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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913071

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of FibroTouch in combination with four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers for assessment of the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver disorders. Methods A total of 63 patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases admitted to The Third People’s Hospital of Kunshan City from January to March 2021 were enrolled as the observation group, while 50 healthy volunteers receiving health examinations in the hospital during the study period were randomly selected as the control group. The liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was determined using the FibroTouch technique, and the serum levels of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers were detected using chemilumi-nescence immunoassay, including type IV collagen (IV-C), type III procollagen (PC-III), hyaluronidase (HA) and laminin (LN). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of LSM and four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers alone and in combination for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver disorders were plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated to examine the value of LSM and four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers alone and in combination for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Results There were 63 subjects in the observation group, including 28 men and 35 women, and the participants had a mean age of (65.34 ± 12.56) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of (24.47 ± 11.05) kg/m2. There were 50 subjects in the control group, including 22 men and 28 women, and the participants had a mean age of (64.28 ± 13.10) years and a mean BMI of (25.12 ± 11.64) kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the observation and control groups in terms of gender ratio (χ2 = 0.002, P > 0.05), age (t = 0.437, P > 0.05) or BMI (t = 0.303, P > 0.05). The LSM [(8.65 ± 5.22) vs. (3.24 ± 1.10) kPa; t = 8.013, P < 0.05], IV-C [(51.80 ± 9.45) vs. (30.10 ± 10.34) ng/L; t = 11.506, P < 0.05], PC-III [(77.28 ± 17.22) vs. (48.62 ± 9.54) ng/L; t = 11.224, P < 0.05], HA [(39.55 ± 5.32) vs. (84.89 ± 10.34) ng/L; t = 30.158, P < 0.05] and LN [(99.47 ± 7.37) vs. (61.93 ± 9.80) ng/L; t = 22.496, P < 0.05] were significantly greater in the observation group than in the control group, and Spearman correlation analysis showed that the degree of liver fibrosis positively correlated with LSM (rs = 0.675, P < 0.01), IV-C (rs = 0.421, P < 0.01), PC-III (rs = 0.517, P < 0.01), HA (rs = 0.550, P < 0.01) and LN (rs = 0.539, P < 0.01) among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases. ROC curve analysis revealed that the AUC of LSM for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree was 0.884 (P < 0.001), and the LSM cutoff, sensitivity and specificity were 11.75 kPa, 71.43% and 84.00% at the highest Youden index, respectively. In addition, the AUC of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree was 0.577 to 0.670, with 70.174 to 115.237 ng/L cutoff values, 17.46% to 68.25% sensitivity and 71.01% to 96.00% specificity. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of LSM combined with four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers were 92.06% and 95.07% for assessment of the hepatic fibrosis degree among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases. Conclusion FibroTouch in combination with detection of four hepatic fibrosis biomarkers has a high sensitivity and specificity for assessing the degree of hepatic fibrosis among patients with chronic schistosomiasis-induced liver diseases, which deserves widespread clinical uses.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 433-440, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922936

ABSTRACT

Three tricyclic [6,5,7] and six tetracyclic [6,5,5,5] novel indole alkaloids were synthesized and evaluated on triglyceride inhibitory activities for the first time. Among them, compound 4c showed the most potent activity with IC50 value of 6.35 μmol·L-1. Meanwhile, compound 4c also exhibited a good safety profile at the cellular level. Preliminary mechanism study indicated that 4c might increase intracellular lipid metabolism by activating AMPK. These results provide a novel family of lead compounds for the discovery of anti-NAFLD candidates.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 818-830, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922897

ABSTRACT

Licorice, one of the most commonly used medicinal materials in China, grows mainly in arid and semi-arid regions and has important economic and ecological values. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plants play an important role in regulating biological or abiotic stress responses, growth, and secondary metabolite synthesis. bZIP transcription factors in the published whole genome database of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were identified using bZIP sequences found in Arabidopsis thaliana genome as reference, and ABA-dependent bZIP genes were identified by using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The physical and chemical properties, structure of the encoded proteins, and the gene expression patterns with exogenous ABA stress were analyzed. A total of 69 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in G. uralensis, named Gubzip1-69, and they were divided into 10 subfamilies (A-I and S) according to their similarity to bZIPs of A. thaliana. By calculating the relative expression levels of the 69 GubZIPs genes under different concentrations of exogenous ABA stress, genes that may be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling pathways were identified, namely GubZIP1, GubZIP5, GubZIP8, GubZIP30, GubZIP33 and GubZIP56. The results of expression pattern analysis of these GubZIPs genes under exogenous ABA stress showed that the expression pattern of GubZIPs genes changed significantly with 50 mg·L-1 ABA. The relative expression levels of these genes decreased 3 h after treatment, and gradually increased 6 h after treatment. Except for GubZIP8, the relative expression levels of these genes were significantly increased after 12 h. Further research on the function of bZIP transcription factors of G. uralensis and elucidating their regulatory mechanisms should be of interest and will provide a scientific basis for cultivating high-quality cultivars of G. uralensis through molecular breeding methods.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dissatisfaction with medications prescribed to treat FC may lead patients to seek alternative treatments. Numerous systematic reviews (SRs) examining the use of acupuncture to treat FC have reported inconsistent results, and the quality of these studies has not been fully evaluated.@*OBJECTIVE@#In this overview, we evaluated and summarized clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating FC and evaluated the quality and bias of the SRs we reviewed.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#The search strategy was structured by medical subject headings and search terms such as "acupuncture therapy" and "functional constipation." Electronic searches were conducted in eight databases from their inception to September 2020.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#SRs that investigated the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for managing FC were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two authors independently extracted information and appraised the methodology, reporting accuracy, quality of evidence, and risk of bias using the following critical appraisal tools: (1) A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2); (2) Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS); (3) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Acupuncture (PRISMA-A); and (4) the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A κ index was used to score the level of agreement between the 2 reviewers.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen SRs that examined the clinical utility of acupuncture for treating FC were identified. Using the AMSTAR 2 tool, we rated 92.3% (12/13) of the SRs as "critically low" confidence and one study as "low" confidence. Using the ROBIS criteria, 38.5% (5/13) of the SRs were considered to have "low risk" of bias. Based on PRISMA-A, 76.9% (10/13) of the SRs had over 70% compliance with reporting standards. The inter-rater agreement was good for AMSTAR 2, ROBIS, and PRISMA-A. Using the GRADE tool, we classified 22.5% (9/40) of the measured outcomes as "moderate" quality, 57.5% (23/40) as "low" quality, and 20.0% (8/40) as "very low" quality. The inter-rater agreement was moderate when using GRADE. Descriptive analyses indicated that acupuncture was more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) and for raising the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving weekly spontaneous bowel movements, the total effective rate, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Although ten SRs mentioned the occurrence of adverse events, serious adverse events were not associated with acupuncture treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture may be more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving CSBMs and BSFS scores and may be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving bowel movement frequency, as well as quality of life. Limitations to current studies and inconsistent evidence suggest a need for more rigorous and methodologically sound SRs to draw definitive conclusions.@*SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO CRD42020189173.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Constipation/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912872

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture plus MOTOmed intelligent motor training in treating children with spastic cerebral palsy, and analyze the effects on lower limb motor function, intelligence development level, immune function and cerebral hemodynamics.Methods: A total of 42 children with spastic cerebral palsy were selected as the observation objects, and enrolled into the observation group. Another 42 cases treated in the same period were selected as the control group. Both groups received MOTOmed intelligent motor training, and the observation group was given additional acupuncture therapy, and the control group was given additional conventional rehabilitation treatment. After 2 consecutive treatment courses, the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of Children's Developmental Center of China (CDCC) scale, the scores of gross motor function measure (GMFM) scale and modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and the changes in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ were observed. The peak systolic velocity (PSV) and mean flow velocity (MFV) of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were observed and measured. The clinical efficacy was evaluated. Results: Compared with the same group before treatment, the scores of GMFM, PDI and MDI, levels of CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+, PSV and MFV levels of ACA, MCA and PCA in both groups were significantly increased after treatment (all P<0.05), while the CD8+ level had no significant change (both P>0.05). After treatment, the total effective rate of lower limb spasm in the observation group was 90.5%, significantly higher than 71.4% in the control group (P<0.05). The scores of GMFM, PDI and MDI, the levels of CD3+ and CD4+, PSV and MFV, and the levels of ACA, MCA and PCA in the observation group were all significantly higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the CD8+ level and CD4+/CD8+ between the groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture plus MOTOmed intelligent motor training has a better clinical efficacy than conventional rehabilitation plus MOTOmed intelligent motor training in treating children with spastic cerebral palsy, and is also superior in improving lower limb motor function and the level of intellectual development. And the mechanism may be related to the improvement of cerebral hemodynamics.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912851

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore whether acupuncture can improve sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment and emotional disorders caused by sleep deprivation, and its association with the attenuation of oxidative stress injury in prefrontal cortex. Methods: Fifty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10), a model group (n=14), a manual acupuncture (MA) group (n=14), and a sham-MA group (n=14). All the groups were established as sleep deprivation models via the modified multiple platform method, except for the control group. Rats in both the MA group and the sham-MA group received corresponding intervention, respectively. After modeling and intervention, the four groups received three behavioral tests, namely sleep monitoring, by comprehensive lab animal monitoring system (CLAMS), Morris water maze (MWM) test and open-field test (OFT), followed by oxygen free radical level test and Western blot (WB) detection for the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2. Results: The MA group derived more sleep time within 24 h than either the model group or the sham-MA group (both P<0.05). On MWM orientation navigation test day 1, there were no significant differences in escape latency among the control, MA and sham-MA groups (P>0.05), and the escape latency was significantly shorter in these three groups than that in the model group (all P<0.05). On test day 4, the escape latency was markedly shorter in the MA group than that in either the model group or the sham-MA group (both P<0.05); meanwhile, the MA group showed significantly better performance compared with these two groups in space probe test (both P<0.05). In OFT, compared with the control group, there was a significant decline in the horizontal movement score in the other three groups (all P<0.05), and the decrease was more significant in the model group and the sham-MA group than that in the MA group (both P<0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content was markedly higher and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was markedly lower in the MA group than those in the model group and the sham-MA group (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group and the sham-MA group, the expression of Bax was significantly lower and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher in the MA group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: MA therapy can lengthen the sleep time in sleep-deprived rats and improve learning and memory impairments induced by sleep deprivation, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant capacity in the prefrontal cortex and the inhibition of hippocampal neuronal apoptosis.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907132

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907109

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906498

ABSTRACT

Objective:To obtain ancient traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)literatures relating to tumor and visual analysis by an automatic framework tool, in order to systematically sort out the development of ancient Chinese medicine oncology. Method:Based on the database platform of ancient TCM books,names of tumor-related diseases in ancient TCM books were retrieved by Selenium WebDriver, an automation framework tool under Python 3.8. Lxml's etree library was used to parse the data. Statistics was made for "classification", "authors", "completion time" and "summary" of relevant ancient books automatically. After the data was checked and processed, Tableau 2019.2 software was used for data visualization analysis. And ancient Chinese medicine literatures relating to tumor were consulted at the database manually,with the dynasties as the clue,and the symptoms,etiology,pathogenesis and prognosis as the emphasis,this paper explores the development process of TCM oncology. Result:A total of 774 349 bytes of text data of 1 128 entries in 242 ancient books were included automatically. According to the findings, there were simple classification and time distribution of tumor diseases in ancient TCM books in the pre-Qin period, with a simple view on the pathogenesis of tumor diseases. From the Han dynasty to the Tang dynasty, the number of relevant literature records and the types and disease names had gradually increased,which further enriched the cognition of tumor nature,signs,classification methods,differential diagnosis;in Song and Ming dynasties,the proportion of Chinese prescription books and surgery books had increased gradually,with the largest number of abdominal organ tumor names among all dynasties;from Qing dynasty to the Republic of China,literatures relating to tumor name and classification were the most improved,and then the TCM tumor syndrome differentiation and treatment system had been formed. Conclusion:It was found that TCM oncology originated in the pre-Qin dynasty,and was improved in the Han and Tang dynasties, mature in the Song and Ming dynasties and completed in the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. The data visualization method with integrated automation framework and parsing tools is helpful to analyze the subdivision characteristics of ancient TCM literatures,which is convenient,efficient and innovative,in the expectation to provide a classic reference for contemporary TCM studies.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906410

ABSTRACT

Interventional or thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has the effect of opening occluded coronary arteries. However, due to no myocardial regurgitation, ischemia/reperfusion injury and microvascular structure and function destruction, leading to myocardial fibrosis following AMI, ventricular remodeling, and even cardiac failure may occur. Collaterals doctrine is used to guide the investigation into traditional Chinese medicine pathogenesis and clinical treatment of myocardial fibrosis following AMI. Consequently, it proposes the pathogenesis characteristic of "Qi deficiency and blood stasis, collaterals obstruction" and medication principle of "dispersing and dredging", to develop the formula of Tongxinluo. Fundamental and clinical researches have demonstrated it can effectively protect the structure and function of myocardial microvascular endothelial cells, improve no reflow and reperfusion injury, and inhibit myocardial fibrosis after AMI, which further supports scientific value of the collaterals doctrine.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906401

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the contents of adenosine, gastrodin, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parisinin B and parisinin A in Chijian (the aerial part of <italic>Gastrodia elata</italic>) and Gastrodiae Rhizoma, and compare their effects on immune function and intestinal microflora, evaluating whether it is necessary to study and develop Chijian. Method:The contents of these six constituents were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), the mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 0.5%B; 4-5 min, 0.5%-2%B; 5-10 min, 2%-15%B; 10-12 min, 15%-20%B; 12-15 min, 20%-95%B; 15-17 min, 95%B; 17-17.5 min, 95%-0.5%B; 17.5-20 min, 0.5%B), the flow rate was 0.5 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the detection wavelength was 270 nm. The difference of pharmacological activity of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma was compared, the clearance index, corrected clearance index and peripheral blood were measured in mice model with low immune function induced by cyclophosphamide, B lymphocyte proliferation was determined by lymphocyte transformation test <italic>in vitro</italic>, intestinal microflora was analyzed by 16S rDNA technology and bioinformatics was conducted. Result:The total contents of these six components in powder and ethanol extract of Chijian were higher than that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, but the total contents of these six components in their water extract were similar, and the total contents of gastrodin and <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol met the requirements of the 2020 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. Compared with the blank group, the clearance index of immunocompromised mice was significantly increased in the middle-dose (10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group of Chijian water extract, middle- and low-dose (10, 5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract (<italic>P</italic><0.05), the levels of erythrocyte and hematocrit in peripheral blood were significantly increased in the high-dose (20 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), water extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma with concentration of 400 g·L<sup>-1</sup> and the water extract of Chijian with the concentration of 100 g·L<sup>-1</sup> could promote the proliferation of B lymphocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Studies on intestinal microflora showed that compared with the blank group, at the phylum level, the water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, at the genus level, they increased the relative abundance of <italic>Prevotellaceae</italic>_UCG-001 and <italic>Ruminococcaceae</italic>_UCG-005, and decreased the relative abundance of <italic>Anaerotruncus</italic>, unclassified_<italic>f</italic>_<italic>Erysipelotrichaceae</italic> and<italic> Candidatus</italic>_<italic>Stoquefichus</italic>.<italic> </italic>These intestinal bacteria were related to the immune system, cell proliferation, and metabolism regulation. Conclusion:The total contents of 6 components in the powder, the ethanol and the water extracts of Chijian are higher than or close to those of the corresponding samples of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, the pharmacological activity of Chijian water extract is similar to that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract, indicating that Chijian is worthy of further research and development.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906345

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the syndrome distribution of cough cases in ancient Chinese medical books. Method:A total of 9 323 cough cases in the database of lung diseases in ancient Chinese medical books were extracted. Lantern 5.0 was used to construct the latent structure model for the 100 manifest variables based on the first 50 symptoms and 50 Chinese herbal medicines, and different latent nodes were interpreted. The syndrome differentiation patterns of syndromes with symptoms and Chinese herbal medicine (formula) were quantitatively revealed by the comprehensive clustering weights of latent structure. The correlation of diseases with syndromes was fitted through the binary Logistic regression analysis. Result:There were 204 syndromes involved in 9 323 cough cases with 18 syndromes showing a frequency higher than 100. As demonstrated by the model established on the first 50 symptoms and 50 Chinese herbal medicines, 35 latent variables, 98 latent classes, and 10 comprehensive clustering models were obtained, where <italic>Z</italic>5<italic> </italic>was the highest in the threshold value (6.7), <italic>Z</italic>6 in the information coverage of productive cough (52%), and <italic>Z</italic>7 in the score (19). The binary Logistic regression model fitted the correlation between different disease types and five syndromes, where the dominance ratio of external wind to the syndrome of wind-heat invading lung reaching up to 88.919, those of syndrome of phlegm-heat accumulating in lung to diseased heat and sputum 51.594 and 15.861, and those of the syndrome of phlegm-dampness obstructing lung to dampness, phlegm, and fluid retention 31.415, 34.370, and 4.936, respectively. Conclusion:The newly discovered cough syndromes included lung heat and yin deficiency, external cold and internal fluid retention, weakness of spleen and stomach, and phlegm and blood stasis in lung. In most cases, multiple syndromes were observed clinically, such as syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin in lung combined with yin deficiency in lung and kidney. Since differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome is subjective, the weight can indicate the difference in the contributions of different symptoms to the syndrome, which is of guiding significance for syndrome inference. The latent structure model combined with Logistic regression analysis can solve the problem of quantification in TCM syndrome differentiation and can be used to explore the syndrome distribution of diseases.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906290

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in China, which is one of the authentic medicinal materials in Jiangxi. It has great development prospects. However, the current research on Plantaginis Semen is not in-depth enough, mainly involving chemical components and pharmacological activities. There are few researches on processing and variety of Plantaginis Semen. In order to further develop and utilize the resources of Plantaginis Semen, we summarized 4 varieties that have been studied more at present, the processing contents of Plantaginis Semen in ancient and modern literature were consulted and sorted out, and its processing historical evolution were summarized. The influences of different processing technologies and methods on the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Plantaginis Semen were analyzed, the possible processing mechanism was discussed. Meanwhile, and the quality evaluation methods of Plantaginis Semen varieties included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were summarized. The author mainly analyzed the researches status of Plantaginis Semen and its decoction pieces in the three aspects of variety, processing and quality evaluation, and summarized its current major problems such as insufficient use and development of varieties, unclear processing mechanisms, and undetermined quality evaluation standards. And combined with the national standardization project of TCM to carry out the prospect and analysis for it, in order to solve the problems in the actual production and use of Plantaginis Semen, and provide reference for its further development, production of the high-quality decoction pieces, analysis of the processing mechanism, and establishment of the quality control system.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906218

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the differences of main components of prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix,Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and salt. Method:A total of 83 batches samples were collected in the market, including 41 batches of prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix,32 batches of Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and 10 batches of Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with salt. The contents of main components were determined with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with four-pole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS),and the differences were analyzed. Result:The main components of prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix and Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with salt were fructo-oligosaccharides (GF<italic>n</italic>),monotropein. The main components of Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming were fructose,glucose,sucrose,and monotropein. The main differences of prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix and<italic> </italic>Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and salt were the contents of fructose,glucose,sucrose and GF2-GF11. The contents of GF2-GF11 in Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and salt were all lower than those in prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix,with extremely significant differences(<italic>P</italic><0.01). The contents of fructose,glucose and sucrose in<italic> </italic>Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming were significantly higher than those in prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix. The content of GF3 in each batch was higher than 40.0 mg·g<sup>-1</sup> in prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix and Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with salt,and significantly higher than the limit in<italic> Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. However,there were only a few batches of Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming in line with the requirements of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. The contents of monotropein in processing Morindae Officinalis Radix and Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and salt were 42.6,39.8,32.3 mg·g<sup>-1</sup>,respectively. The content of monotropein in prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix was higher than that in Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming. The content of monotropein in Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming was higher than that in Morindae Officinalis Radix<italic> </italic>processed with salt. Compared with the components of GF2-GF11,the effect of processing with steaming process and/or salt on monotropein content was relatively less. Conclusion:The contents of GF2-GF11 components in prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix were converted into fructose,glucose and sucrose after processing with steaming and/or salt. The results showed that the content limit of Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming needs to be revised in line with the requirements of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia </italic>for the quality control of Morindae Officinalis Radix. The results provide a reference basis for revising the quality standards and studying the pharmacodynamic material basis of prepared Morindae Officinalis Radix,Morindae Officinalis Radix processed with steaming and salt.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906158

ABSTRACT

Objective:Guided by nutrient-defense stages in the vessel-collateral theory, the modern medical cases of unstable angina pectoris(UAP) were systematically collated and analyzed to explore the rules of syndrome and treatment of UAP and the molecular mechanism of core Chinese herbal combination in the treatment of UAP based on network pharmacology. Method:All medical cases with UAP treated by Chinese medicinal compounds were retrieved from PubMed,China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),Wanfang Data, VIP, and SinoMed published between database inception and November 2020. The syndromes of medical cases were determined based on the nutrient-defense stages of the vessel-collateral theory. Rules of syndrome and treatment of UAP were investigated by data mining methods, such as frequency statistics, cluster analysis, and enhanced FP-Growth algorithm. The molecular mechanism of core Chinese herbal combination in the treatment of UAP was analyzed by network pharmacology. Result:The first four syndromes of UAP with high frequencies were deficiency and stagnation of collateral Qi, blood stasis obstructing collaterals, depression and stagnation of collateral Qi, and turbid phlegm obstructing collaterals. The Chinese herbal medicines with high frequencies included Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Astragali Radix, which were effective in resolving stasis, dredging collaterals, replenishing Qi, consolidating defensive Qi, regulating Qi, relieving depression, and dispelling phlegm. The association analysis indicated that the core Chinese herbal combination in the treatment of UAP was Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Astragali Radix. Four Chinese herbal combinations were obtained by cluster analysis. As revealed by network pharmacology, the key components of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Astragali Radix in the treatment of UAP included quercetin, luteolin, and tanshinone Ⅱ<sub>A</sub>, and the key targets included serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Akt1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Jun, interleukin (IL)-6, and MAPK8. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway might serve as the main pathway for its therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion:The basic pathogenesis of UAP is deficiency/depression and stagnation of collateral qi and turbid phlegm obstructing collaterals. The treatment should follow the principles of replenishing Qi, resolving stasis, and dredging collaterals, assisted with regulating Qi and resolving phlegm. The therapeutic efficacy of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Astragali Radix was achieved via multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway. This study is expected to inspire future UAP-related studies at the molecular level based on vessel-collateral theory.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906070

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, a common critical disease in the intensive care unit(ICU), features high morbidity and mortality. At present, it is mainly tackled with western medicine, which may trigger a series of problems like antibiotic resistance, adverse hormonal reactions, and high cost after a long-term use. Therefore, exploring new efficient, safe, and cheap drugs and treatment modes has become the focus of our research at this stage. By virtue of unique advantages including "the concept of holism and individualized treatment based on syndrome differentiation", Chinese medicine has accumulated quite rich experience in the prevention and treatment of sepsis. In recent years, research on the regulation of Chinese medicine on nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway in sepsis has kept emerging. On this basis, this paper reviewed the etiology and pathogenesis of sepsis, syndrome differentiation and treatment, NF-κB signaling pathway, and its intervention with Chinese medicine. It has been found that some single Chinese herbs and their extracts, Chinese herbal compounds, and Chinese herbal injections effectively inhibit the expression of such inflammatory factors as NF-κB-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1(IL-1), and IL-6 as well as the related proteins, reduce the systemic inflammatory response and organ injury, and improve the prognosis by regulating the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and the immune function of macrophages. However, due to the limitations of objective conditions, some studies also have the problems of fuzzy pro-inflammatory anti-inflammatory balance mechanism, unclear pharmacokinetics and low drug safety evaluation, which need to be further studied and explored in order to provide a new theoretical basis and diagnosis and treatment thinking for the treatment of sepsis with traditional Chinese medicine.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905820

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the implementation effect of the "Shanghai Construction Project Centralized Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Hygiene Evaluation Specification (Trial)" (hereinafter referred to as the "standard"). Methods:The "Centralized Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Hygiene Evaluation Report Score Sheet" was used to compare the quality of air conditioning hygienic evaluation reports before and after the implementation of the standard. Results:After the implementation of the standard, the total score of the air conditioning health evaluation report was significantly higher than that before the implementation (t=3.164, P=0.002). The scores of format, general theory, engineering analysis and suggested conclusion after the implementation were all higher than before the implementation (t=3.701, 2.012, 2.152, 2.450, respectively, all P<0.05). The difference in scores of evaluation process was not statistically significant between before and after the standard implementation (P=0.465). Conclusion:After the implementation of the standard, the quality of air-conditioning health evaluation reports has significantly improved.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905813

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the source of infection, clinical symptoms and epidemiological characteristics of pertussis surveillance cases in Minhang District of Shanghai from 2017 to 2019,so as to provide the basis for pertussis surveillance and immunization strategy. Methods:Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the pertussis surveillance cases. Results:A total of 334 cases were included in the pertussis active surveillance system, 237 cases were confirmed cases. There were 13 towns or streets in Minhang District, except for Pujin Street, all the other 12 towns or streets had cases. The high risk group (131/237, 55.27% of the cases) were the infants under five months old who did not reach the age of immunization or did not complete the basic immunization of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis combined vaccine (DTaP). The cases mainly occurred in March to July, accounting for 71.31% (169/237). The highest culture-positive rate of Bordetella pertussis was in August (82.76%, 24/29); the highest positive rate of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection was in March (58.82%, 20/34). All the monitored cases had cough symptoms with an average cough days of 22.05±9.81 in confirmed cases. A total of 64 clustered outbreaks were detected, with an attack rate of 37.45% (94/251). 32.91% (78/237) of the cases had contact history with coughing patients 21 days before the onset, and 94.87% (74/78) of them were family members. The aggregation of pertussis was mainly transmitted from adults to infants and infants to adults. Conclusion:Children under five months old are the high incidence population of pertussis, and family members are the main source of infection. It is suggested that pertussis monitoring and prevention should be carried out in adolescents and adults.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905308

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of mirror therapy on upper limb motor function recovery and corticospinal tract remodeling after stroke. Methods:From March, 2017 to March, 2019, 42 subcortical stroke patients with upper limb dysfunction from Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital were randomly divided into control group (n = 21) and observation group (n = 21). Both groups received routine rehabiliation, while the observation group received mirror therapy additionally, for twelve weeks. They were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremities (FMA-UE), and scanned with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before and after treatment. The fractional anisotropy (FA) in posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) was obtained. Results:The scores of FMA-UE improved in both groups after treatment (t > 9.560, P < 0.001), and improved more in the observation group than in the control group (t > 2.634, P < 0.05). FA decreased significantly in the affected-lateral PLIC compared with that in the unaffected-lateral PLIC in both groups (t > 11.368, P < 0.001). FA in the affected side increased significantly after treatment in the observation group (t = 2.385, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the control group (t = -0.596, P > 0.05). FA increased more significantly in the observation group than in the control group (t = 2.306, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Mirror therapy can promote the recovery of motor function of upper limb and the corticospinal tract remodeling in stroke patients.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905174

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of virtual reality (VR) on comprehensive balance for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:The databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, VIP, Wanfang Data and CNKI were retrieved to collect randomized controlled trials about VR intervention for PD patients, from establishment to November, 2020. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data and evaluated the quality of the literature, and then used Review Manager 5.3 software for meta-analysis. Results:A total of 24 documents were included. Compared with the control group, VR intervention might improve the static balance (SMD = -0.49, 95%CI -0.64 to -0.35, P < 0.001) of PD patients. Simple VR intervention might improve the Berg Balance Scale score (SMD = 0.83, 95%CI 0.43 to 1.23, P < 0.001) for PD patients, while combination of VR intervention might improve the Berg Balance Scale score (SMD = 0.75, 95%CI 0.53 to 0.96, P < 0.001) and Timed 'Up and Go' Test time (SMD = -0.87, 95%CI -1.52 to -0.22, P = 0.008) for PD patients; however, simple VR intervention might do little in improving Timed 'Up and Go' Test time (SMD = -0.36, 95%CI -0.74 to 0.03, P = 0.07). Conclusions:VR can improve the comprehensive balance for PD patients, especially combine with conventional or balance training.

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