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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878305

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear.@*Methods@#A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( @*Results@#Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30-6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32-5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81-7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96-28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26-3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01-11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00-26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89-12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03-11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47-32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25-9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46-29.64) within two weeks.@*Conclusion@#Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2316-2325, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780346

ABSTRACT

In this study, the lipid membrane-wrapped nanoparticles loaded with metformin polymer (PolyMet) and doxorubicin (DOX) was prepared and then evaluated therapeutic effect on breast cancer. An anionic chain PGA-DOX based on γ-polyglutamic acid (PGA) with DOX was synthesized via amidation reaction and characterized by 1H NMR. The PGA-DOX and PolyMet were loaded via electrostatic attraction to prepare the co-delivery nanoparticles system (PolyMet-DOX-NPs). Then, PolyMet-DOX-NPs were coated with cationic liposome membrane to form the core-membrane structural system (PolyMet-DOX-lipid-nanoparticles, PolyMet-DOX-LNPs). The structure and morphology of PolyMet-DOX-LNPs were observed by transmission electron microscope. The particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), release behavior in vitro of PolyMet-DOX-LNPs were investigated. The MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of PolyMet combined with DOX on 4T-1 cells. The 4T1Fluc tumor-bearing mice model was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of PolyMet-DOX-LNPs in vivo. All animal experiments were performed in line with ethical standards and approved by the Animal Experiments Ethical Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. 1H NMR spectrum showed that PGA-DOX was successfully synthesized with DOX grafting rate of (72.03 ± 1.29) %. The EE and DL of PolyMet-DOX-LNPs was (72.76 ± 1.92) % and (1.16 ± 0.12) %, respectively. PolyMet-DOX-LNPs exhibited a suitable size of (159.3 ± 7.4) nm and positive charge of (+36.3 ± 1.9) mV with good spheroidal morphology and dispersibility. The release profiles in vitro showed that PolyMet-DOX-LNPs exhibited a slowly and maintained release behavior at physiological pH value (pH 7.4) within 48 h. Further studies showed that PolyMet combined with DOX could synergistically enhance the cytotoxicity on 4T-1 cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) result showed that the luminescence signal intensity of 4T-1Fluc cells was reduced after treatment with PolyMet-DOX-LNPs and the tumor volume growth was also inhibited. Additionally, the H&E staining and changes of body weight showed that PolyMet could reduce the toxicity of DOX. To sum up, PolyMet has a good synergistic effect with DOX in the treatment of breast cancer, which provide the foundation for this novel metformin polymer on the anti-tumor application.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297412

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the safety and the clinical value of external use of jiuyi Powder (JP) in treating plasma cell mastitis using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 50 patients with plasma cell mastitis treated by external use of JP were observed and biochemical examinations of blood and urine detected before application, at day 4 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Blood mercury and urinary mercury were detected before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Urinary mercury was also detected at 28 after discontinuation and 3 months after discontinuation. The information of wound, days of external application and the total dosage of external application were recorded before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, as well as at day 1 after discontinuation. Then a discriminant model covering potential safety factors was set up by PLSDA after screening safety indices with important effects. The applicability of the model was assessed using area under ROC curve. Potential safety factors were assessed using variable importance in the projection (VIP).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), 24 h urinary protein, and urinary α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) were greatly affected by external use of JP in treating plasma cell mastitis. The accuracy rate of PLSDA discriminate model was 74. 00%. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under ROC curve was 0. 7826, 0. 7037, and 0. 8084, respectively. Three factors with greater effect on the potential safety were screened as follows: pre-application volume of the sore cavity, days of external application, and the total dosage of external application.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PLSDA method could be used in analyzing bioinformation of clinical Chinese medicine. Urinary β2-MG and urinary NAG were two main safety monitoring indices. Days of external application and the total dosage of external application were main factors influencing blood mercury and urine mercury. A safety classification simulation model of treating plasma cell mastitis by external therapy of JP was established by the two factors, which could be used to assess the safety of external application of JP to some extent.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosaminidase , Alpha-Globulins , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Mastitis , Drug Therapy , Plasma Cells , ROC Curve , Safety
4.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 335-337, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316875

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To sum up our experience in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in ICU patient with severe brain injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Between November 2011 and April 2014, PDTs were performed on 32 severe brain injury patients in ICU by a team of physicians and intensivists. The success rate, efficacy, safety, and complications including stomal infection and bleeding, paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, as well as clinically significant tracheal stenosis were carefully monitored and recorded respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The operations took 4-15 minutes (mean 9.1 minutes ± 4.2 minutes). Totally 4 cases suffered from complications in the operations: 3 cases of stomal bleeding, and 1 case of intratracheal bloody secretion, but none required intervention. Paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, or clinically significant tracheal stenosis were not found in PDT patients. There was no procedure-related death occurring during or after PDT.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study demonstrats that PDT is a safe, highly effective, and minimally invasive procedure. The appropriate sedation and airway management perioperatively help to reduce complication rates. PDT should be performed or supervised by a team of physicians with extensive experience in this procedure, and also an intensivist with experience in difficult airway management.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Therapeutics , Critical Care , Humans , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications , Tracheostomy , Methods , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 195-200, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284113

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To discuss how the educational status, burn area and coping behaviors influence the psychological disorders in severely burned patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-four severely burned patients hospitalized in Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Work Injury Rehabilitation Center, and Guangdong General Hospital were enrolled with cluster random sampling method. Data of their demography and situation of burns were collected. Then their coping behavior, psychological disorders including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) plus its core symptoms of flashback, avoidance, and hypervigilance were assessed by medical coping modes questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) respectively. Correlation was analyzed between demography, burn area, coping behavior and psychological disorders. The predictive powers of educational status, burn area and coping behaviors on the psychological disorders were analyzed. The qualitative variables were assigned values. Data were processed with t test, Spearman rank correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The patients scored (19.0 ± 3.4) points in confrontation coping behavior, which showed no statistically significant difference from the domestic norm score (19.5 ± 3.8) points (t = -1.13, P > 0.05). The patients scored (16.6 ± 2.4) and (11.0 ± 2.2) points in avoidance and resignation coping behaviors, which were significantly higher than the domestic norm score (14.4 ± 3.0), (8.8 ± 3.2) points (with t values respectively 7.06 and 7.76, P values both below 0.01). The patients' standard score of SAS, SDS, PCL-C were (50 ± 11), (54 ± 11), and (38 ± 12) points. Respectively 89.1% (57/64), 60.9% (39/64), 46.9% (30/64) of the patients showed anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. (2) Four independent variables: age, gender, marital status, and time after burns, were correlated with the psychological disorders, but the correlativity was not statistically significant (with rs values from -0.089 to 0.245, P values all above 0.05). Educational status was significantly negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, PTSD and its core symptoms of flashback, avoidance (with rs values from -0.361 to -0.253, P values all below 0.05). Educational status was negatively correlated with hypervigilance, but the correlativity was not statistically significant (rs = -0.187, P > 0.05). Burn area was significantly positively correlated with the psychological disorders (with rs values from 0.306 to 0.478, P values all below 0.05). Confrontation coping behavior was positively correlated with the psychological disorders, but the correlativity was not statistically significant (with rs values from 0.121 to 0.550, P values all above 0.05). Avoidance coping behavior was correlated with the psychological disorders, but the correlativity was not statistically significant (with rs values from -0.144 to 0.193, P values all above 0.05). Resignation coping behavior was significantly positively correlated with the psychological disorder (with rs values from 0.377 to 0.596, P values all below 0.01). (3) Educational status had predictive power on the anxiety, PTSD and flash back symptoms of patients (with t values from -2.19 to -2.02, P values all below 0.05), but not on depression, avoidance and hypervigilance (with t values from -1.95 to -0.99, P values all above 0.05). Burn area had no predictive power on the psychological disorders (with t values from 0.55 to 1.78, P values all above 0.05). Resignation coping behavior had predictive power on the psychological disorders (with t values from 3.10 to 6.46, P values below 0.01). Confrontation and avoidance coping behaviors had no predictive power on the psychological disorders (with t values from 0.46 to 2.32 and -0.89 and 1.75 respectively, P values all above 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The severely burned patients with lower educational status, larger burn area, and the more frequently adapted resignation coping behavior are more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression, and PTSD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Burns , Pathology , Psychology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328500

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the syndrome evolution law of Chinese medicine (CM) in the patients with gastric mucosal dysplasia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three hundred and twenty four gastric mucosal dysplasia patients with deficiency and excess correlation syndromes were enrolled by a multi-center collaboration for two years' clinical follow-up to detect the levels of tumor supplied group of factors (TSGF) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the 324 cases, 29 cases turned cancer in the two years, and the canceration rate was 9.0%. The three syndromes with higher canceration rate were the damp-heat accumulating Wei syndrome concurring or combining with asthenia-cold in Pi and Wei syndrome for 16.7%; stagnation in Wei collaterals syndrome concurring or combining with asthenia of both qi and yin syndrome for 13.2%; stagnation of Gan and Wei qi syndrome concurring or combining with asthenia-cold in Pi and Wei syndrome for 8.0%, respectively. Among the three syndromes, the highest level of TSGF occurred in the former two syndromes. In the half year before carcinogenesis, the syndromes of the patients took on deficiency and excess concurrent syndromes, and the deficiency syndromes involving the qi and blood deficiency syndrome and the Shen deficiency syndrome accounting for 48.0%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Gastric mucosal dyspalsia canceration syndromes took on the polymorphism of excess and deficiency concurrent syndromes and had the characteristics of deficiency syndromes involving qi and blood deficiency syndrome and Shen-yin-yang deficiency syndrome.</p>


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Metabolism , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Metabolism , Gastric Mucosa , Metabolism , Pathology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Hyperplasia , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Precancerous Conditions , Metabolism , Pathology , Stomach Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Pathology , Syndrome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339577

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the value of serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of cerebral abscess caused by Candida albicans in premature infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 8 premature infants with central nervous system invasive fungal infection (IFI) were retrospectively studied. The infants underwent serial cerebral MRI scans (T1WI, T2WI and DWI).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Candida albicans was found as pathogen in all of the 8 infants. Seven infants presented with cerebral abscess and 4 infants had concurrent meningitis. Widespread involvements were found on MRI, particular in white matter area of subcortex, centrum semiovale and periventricle. The MR imaging findings in 4 infants within 11 days after IFI showed diffusive and multiple miliary nodes and hyperintense signals on DWI, but obvious changes were not found on T1WI and T2WI. The most striking hyperintense signals on T1WI and hypointense signals on T2WI appeared between 2 and 4 weeks after IFI, and some nodes of rim-like hyperintensity and marked contrast enhancement were also noted on T1WI. Smaller and smaller changes of the miliary foci were seen on T1WI and T2WI 4 weeks later. Delayed myelination and thinner corpus callous were shown in 2 patients at three months.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>MRI-DWI and serial MRIs are helpful in the early diagnosis of candida cerebral abscess and the evaluation of treatment outcome in premature infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain Abscess , Diagnosis , Candidiasis, Invasive , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Male
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359373

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and metabolic syndrome (MS) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 26527 subjects who received medical health checkup in our hospital from January 2005 to July 2007 were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of fatty liver was based on ultrasound imaging. MS was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III. ALT, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured in each subject to analyze the relationship between MS and ALT activity.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The prevalence of NAFLD in men (30.94%) was significantly higher than that in women (15.65%); (2) The incidence of MS in NAFLD (33.83%) was significantly greater than that in non-NAFLD (10.62%); (3) Of the 6470 subjects with NAFLD, in the age-adjusted partial correlation analysis, there were statistically significant correlations between the ALT levels and most metabolic risk factors in each sex (P<0.01), except that ALT levels had no correlation with HDL-c in women. Moreover, in the multiple stepwise regression analysis, SBP lost its significance, and WC, body mass index (BMI), age, DBP, TG and FPG were independently associated with ALT levels in both sexes (P<0.05). HDL-c remained significant and was independently related to ALT levels in men; (4) ALT levels were significantly higher in subjects with MS compared to those without MS (P<0.001). Mean ALT levels increased with the number of MS components in each sex (P<0.05 for trend).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We found a strong relationship between ALT levels and MS in NAFLD and revealed that the cluster of MS components might be the predictor for ALT elevations.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Alcohols , China , Epidemiology , Fatty Liver , Blood , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Metabolic Syndrome , Blood , Epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sex Distribution
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277314

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the efficacy of a short messaging service (SMS) text messaging and phone reminder to improve attendance rates at a health promotion center.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 1 859 participants who had scheduled appointments in the health promotion center of our hospital from April 2007 to May 2007 were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 3 groups: control (no reminder) group, SMS text messaging reminder group and telephone reminder group. Attendance rates and costs of interventions were collected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 1848 participants were eligible for analysis. Attendance rates of control, SMS and telephone groups were 80.5%, 87.5% and 88.3%, respectively. The attendance rates were significantly higher in SMS and telephone groups than that in the control group, with odds ratio 1.698, 95% confidence interval 1.224 to 2.316, P=0.001 in the SMS group, and odds ratio 1.829, 95% confidence interval 1.333 to 2.509, P<0.001 in the telephone group. However, there was no difference between the SMS group and the telephone group (P=0.670). The cost effectiveness analysis showed that the cost per attendance for the SMS group (0.31 Yuan) was significantly lower than that for the telephone group (0.48 Yuan).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SMS and telephone are effective reminders for improving attendance rate at a health promotion center. SMS reminder may be more cost-effective compared with the telephone reminder.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Reminder Systems , Telephone
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325614

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the relationship between clinical and imaging features in neonates with hypoglycemic brain injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixteen neonates with hypoglycemic brain injury received a MRI scan with the sequences of T1WI, T2WI and DWI within 48 hrs after admission. Of the 16 patients, 11 received second MRI scan at two weeks of their lives, and 3 received a third scan at ages of 1-5 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Repeated seizures, lethargy and hypotonia were common clinical manifestations. Five severe hypoglycemia cases presented coma, respiratory failure and even cardiorespiratory arrest. The minimum mean value of whole blood glucose (WBG) in the 16 patients was 0.98+/-0.43 mmol/L, and that of the 5 severe cases was 0.72+/-0.42 mmol/L. EEG showed intermittent low voltage in the mild hypoglycemia cases. Flatten pattern and even electrocerebral silence was noted in the severe cases. Occipital and parietal cortexes (OPC) injuries were found in all of the 16 patients and 2 patients had concurrent periventricular white matter injury. A widespread involvement of cortex was found in the 5 severe hypoglycemia cases in which 1 showed widespread involvement of white matter, and 2 showed involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus. The 5 patients with widespread cortex injury and the 2 patients with OPC and periventricular white matter injury showed lower minimum WBG levels compared with those with OPC alone (0.71+/-0.35 mmol/L vs 1.19+/-0.42 mmol/L; t= 2.4124, P<0.05). The appearance of high-intensity signals on DWI was shown as early changes of signals in all of the 16 patients. The second MRI scan for 7 patients with OPC showed abnormal signals on T1WI and T2WI in 5 patients and abnormal signals on DWI in 3 cases. Cerebral atrophy and multicystic encephalomalacia were found in four patients with widespread involvement of cortex on DWI. In the follow-up one patient with OPC presented delayed myelination and one with concurrent white matter injury showed spastic diplegia. One patient with widespread involvement of cortex showed diffused encephalomalacia.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The severity of hypoglycemic brain injury demonstrated by serial MRIs relates to the severity of hypoglycemia. The occipital and parietal areas are the most vulnerable following hypoglycemia in neonates. Severe hypoglycemic brain injury manifests as a widespread involvement of cortex, or combined with white matter, or basal ganglia and thalamus. DWI can show early hypoglycemic brain injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Brain , Pathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Pathology , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 518-522, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311799

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Severe and persistent hypoglycemia often leads to brain damage in neonatal period although precise definition of hypoglycemia remains controversial. Little is known whether hypoglycemic brain damage happens to the neonates with hypoglycemic symptoms in early neonatal period and no criteria to diagnose the hypoglycemic brain damage are available. The present study aimed to characterize the clinical symptoms and brain damage by MRI diffusion-weighed imaging in the newborn infants with severe hypoglycemia in order to demonstrate the early findings of their brain damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The 6 newborn infants with severe hypoglycemia (whole blood glucose ranging from 0.48 to 1.7 mmol/L) were enrolled in this study, 3 of them were premature infants, 2 were small-for-gestational age infants and 1 was an infant born to a diabetic mother. These infants had a gestational age from 35 to 40 weeks and birth weight from 1545 g to 3900 g. They had no history of perinatal asphyxia, findings indicating sepsis, intracranial infection, inborn error of metabolism or endocrine disorders. They received MRI scans from 24 hours to 48 hours after admission with the sequences of T1WI, T2WI and DWI. The parameters for T1WI of FFE CLEAR were TR/TE 126 ms/2.3 ms, Flip 80; for T2WI of TSE SENSE TR/TE 1856 - 3238 ms/80 - 100 ms, TSE Factor 15. The parameters for DWI were TR/TE 2463 ms/48 ms, EPI factor 45 and b value of 1000, respectively. Two radiologists who knew nothing of the patients' history judged the scanned results.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 6 newborn infants with severe hypoglycemia showed apparent symptoms and signs indicating dysfunction of central nervous system. Repeated seizures, lethargy and apnea were the most common manifestations. Moreover, seizures recurred in 4 newborns when their blood glucoses remained in normal rage. The main types of seizure were focal and multifocal myoclonus. Intermittent widespread low voltage was seen in 2 cases by 24 hour-EEG. The first time of hypoglycemia was detected from 6 hours to 53 hours after birth in 5 cases, but 12 days in one case, the minimum mean value of blood glucose was 1.05 +/- 0.44 (0.48 - 1.70) mmol/L and repeated hypoglycemia persisted for 47.3 +/- 38.8 (4 - 96) hours. The first MRI scan was accomplished from 2 days to 5 days of life, except for one at 15 days of age. The occipital cortex and white matter were involved most frequently in all cases, but parietal region was involved in 3 cases. Occipital and/or parietal regions showed hyperintensive signals indicating "water restriction (cytotoxic edema)" on DWI for 6 cases at first scan; meanwhile hypointensity on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI were seen in 4 cases and one case respectively, the involved area became swollen that the occipital or parietal cortex indistinguishable from subcortical white matter. Three cases received the second scan at about two weeks of age. Hypointensity on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI were demonstrated in all, but hypointensity on DWI in one case only and normal signals on DWI in the others. One case was followed-up at 3 month of age, he developed normally, but delayed myelination was found on posterior limb of internal capsule and optic radiation without occipital and parietal cerebral atrophy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Cerebral occipital and parietal regions are the most vulnerable in severe hypoglycemic condition, changes of which could appear earlier on DWI than on T1WI and T2WI. But the relationship between the early findings on MRI DWI and prognosis remains to be studied further.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Brain Injuries , Blood , Pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Blood , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood , Infant, Newborn , Blood , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Male , Nervous System Diseases , Blood
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277358

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 2 374 subjects who received health examination in our hospital from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2006 were enrolled in our study. Hyperuricemia is defined as >or=7 mg/dl (in men) or >or=6.0 mg/dl (in women). Metabolic syndrome was defined using AHA/NHLBI (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) criteria.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The overall prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.10%. The condition was more common in men than in women (19.07% vs 3.42%). (2) Among men, uric acid concentration is statistically significantly positively correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride. Uric acid is negatively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Uric acid concentration is most strongly correlated with serum triglyceride (r=0.379) and waist circumference (r=0.297). Among women, statistically significant positive correlations were noted for the serum uric acid concentrations with waist circumference, triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose. Serum triglyceride (r=0.329) and waist circumference (r=0.234) are most strongly correlated with uric acid concentrations. (3) Men with hyperuricemia had a 1.634-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome as compared with those without hyperuricemia [odds ratio (OR)=1.634, P=0.000]. Women with hyperuricemia had a 1.626-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=1.626, P=0.000) as compared with those without hyperuricemia.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Hyperuricemia is prevalent among Chinese population. Additionally, serum uric acid is positively associated with metabolic syndrome.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Hyperuricemia , Epidemiology , Urine , Male , Metabolic Syndrome , Epidemiology , Urine , Risk Factors , Sex Characteristics , Uric Acid , Urine
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 843-847, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249514

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonates. Early and accurate diagnosis is helpful not only for assessing prognosis but also for making treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to explore the value of early assessment of HIE by applying the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute (within 72 hours), subacute or chronic stages of HIE in comparison to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical practice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Images and clinical charts of fourteen term neonates with clinically diagnosed severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated in the NICU from January 2006 to February 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: term infant (37 approximately 42 weeks) and high clinical suspicion of severe HIE (low Apgar scores, need for resuscitation, metabolic acidosis, acute encephalopathy (eg, hypotonia, coma, seizures). All examinations were performed on a 3.0-T MRI system (Philips Intera Acheva Magnetom Vision) with echo-planar imaging capability with the use of a standard protocol. The imaging protocol for all the patients contained diffuse weighted images (EPI-SE, TR = 2144 ms, TE = 56 ms), T1-weighted images (TR = 389 ms; TE = 15 ms; slice thickness = 4 mm) as well as T2-weighted images (TR = 3035 ms; TE = 100 ms; slice thickness = 4 mm). The studies were first performed within 72 hours of life in these 14 consecutive patients, including both standard T1, T2-weighted image and DWI; follow-up MR studies were performed for 4 patients at the ages of 7 days, for 4 at 14 days, for another 3 at ages of both 21 days and 8 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>First inspection (on an average of 48 hours after birth): routine T1, T2-weighted images showed normal images in all patients, while diffusion images showed symmetric high intensity signal in the lateral thalami and posterior limbs of internal capsules (PLIC). Following up: on day 7, routine MRI showed both symmetric T1 prolongation and T2 slightly shortening in lateral thalami, DWI showed abnormal high signal intensity in bilateral basal ganglion (mainly in the back site of lentiform nuclei, putamen) and the cortex around central sulcus, but the previous hyperintensity in lateral thalami and PLIC disappeared. On day 14, routine MRI showed symmetric T1 prolongation, T2 shortening in bilateral thalami, lentiform nuclei and cortex around central sulus. On day 21, routine MRI showed T1 prolongation, T2 shortening in bilateral thalami and basal ganglion while previously obvious PLIC disappeared, whereas DWI showed normal images. Eight months later, deeper cerebral sulus, dilation of ventricles and widening of extracerebral space were shown.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Diffusion-weighted imaging has proved more sensitive than conventional MR imaging sequences in detecting acute cerebral infarction in adult subjects. DWI is proposed as a method for early detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In this study, DWI showed the same focus (lateral thalami and PLIC) and similar extent of the injury in these severe HIE patients in the early stage after birth (in 72 hours). The sites which showed hyperintensive signals in DWI were consistent with the foci in subsequent follow-up by routine MRI. Thus, DWI is supposed to be a technique for early assessment of the extent of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and the prognosis in clinic. Though DWI is superior to the other imaging modalities in detecting ischemia, diffusion restriction is not necessarily indicative of permanent damage. The abnormal image on DWI may not last long. However, in chronic stage, the follow-up conventional MRI may compensate the inadequacy of DWI.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain , Pathology , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Metabolism , Diffusion , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Metabolism , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Stroke , Metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 24-29, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349501

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The involvement of globus pallidus has been found in neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE), but so far the relationship between the severity of hyperbilirubinemia and changes of globus pallidus has not been studied further. The present study was conducted to understand possible relationship between the MRI signal changes of globus pallidus and severe hyperbilirubinemia in the neonates to provide evidences for diagnosis of bilirubin encephalopathy and prediction of outcome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin, i.e., TSB > 342 micromol/L) received MRI examination in a magnetic field with the strength of 1.5 - 3.0 Tesla at ages of 10 +/- 6 (2 - 34) days of life, of whom 15 were assessed as acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE). Routine T1WI with three kinds of sequences (SE, IR and FFE), T2WI and DWI with two kinds of sequences (EPI-SE and DW SSh SENSE) were applied. Two neuroradiologists who knew nothing about the clinical history analyzed MRI findings. TSB, unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and albumin (ALB) in all these neonates were measured with the same methods and analyzer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Symmetric hyperintense globus pallidus was shown on T1WI in 20 neonates, of whom three had symmetric hyperintense globus pallidus on T2WI (TSB = 745.3 micromol/L, 735.7 micromol/L, 707.6 micromol/L, respectively) at the same time. Remarkably higher TSB, molar ratio of TSB and ALB (B/A) and UCB were found in 20 neonates with hyperintense globus pallidus as compared to 16 cases without changes of globus pallidus (P = 0.000). No abnormal signal changes were found on DWI for all neonates; 9 neonates with TSB ranged from 342.0 micromol/L to 427.5 micromol/L did not show any abnormalities of globus pallidus, 3 of 7 neonates with TSB ranged from 427.5 micromol/L to 513.0 micromol/L, but 17 of 20 neonates with TSB more than 513.0 micromol/L showed distinct hyperintense globus pallidus. Hyperintense globus pallidus on T1WI was related to the severity of hyperbilirubinemia (Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.000). Hyperintense globus pallidus on T1WI was found in all the 15 neonates with ABE (Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.000), at the same time, hyperintense globus pallidus on T2WI was found in 3 cases with severe ABE. Six infants received the second MRI at ages from 2 months to 12 months, two of three infants with ABE in neonatal period showed the signal changes of globes pallidus from T1WI hyperintensity to T2WI hyperintensity and they developed cerebral palsy. The other one with normal signal showed hearing dysfunction. Another three infants without history of ABE did not show abnormal signals of globus pallidus and developed normally.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The symmetric involvement of globus pallidus with hyperintense signals on MRI T1WI indicates the severity of hyperbilirubinemia, which relates to time of exposure to hyperbilirubinemia and is a characteristic finding of ABE. The signal switch of hyperintense globus pallidus from T1WI to T2WI predicts poor outcome.</p>


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Blood , Globus Pallidus , Pathology , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal , Diagnosis , Pathology , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 173-176, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355439

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To reduce misdiagnosis and explore etiology of laryngeal stridor in neonates.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixteen neonates with laryngeal stridor were reviewed. All the patients were examined with CT scan for larynx and lungs and some were examined with laryngoscopy. Laboratory examination and chromosome analysis were also done in all or some patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the 16 neonates were diagnosed before admission as congenital simple laryngeal stridor in other hospitals. Of the 16 neonates with laryngeal stridor, 5 (31%) had thyroglossal ductal cyst, 1 (6%) neonate with cri du chat (5p(-)) syndrome, 2 (13%) neonates with Pierre-Robin syndrome and the rest 8 (50%) were suspected of congenital simple laryngeal stridor.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Neonates with laryngeal stridor are easily misdiagnosed; neonatal thyroglossal duct cyst is one of common causes. The diagnosis for a congenital simple laryngeal stridor should be carefully made excluding the possibility of related diseases. The authors recommend that laryngoscopy and CT scan for larynx should be performed in the neonates with laryngeal stridor.</p>


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Laryngeal Diseases , Diagnosis , Laryngoscopy , Larynx , Diagnostic Imaging , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Respiratory Sounds , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321153

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the molecular basis of infantile Alexander disease in a Chinese patient, which may yield useful information for further genetic counseling.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>DNA sequencing analysis and restriction endonuclease analysis were used to detect the mutation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene in a patient with clinically diagnosed Alexander disease, in her parents and in 50 healthy controls.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A 249C>T (R79C) mutation was identified in the exon 1 of the GFAP gene but not in her parents and the controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study on mutation of GFAP gene in Chinese patients with Alexander disease has never been reported previously. The mutation analysis of GFAP gene can provide valuable information for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and can serve as a reliable method of prenatal diagnosis for the family.</p>


Subject(s)
Alexander Disease , Diagnosis , Genetics , Base Sequence , Child, Preschool , China , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Genetics , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263239

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a serious high mortality pulmonary vascular disease whose effective treatment decreases morbidity and mortality. To determine if low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) is clinically as efficient and safe as unfractionated heparin (UH) in patients with diagnosis of acute non-massive PTE, our study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of LMWH and UH.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fourteen patients with non-massive acute PTE were randomly divided into LMWH (nadroparin calcium) and UH groups. Oxygenation index, D-dimer, fibrinogen (FG), lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were observed before anticoagulation and on day 14 after anticoagulation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In both groups, the ABG (arterial blood gas) analysis showed PaO(2) and PaCO(2) were elevated, P(A-a)O(2) was decreased and oxygenation index (PaO(2)/FIO(2)) was elevated, D-dimer and fibrinogen were decreased, lung V/Q and CTPA showed embolized segments reduced (P<0.05). Hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia occurred in 3.5% of the LMWH group. Hemorrhage occurred in 5.3% and thrombocytopenia occurred in 7.0% of the UH group. The average cost in the LMWH group was RMB 1218.60 Yuan and RMB 1541.40 Yuan in the UH group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>LMWH and UH are equally effective for treatment of non-massive acute PTE, but LMWH may have a lower prevalence of complications and is less expensive.</p>


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Economics , Therapeutic Uses , China , Epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Costs , Female , Heparin , Economics , Therapeutic Uses , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Economics , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338646

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the management for blunt abdominal trauma victims with probable positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) findings.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data of 76 patients with probable positive DPL findings accepted to ICU in previous 10 years were reviewed. After admission, the patients were evaluated in a settled time according to the protocols of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). Vital signs were continuously monitored and DPL, ultrasound and/or CT scan were repeated when necessary.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eighteen (24%) of 76 patients presented positive DPL findings after repeated DPL. Surgical findings confirmed 7 cases of spleen rupture, 3 hepatorrhexis (infra-Glisson capsule), 4 intestinal perforation, 2 gastric perforation, 1 colon perforation and 1 injured mesentery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Patients with probable positive DPL findings were admitted to ICU with vital signs continuously monitored. Repeated DPL with supplemental ultrasound and/or CT scan can work together to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of the diagnosis, reduce the rate of exploratory laparotomy, ensure patients' safety and provide a reliable basis for therapeutic operations.</p>


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , Diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Lavage , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Diagnosis
19.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 382-384, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270291

ABSTRACT

Most patients with trauma-hemorragic shock, prior to ICU admission, have been resuscitated and stabilized in the emergency room (ER) and/or operation room (OR). Many of them suffer from systemic edema. This extra-vascular fluid is caused by massive infusion of fluid and blood for the maintenance of blood pressure. During the recovery stage, the patients exhibit spontaneous diuresis followed by negative fluid balance. Urine volumes of some patients are more than 10000 ml/d. Do we need to maintain a balance between daily input and output of water at this situation? There are many references in the medical literature and textbooks about fluid resuscitation and the principles in maintaining the balance between input and output of water, but rarely about when and how to restrict it, that is, when and how to permit a negative balance. In this retrospective review, we examined the resuscitation records of 205 patients with systemic edema after trauma-hemorragic shock.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death , Child , Critical Care , Methods , Diuresis , Physiology , Female , Fluid Therapy , Methods , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Trauma , Diagnosis , Mortality , Therapeutics , Predictive Value of Tests , Probability , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Diagnosis , Mortality , Therapeutics , Survival Rate , Water-Electrolyte Balance
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-679474

ABSTRACT

0.05).Three coronary artery aneurysm in the distal RCA was missed by 2DE.MSCT could not detect slight or moderate mitral regurgitation in 2 patients and artery wall thickening in 5 patients.Conclusion MSCT would be an effective complementary or alternative method for CDEC to evaluate coronary artery lesions non-invasively in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease.

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