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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02542748; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02542748.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenylephrine , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 840-853, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266899

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in Intensive Care Units. Anesthetic dose isoflurane and 100% oxygen were proved to be beneficial in sepsis; however, their application in septic patients is limited because long-term hyperoxia may induce oxygen toxicity and anesthetic dose isoflurane has potential adverse consequences. This study was scheduled to find the optimal combination of isoflurane and oxygen in protecting experimental sepsis and its mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The effects of combined therapy with isoflurane and oxygen on lung injury and sepsis were determined in animal models of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or zymosan. Mouse RAW264.7 cells or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated by LPS to probe mechanisms. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling molecules were examined by Western blot and cellular immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane in 60% oxygen was the best combination of oxygen and isoflurane for reducing mortality in experimental sepsis induced by CLP, intraperitoneal injection of LPS, or zymosan. The 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen inhibited proinflammatory cytokines in peritoneal lavage fluids (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-β]: 149.3 vs. 229.7 pg/ml, interleukin [IL]-1β: 12.5 vs. 20.6 pg/ml, IL-6: 86.1 vs. 116.1 pg/ml, and high-mobility group protein 1 [HMGB1]: 323.7 vs. 449.3 ng/ml; all P< 0.05) and serum (TNF-β: 302.7 vs. 450.7 pg/ml, IL-1β: 51.7 vs. 96.7 pg/ml, IL-6: 390.4 vs. 722.5 pg/ml, and HMGB1: 592.2 vs. 985.4 ng/ml; all P< 0.05) in septic animals. In vitro experiments showed that the 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen reduced inflammatory responses in mouse RAW264.7 cells, after LPS stimulation (all P< 0.05). Suppressed activation of NF-κB pathway was also observed in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and human PBMCs after LPS stimulation or plasma from septic patients. The 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen also prevented the increases of phospho-IKKβ/β, phospho-IκBβ, and phospho-p65 expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages after LPS stimulation (all P< 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Combined administration of a sedative dose of isoflurane with 60% oxygen improves survival of septic animals through reducing inflammatory responses.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Methods , Animals , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Isoflurane , Therapeutic Uses , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Oxygen , Therapeutic Uses , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2383-2386, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315330

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Blood transfusion saves lives but may also increase the risk of injury. The objective of this review was to evaluate the possible adverse effects related to transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates stored for prolonged periods.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to February 2015.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Clinical and basic research articles were selected according to their relevance to this topic.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ex vivo changes to RBC that occur during storage are collectively called storage lesion. It is still inconclusive if transfusion of RBC with storage lesion has clinical relevance. Multiple ongoing prospective randomized controlled trials are aimed to clarify this clinical issue. It was observed that the adverse events related to stored RBC transfusion were prominent in certain patient populations, including trauma, critical care, pediatric, and cardiac surgery patients, which leads to the investigation of underlying mechanisms. It is demonstrated that free hemoglobin toxicity, decreasing of nitric oxide bioavailability, and free iron-induced increasing of inflammation may play an important role in this process.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is still unclear whether transfusion of older RBC has adverse effects, and if so, which factors determine such clinical effects. However, considering the magnitude of transfusion and the widespread medical significance, potential preventive strategies should be considered, especially for the susceptible recipients.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Preservation , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Metabolism , Physiology , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Time Factors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-332746

ABSTRACT

Hemopexin (HPX) is a plasma protein with the strongest binding capacity to heme and widely involved in modulation of a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The main physiological function of HPX is to bind and transport free toxic heme. Recent studies indicate that HPX also plays roles of anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, immune regulation and organic protection. In addition, HPX participates in regulation of cell differentiation and extracellular matrix reconstruction. In recent years, a great deal of progress has been made in studies of the mechanisms of HPX protective effects and on possible clinical application. In the past few years, especially, a number of proteomic studies have demonstrated that HPX could be served as positive molecular biomarkers for cancers of lung, liver, kidney, colon, and uterine myoma as well as osteoarthritis. In this review, recent progress in the biochemical characteristics and function of HPX and its possible clinical applications are summarized.


Subject(s)
Heme , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Hemopexin , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344913

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture preconditioning on the serum level of S100 calcium-binding protein beta (S100beta) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients undergoing craniocerebral tumor operation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 32 patients, who would go through craniocerebral tumor resection under general anesthesia, were randomly assigned to two groups, 16 in each group. Patients in the electroacupuncture (EA) group received electroacupuncture on Fengfu acupoint (Du16) and Fengchi acupoint (GB20) for 30 min, 2 h before operation. The stimulus is 1-4 mA with a density wave frequency of 2/15 Hz. Patients in the control group received no pretreatment. Anesthesia was maintained with remifentanil at the dose of 4-8 mg/kg per hour, pumped intravenous drip of vecuronium at 1.0-2.0 microg/kg each hour, and discontinuous intravenous dripped with vecuronium bromide at 0.5-1 mg. The serum levels of S100beta and NSE were measured with ELISA before operation, before skin incision, after tumor removal, at the end of operation, and at 24 h after operation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum level of S100beta and NSE did not change before skin incision. The serum level of NSE increased significantly and the level of S100beta increased insignificantly after the tumor resection. The serum levels of S100beta and NSE in the EA group and the control group were 1.16+/-0.28 microg/L vs 1.47+/- 0.33 microg/L, 24.7+/-13.3 microg/L vs 31.4+/-14.1 microg/L at the end of the operation, respectively. Twenty-four h after operation, the correspondence indices were 1.18+/-0.31 microg/L vs 1.55+/-0.26 microg/L, and 25.5+/-12.4 microg/L vs 32.4+/- 11.7 microg/L. The two indices at these two time points were significantly increased than those before operation, respectively (P<0.05). At the end of the operation and 24 h post-operation, the serum levels of S100beta and NSE in the EA group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Electroacupuncture Fengchi and Fengfu for 30 min before craniocerbral tumor operation could decrease the serum level of S100beta and NSE, thus may have potential protective effect on brain damage, which needs to be further studied.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Blood , General Surgery , Demography , Electroacupuncture , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Nerve Growth Factors , Blood , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , S100 Proteins , Blood , Time Factors
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319877

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on survival rate and serum high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in severe septic mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Severe sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation in mice.A total of 248 mice were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (sham), sham operation with hydrogen gas inhalation group (sham+H2), severe CLP group (severe CLP) and severe CLP with hydrogen gas inhalation group (severe CLP+H2). Hydrogen gas inhalation was given for 1 h at 1st and 6th h after CLP or sham operation, respectively. The survival rates and serum HMGB1 levels of all groups at different time points were measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The 7-d survival rates of severe CLP mice was 0 % (Compared with Sham group, P <0.05), and the serum HMBG1 levels from h2 to h32 after CLP operation were significantly increased in severe CLP mice (Compared with Sham group, P <0.05). Hydrogen gas treatment increased the 7-d survival rate of severe CLP mice to 60 % (Compared with severe sepsis group, P <0.05) and significantly reduced the serum HMGB1 levels at different time points (Compared with severe sepsis group, P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Hydrogen gas inhalation can decrease the serum HMGB1 levels and increase the survival rate of rats with severe sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , HMGB1 Protein , Blood , Hydrogen , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sepsis , Blood , Drug Therapy
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 449-454, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311844

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the intensive care units. The late inflammatory cytokine, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), plays a critical role in sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the serum HMGB1 levels and the severity of organ injury in the lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>To produce an animal model of sepsis with different degree of organ injury, animals were treated with three different doses of lipopolysaccharide (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg), and the animals in control group were treated with the same volume of the vehicle (saline). The levels of serum HMGB1 were measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle injection, meanwhile the biochemical and histopathological indicators for the severity of organ injury were assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The level of HMGB1 had a positive, high correlation with the abnormal changes of serum cardiac troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, as well as the pathologic scores of heart, lung, liver and kidney.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The level of serum HMGB1 is highly correlated with the severity of sepsis in rats, suggesting that HMGB1 could serve as a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis and management of sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , HMGB1 Protein , Blood , Lipopolysaccharides , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Pathology
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 950-954, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279803

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Vascular hyporeactivity, which occurs in the terminal stage of hemorrhagic shock, is believed to be critical for treating hemorrhagic shock. The present study was designed to examine whether the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) was involved in the development of vascular hyporeactivity in rats suffering from hemorrhagic shock.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixteen animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 8 in each group): sham-operated (Sham) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) groups. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by bleeding. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced to and stabilized at (25 +/- 5) mmHg for 2 hours. The vascular reactivity was determined by the response of MAP to norepinephrine (NE). In later experiments another twelve animals were used in which the changes of CB1R mRNA and protein in aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. In addition, we investigated the effects of a CB1R antagonist on the vascular hyporeactivity and survival rates in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Survival rates were analyzed by the Fisher's exact probability test. The MAP response was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Vascular hyporeactivity developed in all animals suffering from hemorrhagic shock. The expression of CB1R mRNA and protein in aorta and 2 - 3 branches of the SMA were significantly increased in the HS group after the development of vascular hyporeactivity when compared to those in Sham group. When SR141716A or AM251 was administered, the MAP response to NE was (41.75 +/- 4.08) mmHg or (44.78 +/- 1.80) mmHg respectively, which was higher than that in saline groups with (4.31 +/- 0.36) mmHg (P < 0.01). We also showed an increased 4-hour survival rate in the SR141716A or AM251-treated group with 20% or 30%, but with a statistically significant difference present between the AM251-treated and saline groups (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CB1R is involved in vascular hyporeactivity resulting from hemorrhagic shock in rats, and CB1R antagonist may be useful in treating patients with traumatic, hemorrhagic shock who need field-rescue or initial treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypotension , Metabolism , Male , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Metabolism , Mortality , Survival Rate
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2572-2577, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265894

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The neuroprotective effect of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor has been demonstrated in acute and chronic neurodegenerative processes. But its function under cerebral ischemic conditions is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of emulsified flurbiprofen axetil (FA, COX inhibitor) and its therapeutic time window in a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 8 in each group); three FA groups, vehicle, sham and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) groups. Three doses of FA (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, intravenous infusion) were administered just after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The degree of neurological outcome was measured by the neurologic deficit score (NDS) at 24, 48 and 72 hours after I/R. Mean brain infarct volume percentage (MBIVP) was determined with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining at 72 hours after I/R. In three other groups (n = 8 in each group), the selected dosage of 10 mg/kg was administrated intravenously at 6, 12 and 24 hours after I/R.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The three different doses of FA improved NDS at 24, 48 and 72 hours after I/R and significantly reduced MBIVP. However, the degree of MBIVP in the FA 20 mg/kg group differed from that in FA 10 mg/kg group. Of interest is the finding that the neuroprotective effect conferred by 10 mg/kg of FA was also observed when treatment was delayed until 12 - 24 hours after ischemia reperfusion.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>COX inhibitor FA is a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia and its therapeutic time window could last for 12 - 24 hours after cerebral ischemia reperfusion, which would help in lessening the initial ischemic brain damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Flurbiprofen , Pharmacology , Infusions, Intravenous , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Male , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 394-399, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344885

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Preconditioning with repeated electroacupuncture (EA) could mimic ischemic preconditioning to induce cerebral ischemic tolerance in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether mu (micro)-, delta (delta)- or kappa (kappa)-opioid receptors are involved in the neuroprotection induced by repeated EA preconditioning.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The rats were pretreated with naltrindole (NTI), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), which is a highly selective delta-, kappa- or micro-opioid receptor antagonist respectively, before each EA preconditioning (30 minutes per day, 5 days). Twenty-four hours after the last EA treatment, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced for 120 minutes. The brain infarct volume was determined with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 24 hours after MCAO and compared with that in rats which only received EA preconditioning. In another experiment, the met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in rat brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry in both EA preconditioning and control rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The EA preconditioning reduced brain infarct volume compared with the control rats (P = 0.000). Administration of both NTI and CTOP attenuated the brain infarct volume reduction induced by EA preconditioning, presenting with larger infarct volume than that in the EA preconditioning rats (P < 0.001). But nor-BNI administration did not block the infarct volume reduction induced by EA preconditioning, presenting with smaller infarct volume than the control group rats (P = 0.000). The number of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity positive neurons in the EA preconditioning rats was more than that of the control rats (P = 0.000).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Repeated EA preconditioning stimulates the release of enkephalins, which may bind delta- and micro-opioid receptors to induce the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Electroacupuncture , Enkephalin, Methionine , Immunohistochemistry , Ischemic Preconditioning , Male , Naltrexone , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Opioid, delta , Physiology , Receptors, Opioid, mu , Physiology , Somatostatin , Pharmacology
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 680-683, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344830

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Vasoactive drugs are often necessary for reversing hypotension in patients with severe infection. The standard for evaluating effects of vasoactive drugs should not only be based on the increase of arterial blood pressure, but also on the blood flow perfusion of internal organs. The effects of dopamine and metaraminol on the renal function of the patients with septic shock were investigated retrospectively in this study.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety-eight patients with septic shock were divided into three groups according to the highest infusing rate of metaraminol, with the lightest infusing rate of (0.1 - 0.5, 0.6 - 1.0, > 1.0) microgxkg(-1)xmin(-1) in group A, B and C respectively. Urine output, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), urine albumin (U-ALB), urine beta(2)-microglubulin (Ubeta(2)-MG) and Apache III scores were recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Before antishock therapy, hypotension, tachycardia and oliguria occurred to all the 98 patients with septic shock and CRE, BUN, U-ALB, Ubeta(2)-MG and Apache III scoring were abnormal in most cases. With the antishock therapy, MAP, HR, urine output, BUN and CRE in all patients returned gradually to normal (P < 0.05 or < 0.01 compared to those before antishock therapy). U-ALB, Ubeta(2)-MG output and Apache III scoring also reverted but remained abnormal (P < 0.01 compared to those before antishock therapy). No statistically significant differences in the changes of these indices with the time existed among the three groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Dopamine and metaraminol when applied to the patients with septic shock could effectively maintain the circulatory stability and promote restoration of renal function.</p>


Subject(s)
APACHE , Adult , Blood Pressure , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Dopamine , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Metaraminol , Therapeutic Uses , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic , Drug Therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Therapeutic Uses , beta 2-Microglobulin , Urine
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1958-1962, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255465

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Our previous in vivo study in the rat demonstrates that Shenfu injection, a clinically used extract preparation from Chinese herbs, attenuates neural and cardiac toxicity induced by intravenous infusion of bupivacaine, a local anesthetic. This study was designed to investigate whether bupivacaine could induce a toxic effect in primary cultured mouse spinal cord neuron and if so, whether the Shenfu injection had a similar neuroprotective effect in the cell model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The spinal cords from 11- to 14-day-old fetal mice were minced and incubated. Cytarabine was added into the medium to inhibit the proliferation of non-neuronal cells. The immunocytochemical staining of beta-tubulin was used to determine the identity of cultured cells. The cultured neurons were randomly assigned into three sets treated with various doses of bupivacaine, Shenfu and bupivacaine + Shenfu, for 48 hours respectively. Cell viability in each group was analyzed by methyl thiazoleterazolium (MTT) assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The viability of the cultured neurons treated with bupivacaine at concentrations of 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08% was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Although the Shenfu injection at concentrations ranging from 1/50 to 1/12.5 (V/V) had no significant influence on the viability of cultured neurons (P < 0.05 vs control), the injection significantly increased the cellular viability of cultured neurons pretreated with 0.03% bupivacaine (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Although Shenfu injection itself has no effect on spinal neurons, it was able to reduce the bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.</p>


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local , Toxicity , Animals , Bupivacaine , Toxicity , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Injections , Mice , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Cell Biology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686759

ABSTRACT

Simulation teaching is helpful to learn general principles of solving complex problems,making decisions,resource management and teamwork behaviors during clinical treatment in order to prevent,ameliorate and resolve critical incidents and crisis situations.The medical staff will improve their medical,cognitive and social skills in the recognition and treatment of realistic and complex medical situation.

14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1206-1208, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288620

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on the renal function in the patients with septic shock.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty-seven patients with septic shock were divided into three groups (group A, B, C) according to the biggest infusing rate of norepinephrine, with the infusing rate of 0.5 - 0.9, 1.0 - 1.5, 1.6 - 2.0 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), urine albumin (U-ALB) and urine beta(2)-microglobulin (Ubeta(2)-MG) as well as APACHE III score in all the patients were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Before anti-shock therapy was given, hypotension, tachycardia and oliguria occurred in all the 87 patients, and CRE, BUN, U-ALB, Ubeta(2)-MG and APACHE III score were abnormal in most cases. With the anti-shock therapy, MAP, HR, urine output and BUN, CRE in all patients returned to normal levels gradually, and U-ALB, Ubeta(2)-MG levels and APACHE III score also restored but still remained abnormal.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The first aim of treating septic shock should be restoring the organ blood supply, and based on volume resuscitation, dopamine, noradrenaline and other vasoactive drugs could be combined to maintain circulatory stability.</p>


Subject(s)
APACHE , Adult , Aged , Blood Transfusion , Cardiotonic Agents , Combined Modality Therapy , Dopamine , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Middle Aged , Norepinephrine , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic , Therapeutics , Vasoconstrictor Agents
15.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 297-302, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338594

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of sodium ferulate (SF), an intravenous drug made from traditional Chinese herbs, on activation of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and neuroprotection after transient cerebral artery occlusion in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 2 groups (n=23 in each group): the control group and the SF group. After anesthesia, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was conducted with the intraluminal filament technique. The neurological deficit was assessed with the method devised by Bederson et al. The 2,3,4-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to assess the infarct volume. We adopted a modified six-point scale to conduct neurobehavioral evaluation. Immediately the activation of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) was studied with Western blot analysis system in the cortex and striatum of rat brain.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The neurologic deficit score of the SF group decreased substantially compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). The infarct volume of the control group (168.1 mm3 +/- 42.2 mm3) was significantly larger than that of the SF group (61.5 mm3 +/- 28.7 mm3) at 24 hours after reperfusion (P<0.01). And the rats showed some neurological deficit. The activity of PSD-95 in the SF group at most timepoints was less than that in the control group. No upregulation of PSD-95 protein could be detected in the contralateral cortex.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Sodium ferulate can induce a neuroprotective effect against the transient focal cerebral ischemic injury and weaken the activation of PSD-95 in ischemic area after MCAO.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain Infarction , Drug Therapy , Coumaric Acids , Therapeutic Uses , Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284494

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against focal cerebral ischemic injury in rats with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rat models of focal cerebral ischemic injury were established in 16 male SD rats. They were randomly divided into the TMP group and the control group, eight in each group, and pretreated with TMP and normal saline respectively before modeling. Change of infarcted cerebral focus was observed with DWMRI at 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hrs after infarction, and the infarction volume (IV) at 24 hrs after modeling was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The IV in all time points observed in the TMP group with DWMRI was significantly smaller than that in the control group (P<0.01). Compared with that at 1 hr after infarction, in the control group at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hrs after modeling, the IV enlarged by 13.3%, 29.7%, 50.3% and 57.3% respectively, while that in the TMP group 9.9%, 21.3%, 37.1% and 40.5% respectively. The cerebral IV estimated by TTC stain 24 hrs after modeling was larger than that estimated by DWMRI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TMP pretreatment before modeling was effective in protecting brain against cerebral ischemic damage in rats. DWMRI dynamic scanning observation has important significance in observing the cerebral ischemic developing process and evaluating the effectiveness of brain protective measures.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Pyrazines , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320257

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effect of Shenfu injection (SFI) on cardiac function of patients undergoing valve replacement operation under cardio-pulmonary bypass.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty patients undergoing valve replacement operation under cardio-pulmonary bypass were randomly divided into the SFI group and the control group, 60 in each group. Intravenous infusion of 1 ml/kg SFI was given to the SFI group, 30 min before anesthesia, and to the control group, equal volume of normal saline was given instead. The following indices were observed: (1) the hemodynamic changes occurred in the operational period; (2) the dosage of vaso-active drugs used during and after operation; (3) the post-operational recovery time of patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the SFI group during operation were higher, while the central venous pressure was lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The dosage of vaso-active drugs, such as dopamine, dobutamine, sodium nitroprusside and lidocaine, used during and after operation was lower, and the extubation time and the intensive care unit (ICU) staying time were shorter in the SFI group when compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SFI has certain protective effects on the cardiac function of patients undergoing valve replacement operation under cardio-pulmonary bypass.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Dopamine , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Nitroprusside , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Postoperative Period , Rheumatic Heart Disease , Drug Therapy , General Surgery
18.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 143-147, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270262

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of puerarin on the neural function and the histopathological changes after ischemic spinal cord injury in rabbits.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups as follows: puerarin group (n=10) receiving intravenous infusion of 30 mg/kg puerarin for 10 minutes, control group (n=10) receiving intravenous infusion of the same volume of normal saline as puerarin for 10 minutes, and sham operation group (n=10) undergoing only the surgical exposure of the abdominal aorta. Temporary spinal cord ischemia was induced by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 20 minutes and followed by reperfusion. The neural status was scored with the Tarlov criteria at 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours after reperfusion. All the animals were killed at 48 hours after reperfusion and the spinal cords (L5) were removed immediately for histopathological study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The neural function scores at 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours after reperfusion were higher in the puerarin group and sham operation group than those in the control group (P<0.05). More normal motor neurons in the anterior horn of spinal cord were present in the puerarin group and sham operation group than those in the control group (P<0.01). There was a strong correlation between the final neural function scores and the number of normal motor neurons in the anterior horn of spinal cord (r=0.839, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Puerarin can significantly ameliorate the neural function and the histopathological damages after transient spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Male , Motor Neurons , Pathology , Rabbits , Spinal Cord Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Vasodilator Agents , Pharmacology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320275

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats and the effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on it.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-five male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, the sham-operated group, the control group and the SF group. The model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by thread ligation method, and in the ischemic phase, to rats in the sham-operated and the control group 4 ml of normal saline was intraperitoneally injected, and to rats in the SF group, 100 mg/kg of SF dissolved in 4 ml of normal saline was injected. The rats were decapitated at 2 hrs, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and 72 hrs after reperfusion, 3 rats of every group at each time point, and rats brains were taken for immunohistochemistry and histopathological examination.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Histopathological examination showed that the cerebral ischemic damage in the SF group was significantly milder than that in the control group at 2 hrs after reperfusion. The cerebral ischemia induced ERK activation reached the peak at 6 hrs and maintained to 72 hrs after reperfusion. As compared with the control group, the ERK activation in the SF group was significantly enhanced with increased positive immune reacted cells (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion could induce the activation of ERK in the ischemic brain cells, intervention of SF could enhance the activation and alleviate the ischemic injury in cerebral cortex.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Pathology , Coumaric Acids , Pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Pathology , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Neurons , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Pathology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-674141

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine if pregnancy affects the toxicity of bupivacaine and to investigate the effect of Shenfu injectio,a preparation of Chinese herbal medicine,on central nervous system and cardiac toxicity of bupivacaine in pregnant rats.Methods Twenty-four SD rats weighing 320-360 g were assigned to 3 groups(n =8 each):Ⅰ non-pregnant control group,Ⅱ pregnant control group and Ⅲ Shenfu injectio pretreatment group. The animals were anesthetized with isoflorane(2%-4%)-O_2 inhalation which was stopped before bupivacaine infusion was started.Femoral artery was canunlated for MAP monitoring and blood sampling and femoral vein was cannulated for bupivacaine infusion.MAP,HR and ECG were continuously monitored.All animals in the 3 groups received continuous infusion of 5% bupivacaine at 2 mg?kg~(-1).min~(-1).In group Ⅲ Shenfu injectio 10 ml?kg~(-1) was injected intraperitoneally(IP)30 min before bupivacaine infusion whereas in the two control groups(group Ⅰ and Ⅱ)equal volume of normal saline was injected IP instead of Shenfu injectio.The duration between the beginning of bupivacaine infusion and onset of convulsion/arrhythmia(QRS≥90 ms)/asystol was recorded and the amount of bupivacaine infused was calculated.Results There was no significant difference in the amount of bupivacaine causing convulsion and asystol between group Ⅰ and Ⅱ but the amount of bupivacaine causing arrhythmia was significantly larger in group Ⅰ(non-pregnant) than in group Ⅱ(pregnant control group)(P<0.05).The amount of bupivacaine causing convulsion,arrhythmia and asystole was significantly larger in Shenfu injectio pretreatment group(group Ⅲ)than in pregnant control group(group Ⅱ)(P<0.05 or 0.01).Conclusion Bupivacaine- induced cardiotoxicity is increased in pregnant rats and Shenfu injectio pretreatment can reduce the systemic toxicity of bupivacaine in pregnant rats.

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