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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906290

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis Semen is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in China, which is one of the authentic medicinal materials in Jiangxi. It has great development prospects. However, the current research on Plantaginis Semen is not in-depth enough, mainly involving chemical components and pharmacological activities. There are few researches on processing and variety of Plantaginis Semen. In order to further develop and utilize the resources of Plantaginis Semen, we summarized 4 varieties that have been studied more at present, the processing contents of Plantaginis Semen in ancient and modern literature were consulted and sorted out, and its processing historical evolution were summarized. The influences of different processing technologies and methods on the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Plantaginis Semen were analyzed, the possible processing mechanism was discussed. Meanwhile, and the quality evaluation methods of Plantaginis Semen varieties included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia were summarized. The author mainly analyzed the researches status of Plantaginis Semen and its decoction pieces in the three aspects of variety, processing and quality evaluation, and summarized its current major problems such as insufficient use and development of varieties, unclear processing mechanisms, and undetermined quality evaluation standards. And combined with the national standardization project of TCM to carry out the prospect and analysis for it, in order to solve the problems in the actual production and use of Plantaginis Semen, and provide reference for its further development, production of the high-quality decoction pieces, analysis of the processing mechanism, and establishment of the quality control system.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872835

ABSTRACT

Objective:To optimize the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen with the specific process parameters, and verify the obtained processing technology by pharmacodynamic research, so as to provide experimental basis for the standardized production and quality control of this decoction pieces. Method:Taking composite score of appearance character score, dry extract yield and contents of three components (geniposidic acid, acteoside and isoacteoside) as index, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-criteria importance through intercrieria correlation (CRITIC) mixed weighting method was used to determine the weight coefficient of each index. Based on single factor tests, the response surface method was used to investigate the effects of frying time, frying temperature, salt amount and water amount on the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen, and the processing technology was verified by diuretic experiment with furosemide tablets as the positive drug (administration dose of 0.01 g·kg-1). Result:The weight coefficients of geniposidic acid content, acteoside content, appearance character score, isoacteoside content and dry extract yield were 0.319, 0.193, 0.207, 0.273 and 0.008, respectively. The optimal process parameters were as following:fried at 150-180 ℃ for 10 min (obtained from the single factor tests), 100 g of Plantaginis Semen sprayed evenly with 2 g of salt (2 g of salt dissolved in 20 mL of water), and fried at 150-180 ℃ for 15 min. Compared with the blank group, both of the raw products group and the salt-processed products group could significantly increase the secretion of urine volume (P<0.01), but the excretion of Na+ in the urine of rats in the salt-processed products group was significantly higher than that in the raw products group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The optimized processing technology is simple and feasible, which can provide reference for standardizing the industrial production of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen. At the same time, combined with inherent quality and appearance of the salt-processed products, and verified by pharmacodynamic test, the obtained results are reasonable and reliable, which can be used for quality control of this decoction pieces.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802350

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a HPLC fingerprint detection method of Plantaginis Semen, and analyze the samples from different producing areas in Jiangxi province by combining with chemical pattern recognition method, and the contents of five ingredients in Plantaginis Semen were determined. Method:A total of 34 batches of Plantaginis Semen medicinal materials were detected by HPLC. The similarity evaluation was carried out by the 2012 edition of similarity evaluation system of chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic peak information was used as the data source, and three chemical pattern recognition methods were used to comprehensively analyze the quality of this medicinal herb. Quantitative analysis was performed on the 5 active components, including geniposidic acid, plantamajoside, acteoside, galuteolin and isoacteoside. Result:The similarities between Plantaginis Semen samples from different producing areas in Jiangxi province were >0.86. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) could distinguish samples from different producing areas, and be used to determine the chemical components, which had strong correlation with the quality of Plantaginis Semen. The contents of 5 active components in samples from different producing areas were different to some degree, especially in the content of plantamajoside. Conclusion:The established HPLC fingerprint of Plantaginis Semen has strong characteristics, combined with chemical pattern recognition method, it can effectively evaluate the quality of Plantaginis Semen and distinguish its producing areas.

4.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 893-897, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on changes of expression of L-Arg transporter 2 (CAT-2) mRNA and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein and contents of NO and cGMP of L4-L6 segments of spinal cord in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI), so as to reveal its mechanism underlying reducing neuropathic pain. METHODS: A total of 120 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, EA and NOS inhibitor (N omega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, L-NAME) groups, with 30 rats in each group. The neuropathic pain model was established by ligating and cutting the tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve. EA (2 Hz, 1-3 mA) was applied to "Weizhong" (BL40) and "Huantiao" (GB30)on the damaged hindlimb for 30 min, once daily from day 11 to 17 after SNI. Rats of the L-NAME group received i.p. of L-NAME (60 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 7 consecutive days. The mechanical pain threshold (PT) was determined before and 10 and 16 d after SNI, respectively. The expression le-vels of CAT-2 mRNA and iNOS mRNA, and iNOS protein in the L4-L6 segments of the spinal cord were detected by using reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively, and the contents of NO and cGMP of L4-L6 assayed using nitrate/nitrite reductase method and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: After modeling, the PT was significantly decreased on day 10 and 16 after SNI in comparison with the sham operation group and their own baseline data of pre-operation in each group (P0.05). CONCLUSION: EA intervention can effectively relieve neuropathic pain in SNI rats, which may be closely related to its function in suppressing L-Arg/NO/cGMP pathway in the lumbar spinal cord.

5.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 788-792, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) of "Weizhong" (BL 40) and "Huantiao" (GB 30) could evidently relieve mechanical hyperalgesia in spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. The present study was designed to observe the effect of EA on levels of cAMP, and protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the lumbar spinal cord of the same pain model rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of neuropathic pain. METHODS: One hundred male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham operation, model, EA, AP-5 and L-NAME groups (n=20 in each group). The sham operation group underwent a simple separation of the sciatic nerve but without ligation and abscission. The neuropathic pain model was established by abscission of the right tibial and common peroneal nerve. EA (2 Hz, 1-3 mA) was applied to right BL 40 and GB 30 for 30 min, once a day for 7 days, starting from day 11 after surgery. For rats of the AP-5 and L-NAME groups, AP-5 (a competitive antagonist for NMDA receptor, 0.7 mg•kg-1•d-1) and L-NAME (a non-selective antagonist for nitric oxide synthase, NOS, 60 mg•kg-1•d-1) were respectively administrated by intraperitoneal injection, once daily for 7 days. The mechanical pain threshold was measured, the cAMP content of spinal cord (L 4-L 6) was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the expression of PKA, p-PKA and CREB proteins of spinal cord (L 4-L 6) was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The content of cAMP and the expression levels of PKA, p-PKA and CREB were significantly higher in the model group than in the sham operation group (P<0.01), and considerably lower in the EA group than in the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared to the model group, the expression levels of PKA and p-PKA were significantly decreased in the AP-5 and L-NAME groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared to the EA group, the content of cAMP and the expression levels of CREB were significantly higher (P<0.05), and the expression of p-PKA was significantly lower in the AP-5 and L-NAME groups (P<0.05).. CONCLUSION: EA intervention-induced down-regulation of cAMP, PKA and CREB levels in the lumbar spinal cord may contribute to its analgesic effect in neuropathic pain rats, suggesting an involvement of reduction of cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling of spinal cord in EA analgesia.

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 521-525, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342551

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Diagnosis and appropriate treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain major challenges. We sought to elucidate that persons who share a household with drug resistance tuberculosis patients are at high risk for primary drug resistance tuberculosis and how to prevent these outbreaks.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We used 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and 7-locus variable-number tandem repeat to identify household transmission of extensively drug resistant and multiple drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in three families admitted in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital affiliated with Tongji University. Drug susceptibility tests were done by the modified proportion method in the MGIT 960 system in the same time. Clinical data were also obtained from the subjects' medical records.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All of the six strains were defined as Beijing genotype by the deletion-targeted multiplex PCR (DTM-PCR) identification on the genomic deletion RD105. Strains from family-1 had the same minisatellite interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) pattern (232225172531) and the same MIRU pattern (3677235). Strains from family-2 had the same MIRU pattern (2212261553323) and the same MIRU pattern (3685134). Strains from family-3 did not have the same MIRU pattern and they differed at only one locus (223326173533, 223325173533), and did not have the same VNTR pattern with two locus differed (3667233, 3677234).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Household transmission exists in the three families. A clear chain of tuberculosis transmission within family exists. Tuberculosis susceptibility should be considered when there is more than one tuberculosis patients in a family. Household tuberculosis transmission could be prevented with adequate treatment of source patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Classification , Genetics , Virulence , Radiography , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Diagnostic Imaging , Young Adult
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257188

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To probe the mechanism of electroacupuncture at points "Weibingfang" in treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesion.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty Wistar rats of sanitary degree were randomly divided into 4 groups, normal group, model group, sham-model group and Weibingfang group, 10 rats in each group. The acute gastric mucosal lesion model was made by intragastric perfusion of anhydrous alcohol. The Weibingfang group were treated by electroacupuncture at "Neiguan" (PC 6), "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) with sparse-dense wave, frequency of 10-30 Hz, current intensity of 2 mA, for 20 min. One hour after the treatment, the blood from the abdominal aorta and the gastric mucosa tissue were taken, and serum epidermal growth factor (EGF) level and epidermic growth factor receptor mRNA (EGFR mRNA) expression in the gastric mucosa were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were significant differences in blood EGF level (41.62 +/- 12.58) ng/L and EGFR mRNA expression (0.78 +/- 0.03) in the model group were significantly different from [(60.37 +/- 12.01) ng/L and 0.55 +/- 0.04] in the normal group and [(61.21 +/- 13.46) ng/L and 0.53 +/- 0.05] in the sham-model group (P < 0.05); after electroacupuncture, blood EGF level (70.59 +/- 10.14) ng/L increased and the EGFR mRNA expression (1.18 +/- 0.02) in the gastric mucosa was up-regulated with a significant differences as compared with those in the model group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Point "Weibingfang" can promote proliferation, differentiation and migration of the gastric mucosal epidermic cells to repair the gastric mucosal lesion.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Epidermal Growth Factor , Blood , Genetics , Female , Gastric Mucosa , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , ErbB Receptors , Genetics , Metabolism , Stomach Diseases , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270485

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of Benzo (a) pyrene on cell cycle distribution of quiescent diploid human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HELF cells were synchronized at G0 phase of cell cycle by 0.5% serum starvation for 48 hours and identified by flow cytometry (FCM). Cells were treated with 20 micromol/L benzo (a) pyrene for 4 h and detected for the changes of cell cycle distribution 0 h, 24 h, 48 h after treatment respectively. HELF cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, 20 micromol/L Benzo (a) pyrene for 24 h and detected for cell cycle regulators p53, p21 and p16 expression changes using Western Blotting method. On the other hand, the dynamic changes of these regulators were also been detected within 24 h after 20 micromol/L Benzo (a) pyrene treated for 4h.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>0.5% Serum starvation for 48 hours could effectively synchronize HELF at G0 stage and G0 reached 78%. Well-modulated control cells entered into cell cycle to synthesize DNA and cells at S phase reached 43.9% 24 h after serum re-stimulate, while 20 micromol/L B (a) P treated cells were arrested in G1 stage. Control cells entered into the G1 stage of next cell cycle another 24 h later, B (a) P treated cells recovered from G1 arrest, 26.5% of which reached S phase, having a delay of almost 24 h compared with controls. After a series of B (a) P concentrations acting for 24 h, we found that P53 and P21 expression increased dramatically. On the other hand, P53 and P21 increased 4 h after treatment, P53 recovered to normal level after 12 h while P21 kept increasing in 24 h. P16 initially decreased and became normal at 24 h.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>B (a) P induced quiescent HELF cells undergoing a reversible G1 arrest related with p53-p21 pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Benzo(a)pyrene , Toxicity , Carcinogens , Toxicity , Cell Cycle , Cells, Cultured , Diploidy , Fibroblasts , Cell Biology , Flow Cytometry , G1 Phase , Humans , Lung , Cell Biology , Embryology
9.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 212-216, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283545

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin19 (CK19), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and HBME-1 in thyroid lesions and to assess their usefulness as markers in the differential diagnoses of thyroid nodular lesions.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of 21 cases of nodular goiters, 14 cases of toxic goiters, 15 cases of follicular adenomas (FA), 13 cases of follicular carcinomas (FC), 13 cases of follicular variant papillary carcinomas (FVPC) and 48 cases of classic papillary carcinomas (CPC).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All three markers were expressed in the cytoplasm with no or weak expression in benign lesions and diffuse and strong in malignant cases. Positive expressions of CK19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 were present in 11of 21, two of 21, four of 21 in nodular goiters, seven of 14, one of 14, one of 14 in toxic goiters, nine of 15, two of 15, two of 15 in FA, 10 of 13, eight of 13, seven of 13 in FC, 13 of 13, 11 of 13, 12 of 13 in FVPC, and 48 of 48, 45 of 48, 46 of 48 in CPC. The expression rates of the three markers between benign lesions (nodular goiters, toxic goiters and FA) and malignant lesions (FA, FVPC and CPC) were statistically significant. Among the three follicular lesions (FA, FC and FVPC), the differences were statistically significant as well. Nine, seven and six cases were negative for all three markers in nodular goiters, toxic goiters and FA, respectively. Only one case in FC was negative for all three markers, no case was all negative in FVPC and CPC; the rate of one case with two or more positive marker expression in nodular goiters, toxic goiters, FA, FC, FVPC and PC was 14.2% (3/21), 21.43% (3/14), 20.0% (3/15), 69.2% (9/13), 92.3% (12/13), 100.0% (48/48), the differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions and between FA, FC and FVPC were also statistically significant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Immunohistochemical stains of CK19, Gal-3 and HBME-1, especially when used in combination, can be an important adjunct to the histopathological diagnoses of thyroid lesions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Chemistry , Diagnosis , Pathology , Adenoma , Chemistry , Diagnosis , Pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Genetics , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular , Pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Galectin 3 , Genetics , Goiter, Nodular , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms , Chemistry , Diagnosis , Pathology , Thyroid Nodule , Chemistry , Diagnosis , Pathology
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