.

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