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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879884

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia using short auditory stimuli (60 dBnHL), and to investigate the differences in the inter-aural latency difference (ILD) of wave V between neonates with different total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Yuhuan People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province, from May 2019 to October 2020. The neonates were divided into a severe group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the mild group, the severe group had significantly higher proportions of neonates with abnormal hearing threshold and abnormal ILD (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Serum bilirubin in neonates affects the ILD of BAEP wave V, especially in those with severe hyperbilirubinemia. ILD at the optimal cut-off value of ≥0.4 ms shows potential value in the diagnosis of hearing impairment caused by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing Loss , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Prospective Studies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect of multi-oil fat emulsion for parenteral nutrition support in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for 49 ELBW infants who were admitted from January 1, 2018 to July 30, 2020, with an age of ≤14 days on admission and a duration of parenteral nutrition of > 14 days. According to the type of lipid emulsion received, the ELBW infants were divided into two groups: soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) (@*RESULTS@#The 49 ELBW infants had a mean birth weight of (892±83) g and a mean gestational age of (28.2±2.3) weeks. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence rates of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), grade Ⅲ BPD, sepsis, and pneumonia (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of multi-oil fat emulsion in ELBW infants does not reduce the incidence rate of complications, but compared with MCT/LCT emulsion, SMOF can reduce the severity of PNAC in ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Emulsions , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies , Soybean Oil
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect and safety of vacuum stretcher combined with feeding in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination for neonates.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was performed for the neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, with a gestational age of >34 weeks and stable vital signs, who needed cranial MRI examination and did not need oxygen inhalation hospitalized in the Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, from September to November, 2019. The neonates were randomly divided into a vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group and a conventional sedation group. Vital signs were monitored before, during, and after MRI examination. The success rate of MRI procedure was recorded.@*RESULTS@#A total of 80 neonates were enrolled in the study, with 40 neonates in the vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group and 40 in the conventional sedation group. The vacuum stretcher combined with feeding group had a significantly higher success rate of MRI procedure than the conventional sedation group (P0.05). No complications, such as apnea, acute allergic reactions, and malignant fever, were observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Vacuum stretcher combined with feeding can improve the success rate of MRI procedure and reduce the use of sedatives, and meanwhile, it does not increase related risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Stretchers , Vacuum
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of neonatal enterovirus infection, especially severe enterovirus infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 244 neonates with enterovirus infection. According to the severity of infection, they were divided into a common infection group with 231 neonates and a severe infection group with 13 neonates. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Of the 244 neonates, 207 (84.8%) developed the disease in May to October, with the highest number of patients in June to July. Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly lower gestational age at birth and a significantly higher proportion of preterm infants (P<0.05). Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly earlier onset time (P<0.05) and significantly higher incidence rates of skin petechiae and ecchymosis, respiratory symptoms, sepsis-like manifestations (poor appetite, crying less, and less movement), concomitant diseases (such as pneumonia, myocarditis, necrotic hepatitis, and coagulation disorder), thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated creatine kinase-MB, and elevated alanine aminotransferase (P<0.05). The severe infection group had a significantly higher mortality rate than the common infection group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are significant differences in onset time, common clinical manifestations, and concomitant diseases between the neonates with common and severe enterovirus infection. In the enterovirus epidemic season, if the neonates have rashes and/or sepsis-like manifestations such as poor appetite and less movement, especially if the laboratory tests suggest liver damage and coagulation dysfunction, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the possibility of severe enterovirus infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828623

ABSTRACT

This article evaluates the potential influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women on the development of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates and discusses the possibility of mother-to-child vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. With reference to related articles published up to now and the information on official websites, a retrospective review was performed for the clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results of the neonates born to the mothers with infection during pregnancy during the epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome and after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection since December 2019. Based on the limited data, there is no conclusive evidence for mother-to-child vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019, and more cases need to be collected for further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 191 preterm infants with BPD.@*RESULTS@#In the 191 preterm infants with BPD, 37 (19.4%), all with moderate or severe BPD, developed PH beyond 36 weeks' corrected age. The incidence rates of PH in infants with moderate and severe BPD were 5.7% (5/87) and 47.8% (32/67) respectively. Gestational age and birth weight were lower in infants with PH than in those without PH (P<0.01). Infants with PH had higher incidence rates of small for gestational age (SGA), severe BPD, surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, hemodynamically significant PDA, and pneumonia than those without PH (P<0.01). Durations of oxygen therapy, intubation, and positive pressure ventilation were longer in infants with PH than in those without PH (P<0.01). Infants with PH had higher incidence rates of retinopathy of prematurity and extrauterine growth retardation, a higher mortality, and a longer length of hospital stay compared with those without PH (P<0.01). In the 37 infants with PH (6 with mild PH, 14 with moderate PH, and 17 with severe PH), those with mild or moderate PH all survived; 15(88%) out of 17 infants with severe PH died.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The incidence of PH is high in preterm infants with moderate or severe BPD. Regular screening of pulmonary artery pressure is recommended for infants with BPD. Infants with low gestational age and birth weight, SGA, and severe BPD are more likely to develop PH. Infants with BPD complicated by PH have relatively high incidence rates of complications, high mortality, and poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Gestational Age , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the long-term prognosis of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).@*METHODS@#A total of 83 preterm infants with NEC who survived and were discharged between December 2014 and September 2016 were enrolled and divided into surgery group (n=57) and non-surgery group (n=26). There were 0, 33 and 24 cases of stage I, II and III NEC respectively in the surgery group and 7, 19 and 0 cases respectively in the non-surgery group. The physical development and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the infants were followed up after discharge.@*RESULTS@#Of the 83 infants, the mean corrected age at the end of follow-up was 21±6 months. Of the 83 infants, 31 (37%) had subnormal body weight, and the surgery group had a higher rate of subnormal body weight than the non-surgery group (P<0.05). Twenty-two infants (27%) had subnormal body length and 14 children (17%) had subnormal head circumference among the 83 infants. Eighteen infants (22%) had motor developmental delay/developmental disorders, and the surgery group had a higher incidence rate of the disorders than the non-surgery group (28% vs 8%; P<0.05). Five infants (6%) were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, among whom 4 were in the surgery group and 1 was in the non-surgery group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-term physical development and neurodevelopmental outcomes may be adversely affected in neonates with NEC, in particular in those with severe conditions who need surgical treatment, suggesting that long-term follow-up should be performed for neonates with NEC.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Prognosis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300432

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the short-term clinical outcomes of neonates of secundiparous mothers, and to provide a reference for the clinical practice after the change in birth policy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cohort study was performed for the parturients and their neonates born in Yongkang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in Zhejiang, China between June 2015 and April 2016. According to the parity of the mother, the neonates were divided into primiparous group and secundiparous group. The short-term clinical outcomes of neonates were compared between the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 4 091 neonates who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled, and there were 2 023 neonates in the primiparous group and 2 068 in the secundiparous group. In the secundiparous group, most mothers (57.16%) were aged 26-34 years, and 16.49% were aged above 35 years. Compared with the primiparous group, the secundiparous group had a significantly higher rate of births by cesarean section (42.55% vs 25.06%; P<0.05). The percentages of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; 8.6% vs 3.4%) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN; 7.2% vs 2.6%; P<0.05) in hospitalized neonates from the secundiparous group were significantly higher than in those from the primiparous group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Elderly parturient women are not the major population of secundiparous parturients. The neonates of secundiparous mothers have a higher rate of births by cesarean section, which might be associated with increased percentages of NRDS and TTN in hospitalized neonates from the secundiparous mothers.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parity , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Epidemiology , Tachypnea , Epidemiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279906

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical epidemiological characteristics of neonatal respiratory failure in 1,108 neonates, and to provide a reference for improvement in clinical treatment and multicenter clinical studies.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 1,108 neonates with respiratory failure were collected with questionnaires, and statistical analysis was performed for the epidemiological indices including primary diseases, clinical therapeutic methods, treatment outcome, and fatality.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In all the neonates with respiratory failure, the median gestational age was 37 weeks+1 day, the median birth weight was 2,600 g, the median age in days on admission to neonatal intensive care unit was 0.71 days (17 hours), and the boy/girl ratio was 3.1:1. The major primary diseases were respiratory distress syndrome (30.51%), pulmonary infection/sepsis (23.55%), and wet lung (13.18%). Of all the neonates, 48.64% received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), 12.81% received high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, 13.45% received pulmonary surfactant, and 8.66% received nitric oxide inhalation therapy. The fatality was 24.19%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The major primary disease for neonatal respiratory failure is respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary surfactant, nCPAP, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and nitric oxide inhalation therapy are major therapeutic methods for neonatal respiratory failure, but neonatal respiratory failure still has a high fatality.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nitric Oxide , Pulmonary Surfactants , Therapeutic Uses , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Therapeutics
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2652-2658, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230905

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Globally, the proportion of child deaths that occur in the neonatal period remains a high level of 37-41%. Differences of cause in neonate death exist in different regions as well as in different economic development countries. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the causes, characteristics, and differences of death in neonates during hospitalization in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All the dead neonates admitted to 26 NICUs were included between January l, 2011, and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a designed questionnaire. Data collected from each NICU were delivered to the leading institution where the results were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 744 newborns died during the 1-year survey, accounting for 1.2% of all the neonates admitted to 26 NICUs and 37.6% of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age in these hospitals. Preterm neonate death accounted for 59.3% of all the death. The leading causes of death in preterm and term infants were pulmonary disease and infection, respectively. In early neonate period, pulmonary diseases (56.5%) occupied the largest proportion of preterm deaths while infection (27%) and neurologic diseases (22%) were the two main causes of term deaths. In late neonate period, infection was the leading cause of both preterm and term neonate deaths. About two-thirds of neonate death occurred after medical care withdrawal. Of the cases who might survive if receiving continuing treatment, parents' concern about the long-term outcomes was the main reason of medical care withdrawal.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Neonate death still accounts for a high proportion of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age. Our study showed the majority of neonate death occurred in preterm infants. Cause of death varied with the age of death and gestational age. Accurate and prompt evaluation of the long-term outcomes should be carried out to guide the critical decision.</p>


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Mortality , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Perinatal Death , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261166

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 194 VLBW infants who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled as study subjects. According to cardiac ultrasound findings and treatment outcome, these infants were divided into non-PDA group, spontaneous closure group, pharmaceutical closure group, and surgical closure group. Their clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The spontaneous closure rate of PDA was 58.7%. The spontaneous closure group showed significantly higher gestational age, birth weight, and proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (P<0.05). The pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups had a significantly higher incidence rate of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and a significantly higher proportion of infants who were given pulmonary surfactant (PS) than the spontaneous closure group (P<0.05). During different periods of time, the spontaneous closure group had a significantly smaller ductus arteriosus diameter than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age, application of PS, and ductus arteriosus diameter at 48 hours were significantly associated with the prognosis of PDA. The major transductal flow pattern in the spontaneous closure group was closing pattern, while in the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups, the main flow patterns were pulmonary hypertension and growing patterns within 48 hours and growing pattern on days 4 and 7.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The VLBW infants have a high spontaneous closure rate of PDA. A decreased closure rate of PDA is associated with the lower gestational age and the application of PS. PDA with a large ductus arteriosus diameter and a growing or pulsatile flow pattern cannot easily achieve spontaneous closure.</p>


Subject(s)
Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Therapeutics , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Male , Prognosis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346180

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of preferred use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in the treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical efficacy of preferred use of HFOV (preferred use group) and rescue use of HFOV after conventional mechanical ventilation proved ineffective (rescue use group) in the treatment of 26 cases of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage was retrospectively analyzed. The oxygenation index (OI), pulmonary hemorrhage time, hospitalization time, ventilation time, oxygen therapy time, complications, and outcome of the two groups were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the rescue use group, the preferred use group had significantly lower IO values at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the rescue use group, the preferred use group had a significantly lower incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) (P<0.05) and a significantly higher cure rate (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidences of pneumothorax, intracranial hemorrhage, and digestive tract hemorrhage between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with those in the rescue use group, children who survived in the preferred use group had significantly shorter pulmonary hemorrhage time, hospitalization time, ventilation time, and oxygen therapy time (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with the rescue use of HFOV, preferred use of HFOV can better improve oxygenation function, reduce the incidence of VAP, shorten the course of disease, and increase cure rate while not increasing the incidence of adverse effects.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Hemorrhage , Therapeutics , High-Frequency Ventilation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases , Therapeutics , Male , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2743-2750, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315258

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Morbidity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255187

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood is influenced by the environment in early life. Intrauterine and early postnatal malnutrition and the following catch-up growth have a long-term effect on blood pressure and endothelial function in adulthood. Well-established prenatal or/and postnatal animal models are used to study the impact of different nutritional intervention on CVD in adulthood. This article reviews the early original cause of chronic CVD in adulthood with the hypothesis of DOHaD (the developmental origins of health and disease), and proposes possible preventions in early life on the basis of this theory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Malnutrition
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279008

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship between the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the lungs of mice treated by chronic hypoxic exposure.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice and thirty male eNOS-knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normoxic groups (exposed to normoxia for 7 days or 21 days), hypoxic groups (exposed to 10% oxygen for 7 days or 21 days), and treatment groups (exposed to 10% oxygen and orally administrated 10 mmol/L 4-hydroxy TEMPO in drinking water for 7 days or 21 days) (n=6 in each group). The remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries was evaluated by the percentage of media wall thickness (MT%). The weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum (RV/[LV+S]) was calculated to evaluate the hypertrophy of right ventricle. Real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of NOX2, NOX4, and eNOS in mouse lungs. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse lungs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In WT mice and KO mice, the hypoxic groups had significantly increased pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV/[LV+S] compared with the normoxic and treatment groups (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the normoxic and treatment groups (P>0.05). In WT mice, the hypoxic and treatment groups had significantly lower ROS concentrations than the normoxic group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the hypoxic and treatment groups (P>0.05). In WT mice, the mRNA expression of eNOS, NOX2, and NOX4 was significantly higher in the hypoxic group than in the normoxic group (P<0.05), and 4-hydroxy TEMPO reversed their over-expression. In the normoxic group, the KO mice had significantly higher NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA expression than the WT mice (P<0.05); in KO mice, the hypoxic group showed no significant changes in NOX4 mRNA expression (P>0.05), but had significantly reduced NOX2 mRNA expression (P<0.05), as compared with the normoxic group; the treatment group had reduced expression of NOX2 mRNA expression and increased NOX4 mRNA expression (P<0.05), as compared with the hypoxic group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>eNOS plays a key role in the regulation of expression of NOX2 and NOX4 in the lungs exposed to hypoxia. It suggests that NOX and eNOS may physically interact with one another in pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by chronic hypoxia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Chronic Disease , Hypoxia , Lung , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins , Genetics , Physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NADPH Oxidase 2 , NADPH Oxidase 4 , NADPH Oxidases , Genetics , Physiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Genetics , Physiology , RNA, Messenger
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 221-226, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359767

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To characterize amplitude-integrated electroencephalo graphic (aEEG) traces in neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE), explore the value of aEEG in early diagnosis and prediction of neurological outcome of ABE.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>aEEG records of 10 cases with ABE (Oct 2009-Nov 2011) were reviewed to identify neonates with a diagnosis of ABE. Clinical data were collected. The aEEG traces were classified according to background activity (normal, moderate, or severely abnormal), presence of seizures and sleep-wake cycling (SWC). Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were studied. The neuromotor development of survivors with ABE was assessed by using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The characteristics of aEEG tracings in these infants with ABE were shown continuous normal voltage (CNV, n = 5), discontinuous voltage (DNV, n = 4), discontinuous voltage with burst-suppression (BS)BS+ (n = 1); mature SWC (n = 2), immature SWC (n = 5), no SWC (n = 3); 8 infants (80%) had electrical seizures: single seizure (n = 2); repetitive seizures (n = 2), and status epilepticus (SE) (n = 4). Among the 10 infants with ABE, no infants had normal aEEG, 3 had mildly abnormal aEEG, and 7 had severely abnormal aEEG. Eight infants accepted BAEP test, 2 were mildly abnormal and 6 were severely abnormal. Six infants accepted MRI, 1 was normal and 5 were abnormal. By chi-square analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis, the results of aEEG classification were correlated with the phase of ABE and the severity of BAEP. These infants were followed up for more than 6 months (range 6 months to 1 year). In 3 infants with mildly abnormal aEEG, 2 were normal and 1 was transit in infanib score at 6 months of age. Of 7 infants with severely abnormal aEEG, 1 died, 3 were abnormal (2 Spastic dyskinesia and 1 hypotonia), 2 were transit in infanib score at 6 months old. 1 lost to follow-up.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography can provide important information of the status of cerebral function in neonates with ABE and help to predict its neurological outcome.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain , Physiology , Early Diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Kernicterus , Diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Seizures , Diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep , Physiology
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 326-330, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359744

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the value of the score for neonatal acute physiology (score for neonatal acute physiology, SNAP) in predicting outcome and risk of surgery of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A total of 62 NEC patients in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Zhejiang University Children's Hospital were reviewed from October 2001 to October 2011. All the patients were classified into surgery group and non-surgery group according to whether the patient had the surgical intervention. Also the patients were divided into death group and alive group according to the outcome. Data on gestational age at birth, gender, birth weight, early clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of all patients were collected. SNAP-II and score for neonatal acute physiology and perinatal extension II (SNAPPE-II) were calculated on the day of diagnosis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Abdominal distension, which was seen in 91.9% of the cases, was the commonest early clinical manifestation. The next was residual and bloody stool. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II score in surgery group (26.5,26.5) were higher than that of the non-surgery group (13.0, 13.0,P = 0.002, 0.006). And the same scores in death group (29.0,32.0) were higher than those in the alive group (8.0, 8.0) (P = 0.000, 0.000). Measuring the scores as a predictor of surgery, the area under ROC curve for SNAP-II was 0.745, and was 0.714 for SNAPPE-II. The area under ROC curve for SNAP-II was 0.916, and was 0.929 for SNAPPE-II.The best positive point of SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II for predicting surgery was 22 and 28. The best positive point of SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II for predicting death was 18.5 and 22.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II score may be used to predict the prognosis and the risk of surgery in the NEC patients. The scores are also good predictors of mortality in the early period when NEC occurs.</p>


Subject(s)
Apgar Score , Area Under Curve , Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Diagnosis , Mortality , General Surgery , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Diagnosis , Mortality , General Surgery , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345645

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Abdominal distention is a common disorder in newborns, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Currently, little literature is available regarding early identification of the etiology of this disorder in newborn babies, which is imperative to reducing the likelihood of serious consequences. This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics of early newborns with abdominal distention, aiming at identifying the underlying etiologic factors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Medical records of 201 (65 premature and 136 full-term) early newborns with abdominal distention between January 2011 and December 2012 were retrieved.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Congenital malformations (including congenital megacolon, anal atresia, malrotation, intestinal atresia, intestinal duplication and posterior urethral valves) occurred in 44.6% of the premature newborns with abdominal distention and 61.8% of the full-term newborns with the disorder. Congenital megacolon was the number one cause of abdominal distention in the full-term group (33.8%) and the number two cause in the preterm group (13.8%). As far as other individual abnormalities were concerned, sepsis was the number one cause of abdominal distention in the preterm group (35.4%) and the number two cause in the full-term group (21.3%). Vomiting was a main symptom associated with abdominal distension, occurring in 64.0% of the full-term newborns and 44.6% of the preterm newborns. The most pronounced X-ray manifestation was bowel distention with an air-fluid level in the preterm group (47.7%) but was bowel distention without a fluid level in the full-term group (57.3%). Eliological and symptomatic treatment was effective in 86.2% of the premature cases and 88.2% in the full-term cases (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Congenital malformations may be the major cause of abdominal distension in early newborns. Sepsis and congenital megacolon are the single disease most frequently associated with abdominal distention in preterm and full-term newborns respectively. Vomiting is a main accompanying symptom in early newborns with abdominal distention. X-ray manifestations seem to be more severe in preterm newborns than in full term newborns. A satisfactory outcome can be achieved after treatment in both preterm and full-term newborns with this disorder.</p>


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Pathology , Dilatation, Pathologic , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Diagnosis , Male , Radiography, Abdominal
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241438

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) on the patient-ventilator synchrony, gas exchange, and ventilatory parameters in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during mechanical ventilation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten preterm infants with RDS received mechanical ventilation in NAVA mode for 60 minutes and in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) mode for 60 minutes, and the two modes were given in a random order. The vital signs, patient-ventilator synchrony, blood gas values, and ventilatory parameters were compared between the two ventilation modes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Inspiratory trigger delay was significantly shorter with NAVA than with SIMV (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 between the two modes. The spontaneous respiratory rate, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), electrical activity of the diaphragm and work of breathing were significantly lower in NAVA than in SIMV (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with SIMV, NAVA appears to improve patient-ventilator synchrony, decrease PIP, and reduce diaphragmatic muscle load and work of breathing in preterm infants with RDS during mechanical ventilation.</p>


Subject(s)
Diaphragm , Physiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Methods , Respiratory Center , Physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Therapeutics
20.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 614-620, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275673

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the diagnostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in predicting outcome of newborns who were at high risk for central nervous system without severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-two consecutive patients at risks for neurological disorders referred to our level-III NICU were prospectively enrolled in the study over a period of 3 years. They were classified on the basis of their primary diagnoses including hypoglycemic brain damage, meningoencephalitis, bilirubin encephalopathy, and metabolic disease. Clinical data were collected. Amplitude-integrated and raw EEG tracings were assessed for background pattern, sleep-wake cycling, and epileptiform activity. The neuromotor development of survivors was assessed by using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The characteristic of aEEG tracings in 42 infants showed continuous normal voltage (CNV)(n = 15), discontinuous voltage (DC)(n = 9), burst-suppression (BS) BS(+) (n = 6), BS(-)(n = 7), flat (FT, n = 5); mature sleep-wake cycling (SWC, n = 4), immature SWC (n = 14), no SWC (n = 24); 30 infants (71.4%) had electrical seizures: single seizure (n = 6); repetitive seizures (n = 7), and status epilepticus (SE) (n = 17).aEEG of 20 infants who had poor outcome showed FT (n = 5), BS(-)/SE (n = 6), BS(-)/ repetitive seizures (n = 1) , BS(+)/SE (n = 1), BS(+)/repetitive seizures (n = 1), DC/SE(n = 6). Chi-square analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed the classification of aEEG background pattern, SWC and comprehensive score (score system was developed by evaluation of the above 3 variables) were correlated with the outcome of these infants at high neurological risks.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography can provide important information of the status of cerebral function in neonates at high neurological risk and help to predict their outcome.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain , Physiology , Brain Injuries , Diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Methods , Epilepsy , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Kernicterus , Diagnosis , Meningoencephalitis , Diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sleep , Physiology
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