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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888141

ABSTRACT

In view of the current inadequate standards for Gleditsiae Spina in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this study put forward some new items of the quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina. Thin-layer chromatography(TLC) was performed for identification with the reference substance of taxifolin and the reference material of Gleditsiae Spina as the control. According to the general principles of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition, Vol. 4), the moisture, total ash content, and alcohol-soluble extract of medicinal materials and decoction pieces of Gleditsiae Spina were determined. The content determination method for medicinal materials and decoction pieces of Gleditsiae Spina was established using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), with taxifolin as the quality control index. Based on the determination results of 30 batches of samples of Gleditsiae Spina from different habitats, the draft quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina were developed, which provided suggestions for the revision of the quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control , Reference Standards
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888063

ABSTRACT

Reverse prediction and molecular docking techniques were employed to evaluate the feasibility of reniformin A(RA) as an anti-tumor leading compound. Based on the reverse prediction, network pharmacology was used to construct a "disease-compound-target-pathway" network. Thirty-nine tumor-related targets of RA were predicted, which participated in the regulation of multiple cellular activities such as apoptosis, cell cycle, and tumor metastasis, and regulated estrogen signal transduction and inflammatory response. Discovery Studio 2020 was adopted for molecular docking and toxicity prediction(TOPKAT). As revealed by the results, the binding affinity of RA with the tumor-related targets ABL1, ESR1, SRC and BCL-XL was stronger than that of oridonin(OD), while its mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenesis, and oral LD_(50) in rats were all inferior to that of OD. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to confirm the anti-tumor activity of RA, and the mechanism was preliminarily discussed. The results demonstrated that RA was superior to OD in cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell colony formation, and induction of apoptosis. RA, possessing potent anti-tumor activity, is expected to be a new anti-tumor leading compound.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lead , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasms/genetics , Rats , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888782

ABSTRACT

Over-expression of the pathway specific positive regulator gene is an effective way to activate silent gene cluster. In the curret study, the SARP family regulatory gene, vasR2, was over-expressed in strain Verrucosispora sp. NS0172 and the cryptic gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of pentaketide ansamycin was partially activated. Two tetraketides (1 and 2) and a triketide (3) ansamycins, together with five known compounds (4-8), were isolated and elucidated from strain NS0172OEvasR2. Their NMR data were completely assigned by analysis of their HR-ESI-MS and


Subject(s)
Micromonosporaceae/metabolism , Multigene Family , Polyketides/metabolism , Rifabutin/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881041

ABSTRACT

Constitutively expression of the pathway-specific activators is an effective method to activate silent gene clusters and improve natural product production. In this study, nine shunt products of aminoansamycins (1-9) were identified from a recombinant mutant strain S35-LAL by overexpressed the large-ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family (LAL) gene aas1 in Streptomyces sp. S35. All the compounds showed no anti-microbial, anti-T3SS and cytotoxic activities.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Lactams, Macrocyclic/metabolism , Multigene Family , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Streptomyces/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774602

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of the water extraction of the aerial parts of Isodon henryi were investigated by various chromatographic methods including D-101 macroporous adsorptive resins,silica gel,sephadex LH-20,and semi-preparative HPLC. As a result,ten compounds were separated and purified. By analyses of the UV,IR,MS,NMR spectra,their structures were determined as rabdosinate( 1),lasiokaurin( 2),epinodosinol( 3),rabdosichuanin C( 4),epinodosin( 5),hebeirubescensin k( 6),rubescensin C( 7),enmenol( 8),oridonin( 9),and enmenol-1-β-glucoside( 10). Compounds 1-8 and 10 were isolated from I. henryi for the first time. Compounds 2 and 9 showed inhibitory effects against four tumor cells,with IC50 values of 2. 25-9. 32 μmol·L-1.


Subject(s)
Isodon , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307151

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of the water extraction of the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides were investigated by various chromatographic methods including D-101 macroporous adsorptive resins, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI and semi-preparative HPLC. As a result, six compounds were separated and purified.By analyses of the HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, their structures were determined as 3-O-β-D-allopyranosyl-1-octen-3-ol(1), blumenolA (2), lumichrome (3), loliolide(4), cirsiliol(5) and pedalitin(6). Compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2-4 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

7.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 747-750, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261475

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in treatment of patients with arrhythmia complicated by sleep apnea syndrome (SAS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and thirty-five arrhythmia patients with polysomnography diagnosed SAS were randomly divided into NPPV group (69 cases) and control group (66 cases), the NPPV group was treated with standard medications and NPPV, and the control group was treated with standard medications. SAS related parameters were compared between the groups after 3 months therapy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and arousal index were significantly lower (8.25 ± 5.41 vs.4.08 ± 3.43, 39.95 ± 7.32 vs. 4.71 ± 1.80 and 39.69 ± 4.40 vs. 15.20 ± 2.05, P < 0.01) while not rapid eye movement (NREM) III and rapid eye movement stage of sleep time and lowest pulse oxygen saturation (LSaO2) were significantly higher in NPPV group than in control group [(4.53 ± 2.10)% vs. (16.78 ± 2.59)%,(8.37 ± 1.380)% vs. (15.25 ± 1.41)%, (77.15 ± 6.72)% vs. (93.35 ± 2.03)%, P < 0.01] after 3 months therapy. (2) Incidence of Sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, sinus arrest, atrial premature beats, ventricular premature beats, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, II-III degree atrioventricular block, ST-T segment changes were reduced from 57.4%, 44.4%, 7.4%, 20.4%, 13.0%, 36.5%, 12.0%, 8.3%, 37.0%, 53.7% to 4.6%, 1.9%,0.0%, 3.7%, 2.8%, 7.0%, 0.9%, 0.0%, 1.9%, 4.6% (all P < 0.05) and the total number of arrhythmias happened at night were significantly lower (all P < 0.05) while the heart rate variability (HRV) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in NPPV group than in control group; AHI was positively while LSaO2 was negatively correlated with the total night arrhythmia number (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is an effective therapy strategy for treating patients with arrhythmia complicated by sleep apnea syndrome.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Therapeutics
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 368-373, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269154

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of HIV infection and sexual behaviors with men and women among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and documented for HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men to the general population.Methods 300 participants were recruited by using "snowballing" sampling in Chengdu and Guangzhou,respectively.Participants completed the questionnaire and HIV test.The questionnaire included social demographic characteristics,number of male sexual partners,sexual behaviors and condom use in the past 6 months.Relations with female sexual partners,vaginal intercourse and condom use in the past 12 months were also studied.Results Of the 600 oarticioants,the overall prevalence of HIV infectionwas 26.2% and the detection rate of HIV-positives in this survey was 8.5%.In the past 6 months 28.0% of the participants had 5 or more male sexual partners and the percentage of MSMW who had used condoms consistently during anal sex intercourse with men,was 44.2%.Of the participants,52.3% had used condoms in the last three anal sex events and 63.0% in the last event.In the past 12 months,86.0% of the participants who had vaginal sex with female partners and the proportions of MSMW who had wife,girlfriend,lover,female casual partner and female commercial partner were 65.0%,27.2%,1.5%,12.7%,4.5%,respectively.About a third of the MSMW had always used condoms when having vaginal sex in the past 12 month.In the last three vaginal sex events,the proportion of participants who had never used condoms was 36.5%.In the past 6 months,55.7% of the MSMWs had used condoms consistently during anal sex with men in Chengdu,which was higher than those MSMW in Guangzhou (32.7%).In the past 12 months,the proportion of MSMW who had used condoms consistently during vaginal sex was 38.3%,which was higher than MSMW of Guangzhou (25.3%).Among those HIV-positive MSMWs,91.1% had anal sex with men in the past 6 months and 49.7% HIV-positive MSMW had used condoms consistently during anal sex with men.The number of HIV-positive MSMW who had used condoms in the last or last three anal sex events with men,accounted for 60.5% and 69.4%,respectively.In the past 12 months,82.8% of the HIV-positive participants had vaginal sex with women.Of the HIV-positive participants,42.0% used condoms consistently and the percentage of HIV-positive MSMWs who used condom during last three vaginal sexes was 47.8%.In the past 6 months,the percentage (4.3%) of MSMW who were HIV-positive prior to the survey and never used condoms during anal sex with men was lower than the percentage (22.0%) of MSMW who were HIV-positive found in this survey.In the past 12 months 12.9% of the MSMW who were HIV positive prior to the survey never used condoms when having vaginal sex event,which was lower than MSMW (46.3%) who were HIV positive in this survey.Conclusion The prevalence of HIV infection had reached a quite high level and with high rates of unprotected anal sex with men and vaginal sex with women among MSMWs,indicating that the inherent bridging aspect of MSMW might accelerate the spreading of HIV infection to the general population.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326272

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to understand the correlation between tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNP) of microRNA regulatory genes and the gentic susceptibility of primary liver cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>1:1 case-control study was applied in this research. A total of 532 primary liver cancer patients in 2 teaching hospitals in Zhengzhou city were enrolled as case group.532 healthy individuals were enrolled as control group. The subjects were surveyed by a face-to-face interview and 5 ml of peripheral venous blood were collected. Candidate tSNP were screened from DICER1, RAN and GEMIN4 gene, respectively. PCR-RFLP or Allele specific PCR was applied for genotyping of the subjects. Conditional logistic regression model and Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction method were applied for analyzing the correlation between tSNP of above genes and gentic susceptibility of primary liver cancer. The gene-environment interaction was also analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The frequencies of genotype CC, CT, TT in rs14035 locus were 67.29% (358/532), 28.20% (150/532), 4.51% (24/532) in case group, and 70.30% (374/532), 28.20% (150/532), 1.50% (8/532) in control group, respectively (χ2=8.35, P<0.05). The frequencies of genotype GG, GA, AA in rs1045491 locus were 71.05% (378/532), 26.69% (142/532), 2.26% (12/532) in case group, and 80.45% (428/532), 18.42% (98/532), 1.13% (6/532) in control group, respectively (χ2=13.17, P<0.01); the frequencies of genetype GG, GT, TT in rs2291778 locus were 53.38% (284/532), 40.23% (214/532), 6.39% (34/532) in case group, and were 25.94% (138/532), 63.91% (340/532), 10.15% (54/532) in control group (χ2=83.71, P<0.01). TT genotype in rs14035 locus (OR=2.54, 95%CI: 1.19-6.32) and GA genetype in rs1045491 locus (OR=1.74, 95%CI: 1.08-2.66) were susceptible genotype of primary liver cancer, whereas GT (OR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.43-0.75) and TT genotype (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.86) in rs2291778 locus were protective genotype. Haplotype analysis showed that haplotype 3 (AACTGGGT) (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.10-1.82) and haplotype 5 (AGCCAGCC) increased the risk of occurrence of primary liver cancer (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.02-1.80), whereas haplotype 2 (AACTATCC) (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.52-0.91) and haplotype 6 (AACTGTGT)(OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.45-0.81) decreased the risk. Subjects exposed to allele A of rs1045491, allele T of rs14035 and HBV infection intend to be the high risk population of primary liver cancer (OR = 3.72, 95%CI: 2.38 - 5.56).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Genotypes of TT in rs14035 locus, and GA in rs1045491 locus may be susceptible genotypes of liver cancer carcinogenesis. T allele in rs2291778 locus is a non-susceptible allele of primary liver cancer. Combined effects of multigene alleles and multi-locus genotype may have a synergistic role in the carcinogenesis of liver cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alleles , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics , Male , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 281-285, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266551

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the association between XPD codon 751 polymorphism and esophageal cancer (EC) by systematically reviewing the risk of the original studies. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of XPD codon 751 polymorphism and EC risk. Meta-analysis was applied with Rev Man 4.2 software for calculation of pooled OR value (with 95%C1)of EC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Results Of the 12 case-control studies selected for this Meta-analysis, a total of 2558 EC cases and 5122 controls were included. Compared with the wild-type homozygote Lys/Lys, the pooled Odds Ratios (with 95% CI) of Lys/Gln, Gin/Gin, (Lys/Gln + Gln/Gln) genotypes of XPD codon 751 polymorphism for EC risk were 1.19(1.05, 1.34), 1.22(0.86, 1.74), 1.20(1.01,1.42), respectively. In a stratified analysis, a total of 1417 ESCC cases and 2312 controls were included, and individuals carrying Lys/Gln genotype or (Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln) had 1.22-fold or 1.24-fold excess risks for ESCC compared with those carrying Lys/Lys genotype. A total of 935 EAC cases and 2604 controls were included, and none of the genotype of XPD codon 751 genetic polymorphism was found to be related to EAC. Conclusion Both heterogyzote Lys/Gln and (Lys/Gln + Gln/Gln) for XPD codon 751 genetic polymorphism were associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Furthermore, heterogyzote Lys/Gln and (Lys/Gln + Gln/Gln) for XPD codon 751 genetic polymorphism might have increased the risk of ESCC, but have no association with EAC.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1198-1202, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321015

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the association between CYP1A1 polymorphisms (MspI and Ile/Val) and esophageal cancer (EC) by systematically reviewing the risk of the original studies. Methods Data from 16 papers (8 for MspI, 14 for Ile/Val) regarding case-control studies on the association of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms and risk of esophageal cancer was analyzed by dominant model (variant genotype vs. wild-type genotype) through meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was carried out according to the pathological types. Results In systematical analysis, CYP1A1 MspI variant genotype (TC+CC) had no association with EC risk (OR=1.17,95%CI: 0.82-1.66). Similar results were observed in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma(ESCC) (OR=1.17,95%CI: 0.82-1.69) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (OR=1.39,95% CI: 0.67-2.09). Individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Val variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val) had an increased risk for EC, when comparing with wild type (Iie/Iie ), with an OR of 1.39 (95 %CI: 1.07-1.80). CYP1A1 Ile/Val variant genotype could increase the risk of ESCC (OR=1.43,95%CI:1.07-1.91) but no significant association was found with EAC (OR=1.20,95%CI:0.62-2.30). Conclusion CYP1A1 gene polymorphism Ile/Val might have played a role in the development of ESCC but CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism might not be associated with the susceptibility of EC.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316129

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the risk factors of esophageal cancer (EC) in the high-incidence regions, so as to provide scientific evidence for taking effective prevention measures.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A population based case-control family study was carried out. 1711 case family members in 505 families in which one of the couple or their first degree relatives suffered from EC were selected from high incidence in Henan province. Control families without neoplasm were selected from the same villages in matching conditions of age, sex, and family members. All information of case and control families was collected by Questionnaire of Life and Health of Inhabitant. The data were analyzed with logistic regression model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control families,it was shown that hobby for smoked food [2.10% (36/1711), 0.82% (14/1711); chi2 = 9.82, P = 0.00; OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.40 - 4.85], hobby for fried food [7.17% (66/921), 3.91% (35/894) ; chi2 = 9.13, P = 0.00; OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24 -2.89], hobby for raw and hard food [13.36% (123/921), 8.95% (80/894); chi2 = 8.87, P =0.03; OR =1.57, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.11], and hobby for hot food [20.05% (343/1711), 15.20% (260/1711); chi2 = 13.87, P= 0.00; OR= 1.40, 95% CI: 1.17 - 1.67], the history with mental stimulated [6.72% (115/1711), 3.10% (53/1711); chi2 = 24.06, P = 0.00; OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.62 -3.14], upper digestive symptom history [19.40% (332/1711), 12.74% (218/ 1711); chi2 = 28.15, P = 0.00; OR= 1.65, 95% CI: 1.37 - 1.99] entered the last model, and were responsible for the higher risk of EC. Eating fast was shown to be a protective factor [20.85% (192/921), 25.14% (225/895); chi2 = 4.73, P =0.03; OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.98].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EC is a kind of malignant tumor caused by multiple factors. Prevention and control of EC should be initiated from environmental factors, life style, genetic factors and social-psychological factors comprehensively.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Causality , Child , Child, Preschool , Esophageal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Genetics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the risk factors of gastric cancer in the rural area of Henan province.@*METHODS@#Three hundred and twenty-five families with gastric cancer and 325 control families (1010 persons in each group) were selected among the rural residents in 4 counties of Henan province. Totally 2020 people were surveyed and assessed using population-based case-control family study.@*RESULTS@#Gastric cancer was related to stomach upset, irregular dietary, hobby for salty taste, residual food, and history of mental stimulus.@*CONCLUSION@#Stomach upset, irregular dietary, hobby for salty taste, residual food, and history of mental stimulus are the risk factors of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , China , Epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Stomach Neoplasms , Genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246004

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a HPLC method for bufothionine in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans and Huachansu injection.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The samples were separated using a Lichrosob C18 column with CH3CN-H2O (10:90) as mobile phase. Flow rate was at 1.0 mL x min (-1) and the detection wavelength was at 225 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The calibration curve of bufothionine was linear over the range of 0.0772-0.4632 microg and the average recovery was 99. 2%. The contents of bufothionine were fluctuated from 36.4-641.8 microg x g(-1) in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans and 22.47-33.16 microg x mL(-1) in Huachansu injection, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The contents of bufothionine were greatly different between cultured and wild species. The method was suitable for the quality control of the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans and its preparation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bufo bufo , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Injections , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Phenothiazines , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Skin , Chemistry
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 858-861, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268565

ABSTRACT

The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, originated from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatoma, lung cancer and etc. The preparation of the aqueous components has significant therapeutic effect against the digestive tract cancer. The water-soluble chemical constituents in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans were then investigated to make clear the active compounds. Six compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, their structures were elucidated as 4-amido-3-hydroxymethyl-cyclooctylamidezotetra-alpha-furanone (I), bufogargarizanine C (II), bufothionine (III), dehydrobufotenine hydrobromide (IV), suberic acid (V) and succinic acid (VI) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). Of the above compounds, compounds I and II are new compounds and named bufogargarizanine B and C, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic , Chemistry , Bufo bufo , Caprylates , Chemistry , Dicarboxylic Acids , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Skin , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256343

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a HPLC method to determine the contents of aristolochic A in aristolochia debilis and Asarun spp..</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Methanol-water-formic acid extracts were separated on an Alltech C18 column with methanol-water-acetic acid (68:32:1) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). UV detection wavelength was 390 nm. Column temperature was 35 degrees C.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Aristolochic acid A was separated well. The relationship of injection amounts and peak areas was linear (r = 0.9999) the range of 0.12-1.89 microg x g(-1) and the recovery rate was 101.8% (n = 5). 11 samples of aristolochia debilis which bought from different areas in China were determined, and the contents of aristolochic acid A varied from 0.9 to 2 mg x g(-1). The difference of the contents in Asarum spp. was obvious. The highest is 0.35, and aristolochic acid A couldn't be detected in one sample.</p>


Subject(s)
Aristolochia , Chemistry , Aristolochic Acids , Asarum , Chemistry , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Ecosystem , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
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