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Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 199-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773417


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergy of the Burkholderia signaling molecule cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) and fluconazole (FLU) or itraconazole (ITRA) against two azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo.@*METHODS@#Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics against two azole-resistant C. albicans were measured by the checkerboard technique, E-test, and time-kill assay. In vivo antifungal synergy testing was performed on mice. Analysis of the relative gene expression levels of the strains was conducted by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#BDSF showed highly synergistic effects in combination with FLU or ITRA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ⪕ 0.08. BDSF was not cytotoxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells at concentrations of up to 300 μg/mL. The qRT-PCR results showed that the combination of BDSF and FLU/ITRA significantly inhibits the expression of the efflux pump genes CDR1 and MDR1 via suppression of the transcription factors TAC1 and MRR1, respectively, when compared with FLU or ITRA alone. No dramatic difference in the mRNA expression levels of ERG1, ERG11, and UPC2 was found, which indicates that the drug combinations do not significantly interfere with UPC2-mediated ergosterol levels. In vivo experiments revealed that combination therapy can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat candidiasis.@*CONCLUSION@#The synergistic effects of BDSF and azoles may be useful as an alternative approach to control azole-resistant Candida infections.

Humans , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Chemistry , Candida albicans , Physiology , Candidiasis , Drug Therapy , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Triazoles , Metabolism
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 816-828, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772242


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) in the treatment and prevention of vaginal candidiasis in vivo.@*METHODS@#The activities of different concentrations of BDSF against the virulence factors of Candida albicans (C. albicans) were determined in vitro. An experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis was treated with 250 μmol/L BDSF. Treatment efficiency was evaluated in accordance with vaginal fungal burden and inflammation symptoms.@*RESULTS@#In vitro experiments indicated that BDSF attenuated the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by decreasing phospholipase secretion and blocking filament formation. Treatment with 30 μmol/L BDSF reduced the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by 36.9% and 42.3%, respectively. Treatment with 200 μmol/L BDSF completely inhibited phospholipase activity. In vivo mouse experiments demonstrated that BDSF could effectively eliminate vaginal infection and relieve inflammatory symptoms. Four days of treatment with 250 μmol/L BDSF reduced vaginal fungal loads by 6-fold and depressed inflammation. Moreover, BDSF treatment decreased the expression levels of the inflammatory chemokine-associated genes MCP-1 and IGFBP3 by 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#BDSF is a novel alternative drug that can efficiently control vaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the virulence factors of C. albicans.

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Candida albicans , Metabolism , Virulence , Physiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Microbiology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Virulence Factors , Genetics , Metabolism