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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 489-504, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929090

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that spatial attention remarkably affects the trial-to-trial response variability shared between neurons. Difficulty in the attentional task adjusts how much concentration we maintain on what is currently important and what is filtered as irrelevant sensory information. However, how task difficulty mediates the interactions between neurons with separated receptive fields (RFs) that are attended to or attended away is still not clear. We examined spike count correlations between single-unit activities recorded simultaneously in the primary visual cortex (V1) while monkeys performed a spatial attention task with two levels of difficulty. Moreover, the RFs of the two neurons recorded were non-overlapping to allow us to study fluctuations in the correlated responses between competing visual inputs when the focus of attention was allocated to the RF of one neuron. While increasing difficulty in the spatial attention task, spike count correlations were either decreased to become negative between neuronal pairs, implying competition among them, with one neuron (or none) exhibiting attentional enhancement of firing rate, or increased to become positive, suggesting inter-neuronal cooperation, with one of the pair showing attentional suppression of spiking responses. Besides, the modulation of spike count correlations by task difficulty was independent of the attended locations. These findings provide evidence that task difficulty affects the functional interactions between different neuronal pools in V1 when selective attention resolves the spatial competition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Attention/physiology , Macaca mulatta , Neurons/physiology , Photic Stimulation , Primary Visual Cortex , Visual Cortex/physiology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 648-657, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have assessed the relationship between multimorbidity patterns and mortality risk in the Chinese population. We aimed to identify multimorbidity patterns and examined the associations of multimorbidity patterns and the number of chronic diseases with the risk of mortality among Chinese middle-aged and older adults.@*METHODS@#We used data from the China Kadoorie Biobank and included 512,723 participants aged 30 to 79 years. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more of the 15 chronic diseases collected by self-report or physical examination at baseline. Multimorbidity patterns were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations of multimorbidity patterns and the number of chronic diseases with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 15.8% of participants had multimorbidity. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age and was higher in urban than rural participants. Four multimorbidity patterns were identified, including cardiometabolic multimorbidity (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension), respiratory multimorbidity (tuberculosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal and hepatorenal multimorbidity (gallstone disease, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, peptic ulcer, and cancer), and mental and arthritis multimorbidity (neurasthenia, psychiatric disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis). During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up, 49,371 deaths occurred. Compared with participants without multimorbidity, cardiometabolic multimorbidity (hazard ratios [HR] = 2.20, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.14 - 2.26) and respiratory multimorbidity (HR = 2.13, 95% CI:1.97 - 2.31) demonstrated relatively higher risks of mortality, followed by gastrointestinal and hepatorenal multimorbidity (HR = 1.33, 95% CI:1.22 - 1.46). The mortality risk increased by 36% (HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35 - 1.37) with every additional disease.@*CONCLUSION@#Cardiometabolic multimorbidity and respiratory multimorbidity posed the highest threat on mortality risk and deserved particular attention in Chinese adults.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Asians , China/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity
3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 724-730, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869749

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the 2 years’ efficacy of intravesical instillation of domestic BCG versus epirubicin in the prevention of recurrence of intermediate-risk or high-risk non-muscular invasive bladder cancer and predictive factors of BCG instillation.Methods:From July 2015 to June 2020, 18-75 years old patients with moderate to high-risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) confirmed by pathological examination were involved. The ECOG score was 0-2. Exclusion criteria included ①immune deficiency or impairment (such as AIDS), using immunosuppressive drugs or radiotherapy, suspected allergic to BCG or epirubicin or excipients of the two drugs, fever or acute infectious diseases including active tuberculosis or receiving anti tuberculosis treatment, with severe chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases or chronic kidney disease; ②combined with other urogenital system tumors or other organ tumors; ③combined with muscle invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma (≥T 2); ④undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy within 4 weeks (immediate instillation after surgery not included); ⑤ pregnant or lactating women; ⑥ comfirmed or suspected bladder perforation; ⑦gross hematuria; ⑧cystitis with severe bladder irritation that may affect the evaluation; ⑨participat in other clinical trials within 3 months; ⑩alcohol or drug addiction; ?any risk factors that may increasing the risk of patients. Epirubicin 50 mg was irrigated immediately after the operation(TURBT or laser resection). The patients were randomly divided into BCG15 group, BCG19 group and epirubicin group by the ratio of 2∶2∶1, and the patients were maintained intravescical instillation for 1 year. The recurrence and adverse events of the three groups were compared. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to predict the risk factors of BCG irrigated therapy failure. Result:By June 15, 2020, the median follow-up duration was 22.1 months(12.1, 32.3), and there was no statistical difference between the groups ( P=0.9024). There were 274 patients enrolled in BCG19 group, 277 patients enrolled in BCG15 group and 130 patients enrolled in the epirubicin group. The drop-off rate was 16.6%(113 cases)and made no difference between groups( P=0.6222). There were no significant difference in age, gender, BMI, or ECOG score( P>0.05). During the follow-up, 116 cases was detected recurrence or progression. The recurrence rate of the three groups was 14.2% and 14.8% in BCG19 group and BCG15 group, and 27.7% in the epirubicin group. There was no difference in recurrence rate between BCG19 and BCG15 group( P=0.9464). The recurrence rate of BCG19 group was lower than that of the epirubicin group ( P=0.0017). The recurrence rate of BCG15 group was lower than that of the epirubicin group ( P=0.0020). There was no difference in the cumulative recurrence free survival rate between BCG19 and BCG15 group (95% CI0.57-1.46, P=0.7173). The cumulative recurrence free survival rate of BCG 19 group was better than that of the epirubicin group( HR=0.439, 95% CI0.26-0.74, P=0.0006), and the cumulative recurrence free survival rate of BCG15 group was better than that of the epirubicin group ( HR=0.448, 95% CI0.29-0.80, P=0.0021). The total incidence of adverse events in 19 BCG19, BCG15 and epirubicin group were 74.5%, 72.6% and 69.8% respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between BCG19 and BCG15 group( P=0.6153). The incidence of adverse events in epirubicin group was lower than that of BCG19( P=0.0051) and BCG15( P=0.0167) groups.There was no significant difference in the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE) among the three groups ( P=0.5064). Log rank test univariate analysis and Cox risk regression model multivariate analysis showed that the history of bladder cancer recurrence( HR=6.397, 95% CI1.95-20.94, P=0.0001)was independent risk factor for BCG irrigation failure. Conclusions:The 2 years’ efficacy of intravesical instillation of domestic BCG is better than than of epirubicin with good tolerance and safety. There is no difference between BCG19 and BCG15 group. BCG doesn’t increase SAE compared with epirubicin. Recurrence status was an independent prognostic factor regarding recurrence-free survival.

4.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 1085-1088, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868369

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the CT imaging and clinical features of gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) and improve the level of diagnosis.Methods:From June 2015 to August 2019, the clinical and CT imaging data of 9 GCP patients confirmed by pathology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively collected. These 9 GCP patients included 3 male and 6 female, aged from 44 to 66 years, with an avereage age of (59±7) years. All the 9 patients underwent plain and enhanced abdominal CT scan. The location, shape, size, margin, density, enhancement pattern and enhancement degree of the lesions were analyzed and summarized.Results:The lesions are more common in gastric antrum (3 cases) and gastric fundus (3 cases). CT imaging showed thickening gastric wall thickening in 3 cases, circular ovoid or circular mass shadow protruding into the gastric cavity in 6 cases. Solid components were dominant in 2 cases and cystic components were dominant in 7 cases. In arterial phase, solid components showed significantly enhancement in 6 cases and moderate enhancement in 3 cases, while muscle layer of lesions were characterized by mild enhancement in 5 cases and moderate enhancement in 4 cases. In venous phase, solid components illustrated as significantly enhancement in 6 cases with progressive pattern and moderate enhancement in 3 cases, while the muscle layer of lesions were featured as progressive moderate enhancement in 4 cases and there is no significant enhancement in the rest 5 cases whose enhancement degree were similar to that of normal gastric wall. Additionally, the surface of the cyst covered with intact mucosa in 7 cases and in other 2 cases without complete mucosa.Conclusion:On the basis of accurate localization, CT scan could provide rich information including size, shape, internal structure and state around the lesion, which is of great value for the diagnosis of GCP.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865829

ABSTRACT

As an important aspect of medical education, medical humanities education should be carried out in accordance with current situation. In this paper, existing problems and opportunities for development of medical humanities education were analyzed with SWOT analysis on the basis of the current situation, and a series of suggestions and countermeasures such as SO development strategy, WO striving strategy, ST expansion strategy and WT conservative strategy, were put forward. This paper applied SWOT analysis specifically for the study of management to analyze the current situation and existing problems in medical humanities education, and proposed measures including accelerating the construction of academic exchange platforms such as medical humanities journal, fully employing practical advantages of humanities education, strengthening the construction of its hidden curriculum as well as enhancing medical humanities education in clinical teaching, which are all useful countermeasures and suggestions for the development of medical humanities education.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 485-488, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811652

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is rapidly spreading. Patients in incubation period and healthy carriers are possible sources for transmission. However, such sources of infection cannot be effectively identified due to the symptoms absent. The research evidence is very lacking so far, although there are a few studies suggesting that presymptomatic or asymptomatic carrier may cause COVID-19 transmission. Nearly half of the literature is in the state of preprint without peer review. The question of "the degree to which presymptomatic or asymptomatic infections can transmit" is not fully understood. There is an urgent need to screen infected carriers in larger close contacts or in the general population, and assess their risk for transmission.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): E043-E043, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in China has been gradually controlled. At present, the management and risk assessment of asymptomatic infected cases has become an urgent problem to be addressed. Asymptomatic case is mainly detected by close contact screening, cluster epidemic investigation, infection source tracking investigation, and active detection of target population. Currently, research on the spread risk from asymptomatic cases was limited, and lacking the data relates to the distribution of asymptomatic cases in large community population. Pathogen detection using PCR is suitable for screening in close contacts of confirmed cases and should be started as early as possible. The antibody test is more suitable for screening in general population where the source of infection is unclear. The management of asymptomatic cases now in China focuses on isolation and medical observation according to the guideline of 'early detection, early report, early isolation and early treatment' .

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): E054-E054, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821098

ABSTRACT

Based on systematic review of the role of clinical treatment, disease control and scientific research, and combining with the problems exposed by the COVID-19 epidemic, suggestions were proposed to reform and improve the prevention and treatment system for major epidemics diseases in China. In clinical treatment, it is necessary to enhance clinical staff's awareness of law-based reporting, capabilities of syndromic surveillance, the use of infectious diseases reporting systems, and to improve national or local monitoring platforms for emerging infectious diseases detection. In terms of disease control, it is important to provide authorities to disease control departments through laws and regulations, improve the quantity and quality of related human resources, and strengthen the applied research and technical readiness targeted infections disease prevention, control and emergency preparedness. As for scientific research in major epidemic response, it is essential to strengthen research projects guided by national requests, build research institutions that can 'make a final decision', establish national and regional key laboratories, and strengthen strategic technical reserve for emergency disease control and treatment.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798881

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the association between the frequency of bowel movement (BMF) and the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD).@*Methods@#In this study, 510 134 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included after excluding those who reported to had been diagnosed with cancer at baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted from 2004 to 2008. The study used the data from the baseline survey and follow-up until December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the HRs and the 95%CIs of risk of PD diagnosis with BMF.@*Results@#During an average follow-up period of (9.9±1.9) years, 808 participants were diagnosed with PD. Compared with participants who had bowel movements every day, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had bowel movements<3 times/week, once every 2-3 days, and>1 time/day were 3.62 (2.88-4.54), 2.13 (1.74-2.60), and 0.81 (0.63-1.05), respectively. The linear trend test results of the association between BMF and risk of PD diagnosis was significant (P<0.001). Compared with the participants who had bowel movements ≥1 time/day, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had bowel movements<1 time/day was 3.13 (2.32-4.23) within the 5 years of follow- up and was 2.48 (2.05-3.01) beyond the 5 years of follow-up. The gender specific results were similar. The association of BMF<1 time/day with risk of PD diagnosis was stronger in older participants.@*Conclusions@#The participants with low BMF at baseline survey would have higher risk for PD diagnosis in the subsequent 10 years on average. Since abnormal decrease of BMF is easy to be found, programs could be set up for the early screening of PD in older people, along with other early symptoms of PD.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798873

ABSTRACT

Epidemiology is a discipline integrating methodology and applied science, whose mission is to prevent and control diseases and promote health. This review introduces the new progress of epidemiology from five aspects: communicable diseases, chronic diseases, systems epidemiology, implementation research and big data of health care. New projects and constantly emerging technologies in the field of infectious diseases are inspiring, while more attention should be paid to the environmental factors of pathogen variation. In the field of chronic diseases, there is an urgent need to study the multimorbidity of the elderly. The role of infectious inducers and human microbiota in the occurrence and development of chronic diseases has been gradually revealed. Systems epidemiology, which is of great significance to achieve precision prevention is a new branch and an important supplement of modern epidemiology. Implementation research, is a bridge connecting basic scientific research and public health practice and will provide evidence to support the effective implementation of the Health China Action Plan. The development of health care big data is based on digital public health, which provides a broad research platform and abundant data resources for epidemiology, and will promote the fundamental transformation of the service and management mode of public health.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1541-1547, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800268

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the association of BMI with major chronic diseases morbidity and all-cause mortality in Chinese adults.@*Methods@#This study is based on China Kadoorie Biobank. Anthropometric indexes were objectively measured at the baseline survey during 2004-2008. After excluding participants with heart disease, stroke, cancer, COPD and diabetes, 428 113 participants aged 30 to 79 years were included in the analysis. Cox regression models were used to investigate the associations of BMI and waist circumference with incidence of major chronic diseases (including cardiovascular disease, cancer, COPD, and type 2 diabetes) and all-cause mortality.@*Results@#Over an average of 10 years, 131 454 participants developed any one of major chronic diseases. A total of 26 892 all-cause deaths were reported. The risk of major chronic diseases increased with BMI. Compared with normal BMI (18.5-24.0 kg/m2), the HR (95%CI) of overweight (BMI 24.0-28.0 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥28.0 kg/m2) were 1.26 (95%CI: 1.24-1.27) and 1.59 (95%CI: 1.57-1.62) respectively. Underweight and obesity were both associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Waist circumference was positively associated with risk of major chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. According to recommended cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults, maintaining a healthy body weight would prevent 12% incident cases of major chronic diseases.@*Conclusion@#General and central obesity were risk factors for major chronic disease among Chinese adults.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1533-1540, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800267

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the association of BMI and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic risk factors, and confirm the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and WC among Chinese adults.@*Methods@#After excluding participants with missing or extreme measurement values, as well as individuals with self-reported histories of cancer, a total of 501 201 adults in baseline and 19 201 adults in the second re-survey from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included. The associations of BMI and WC with metabolic risk factors were estimated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the appropriate cut-off values of BMI and WC to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors.@*Results@#The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all presented ascending trends with the increasing levels of BMI or WC. Defined as the points on the ROC curve where Youden’s index reached the highest, the appropriate overweight cut-off points of BMI were around 24.0 kg/m2 both in men and women, and the points of WC were around 85 cm in men and 80 to 85 cm in women. With specificity 90% for identification of risk factors, the appropriate obese cut-off points of BMI were around 28.0 kg/m2 both in men and women, with the range of 27.0 to 28.9 kg/m2.@*Conclusions@#The cut-off points for overweight and obesity recommended by Coorperative Meta-analysis Group of China Obesity Task Force was verified in the large sample survey conducted more recently. The cut-off points of BMI were 24.0 and 28.0 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity, and the cut-off point of WC was 85 cm in men and 80 to 85 cm in women for central obesity.

13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 175-183, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both genetic factors and smoking are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) risk. However, little is known about the potential interaction of these factors. We aimed to assess whether smoking and a positive family history interact to increase the risk of IS. METHODS: The nationwide prospective study recruited 210,000 men and 300,000 women in 2004 to 2008 at ages 30 to 79 years. During 9.7 years of follow-up, we documented 16,923 and 20,656 incident IS cases in men and women without major chronic diseases at baseline, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to examine associations between family history and IS. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test the smoking-family history interactions on IS. RESULTS: About 67.8% (n=135,168) of men ever smoked regularly compared with 2.7% (n=7,775) of women. Among men, a significant interaction between family history and smoking on IS was observed (P for interaction=0.03), with more pronounced association between family history and IS among ever-regular smokers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.27) than among never-smokers (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23). The association between family history and IS among ex-smokers after more than 10 years of cessation (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.20) appeared similar to that among never-smokers. Among women, a similar but not significant interaction between family history and smoking on IS was observed. Ever-regular smokers who had a family history of stroke had the highest risk of IS. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese men, the association of family history with IS was accentuated by smoking, and such accentuation tended to be lowered by cessation.


Subject(s)
Asians , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Family Health , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gene-Environment Interaction , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Tobacco
14.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 277-280, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745584

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the treatment of Cushing disease.Methods Clinical data collected from 38 cases retroperitonel laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Cushing disease,from February 2006 to February 2017 were analyzed retrospectively.Among them,there were 6 males and 32 females aged from 13 to 66 years old,with an average age of 38 years old.The disease history ranged from 2 to 96 months,with an average of 28.3 months.Besides,there were 32 cases that had previous history of transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery and or radiotherapy.All 38 cases underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy therapy.There were 8 cases accepted right adrenalectomy and left subtotal adrenalectomy at the same time,24 cases accepted unilateral adrenalectomy,another 6 cases of pituitary tumors without lesions in medical imaging underwent unilateral adrenalectomy.Results All operations were completed sucessfully without conversion to open surgery and mortality.There was no blood transfusion during the period of operation.The operation time ranged from 30 min to 270 min (mean 88.3 min),the amount of bleeding was among the range of 10 ml to 200 ml (mean 38.33 ml).During 2 to 13 years of the follow up (mean 7 years),the 24 h urine cortisol concentration in the first day after surgery of piatients with subtotal resection was 90.35-220.84 μg/24h (mean 102.83 μg/24h),and 6 cases were in the normal range.After surgery 6-11 months,the clinical symptoms completely disappeared.The hormone replacement therapy was discontinued 1-3 months after surgery.However,There were 3 cases treated with residual adrenalectomy because of the recurrence after 1,3.5,5.0 years respectively.30 cases underwent unilateral adrenalectomy,whose 24 h urine cortisol concentration in the first day after surgery was 99.80-550.84 μg/24h (mean 372.83 μg/24h),among which 24 cases were beyond normal range,and another 6 cases were within the normal range.Reviewing 24 h urine cortisol concentration one month later after operation,it was 382.16-520.34 μg/24h (mean 461.62 μg/24h),with the results of all cases being higher than the normal range,the clinical symptoms were not relieved satisfactorily.During 2 to 7 months after surgery,there were 22 cases further underwent contralateral subtotal adrenalectomy (80%),the remaining 8 cases underwent contralateral adrenalectomy and autologous transplantation of adrenal tissue.Immediately one day after surgery,the 24 h urine cortisol concentration level of patients was ranged from 62.58 to 182.34 μg/24h (mean 92.83 μg/24h),and all 22 cases were within the normal range.The clinical symptoms completely disappeared during next 6 to 9 months after surgery,and hormone replacement therapy was discontinued 3 months after surgery.There were 2 cases received residual adrenalectomy because of the recurrence.Lifelong hormone replacement therapy after surgery occurred in 13 cases and 5 cases developed Nelson syndrome.Conclusions Retroperitoneal laparoscopic of unilateral adrenalectomy and contralateral subtotal adrenalectomy for the treatment of Cushing disease was safe and effective.The contralateral adrenal subtotal resection could be performed at an appropriate time in the case of that the clinical symptoms not obvious.By doing so,it could significantly alleviate the clinical symptoms as well as avoiding lifelong hormone replacement therapy.Once recurrence,residual adrenalectomy can be considered.

15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 485-491, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755476

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of intravesical instillation of BCG vaccine in the prevention of early recurrence of middle and high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.Methods From July 2015,patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer aged 18-75 years with informed consent were screened and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).Immediately intravesical instillation of epirubicin 50 mg was given postoperatively.After pathology was comfirmed,patients was enrolled in group 1 (BCG15) or group 2 (BCG 19) or the control group (epirubicin 18) randomly with SAS 9.3 software.Data of follow-up and Adverse event was collected and analyzed.Results By May 31,2019,531 patients were enrolled in the study.The drop-off rate was 20.1%.167 patients (143 males and 24 females)in group 1,172 patients (141 males and 31 females)in group2 and 84(75 males and 9 females) in the control group with follow-up data were analyzed.There were no significant differences in age,gender,BMI,ECOG score,risk stratification between the three groups (P =0.8641,P =0.2906,P =0.9384,P =0.6126).The median follow-up time makes no statistical difference between the groups (P =0.9251),12.0 (6.0,22.5) months,13.0 (6.0,22.3) months,and 13.0 (7.0,22.3) months.The median recurrence time of the three groups was 4.0 (3.0,6.0) months,4.5 (3.0,9.8) months,4.5 (3.0,8.8) months.There was no statistical difference between the three groups (P =0.2852).Risk stratification in the patients got no significant difference between the three groups (P > 0.05).The 1-year recurrence-free survival rates were 80.0% in the group 1 and 88.3% in the group 2 and 73.7% in the control group.The group 2 was superior to the group 1 and the control group (P =0.0281,P =0.0031).There was no significant difference between group 1 and control group (P =0.2951).There was no significant difference in the cumulative recurrence-free survival between the experimental group 1 and the experimental group 2,(95% CI 0.80-2.43,P =0.2433).The cumulative recurrence-free survival in the group 1 and the group 2 was better than the control group (95 % CI 0.31-0.92,P =0.0266;95 % CI 0.20-0.65,P =0.0008).All the cases underwent instillation were analyzed for adverse events.The incidence of overall AE(adverse events) in group 1 was 68.5% (152/222),the incidence of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ AE was 53.2% (118/222),the incidence of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ AE was 15.3% (32/222).The incidence of overall AE in the group 2 was 71.8% (160/223),the incidence of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ AE was 60.1% (134/223),and the incidence of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ AE was 11.7% (26/223).The overall AE rate in the control group was 53.2% (59/111),of which the incidence of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ AE was 42.4% (47/111),and the incidence of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ AE was 10.8% (12/111).There was no difference in the incidence of overall AE between the group 1 and the group 2 (P =0.4497).The incidence of AE in the two experimental groups was higher than that in the control group (P =0.0062,P =0.0008).There was no difference in the incidence of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ AE between the three groups (P =0.3902).Conclusions BCG(19 instillation schedule) has a better effect on preventing recurrence after 1 year of bladder surgery,which is superior to epirubicin group.The long-term efficacy of BCG in preventing recurrence and the efficacy of different schedules need to be further followed up.The lower urinary tract symptoms,which are mainly urinary frequency,are one of the causes of case fallout and should be fouced in future.Compared with epirubicin,BCG perfusion does not increase the incidence of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ adverse reactions,and is safe to use.

16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 142-146, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738229

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the relationship between the age of menarche and the nearterm/long-term obesity in adult women.Methods We analyzed the baseline data of 30 895 women with complete data on menarche and body measurement that was from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from 2004 to 2008.The age of menarche was divided into three groups:≤12,13-16 and ≥ 17 years old.Prematurity was set at age ≤ 12 years.Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the effects of menarche age on the near/long-term obesity in female adults.Results The average menarche age of respondent appeared as (15.64 ± 1.92) years old,with prematurity number as 1 421,accounting for 4.6% of the total numbers.Regarding the postponing of dates of birth,the age of menarche in women showed an advancing tendency.Among all the adult women under study,803 developed near-term obesity,with the prevalence as 2.6%,while the number of long-term obesity was 3 738,accounting for 12.1%.Refining factors of age,lifestyle,menopausal status,hypertension and diabetes showed that the menarche age was related to the risks of both short-term and long-term obesity in women and the ORs (95%CI) were 2.45 (1.74-3.45) and 1.99 (1.69-2.34),respectively.There was no multiplicative interaction shown between the menarche age and menopausal status on long-term obesity (P=0.324).Conclusion Premature menarche appeared a risk factor for near-term/long-term obesity in adult females.

17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 136-141, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738228

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the prevalence of'healthy lifestyle'from data extracted from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) of 0.5 million adults from ten areas across China.Methods After excluding participants with self-reported histories of coronary heart disease,stroke or cancer,a total of 487 198 participants at baseline (2004-2008) and 22 604 participants at second survey (2013-2014),were included for analysis.'Healthy lifestyle'was defined as haing the following characteristics:a) never smoking or having stopped smoking for reasons other than illness;b) alcohol drinking <25 g/day (men)/< 15 g/day (women);c) diet rich in vegetables,fruits,legumes and fish,but low in red meat;d) upper quarter of the physical activity level;e) body mass index of 18.5-23.9 kg/m2 and waist circumstance <85 cm (men)/80 cm (women).We calculated the healthy lifestyle scores (HLS) by counting the number of all the healthy lifestyle factors,with a range from 0 to 6.Results At baseline,prevalence rates of the above five healthy lifestyles (except physical activity) were 70.6%,92.6%,8.7%,52.6% and 59.0%,respectively,with the mean HLS being 3.1± 1.2.Most participants (81.4%) had 2-4 healthy components,while only 0.7% (0.2% in men and 1.0% in women) of all the participants had all six healthy lifestyles.Participants who were women,at younger age,with more schooling and rural residents,were more likely to adhere to the healthy lifestyle.After ten years,the mean HLS showed a slight decrease.Conclusion The prevalence of optimal lifestyles in Chinese adults appeared extremely low.Levels of'healthy lifestyle'varied greatly among those populations with different socio-demographic characteristics across the ten areas in China.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738210

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the association of educational level with anthropometric measurements at different adult stages and their long-term changes in adults who participated in the second re-survey of China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB).Methods The present study excluded participants who were aged >65 years,with incomplete or extreme measurement values,or with major chronic diseases at baseline survey or re-survey.The weight at age 25 years was self-reported.Body height,body weight and waist circumference at baseline survey (2004-2008) and re-survey (2013-2014) were analyzed.Results The present study included 3 427 men and 6 320 women.Both body weight and waist circumference (WC) increased with age.From age 25 years to baseline survey (mean age 45.2 ± 6.5),the mean weight change per 5-year was (1.70 ± 2.63) kg for men and (1.27 ± 2.10) kg for women.From baseline survey to re-survey (53.2± 6.5),the mean changes per 5-year for body weight were (1.12±2.61) kg for men and 0.90±2.54) kg for women;and that for WC was (3.20±3.79) cm for men and (3.83 ± 3.85) cm for women.Among women,low educational level was consistently associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and WC at age 25 years,baseline survey and re-survey.Among men,low educational level was associated with higher BMI at age 25 years.At baseline survey and re-survey,the educational level in men was not statistically associated with BMI;but men who completed junior or senior high school showed slight higher WC and increase of WC from baseline survey to re-survey than other male participants.Conclusions Body weight and WC increased with age for both men and women.The associations of educational level with BMI and WC were different between men and women.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738209

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the genetic structure of populations in different areas of China,and explore the effects of different strategies to control the confounding factors of the genetic structure in cohort studies.Methods By using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) on data of 4 500 samples from 10 areas of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB),we performed principal components analysis to extract the fast and second principal components of the samples for the component two-dimensional diagram generation,and then compared them with the source of sample area to analyze the characteristics of genetic structure of the samples from different areas of China.Based on the CKB cohort data,a simulation data set with cluster sample characteristics such as genetic structure differences and extensive kinship was generated;and the effects of different analysis strategies including traditional analysis scheme and mixed linear model on the inflation factor (λ) were evaluated.Results There were significant genetic structure differences in different areas of China.Distribution of the principal components of the population genetic structure was basically consistent with the geographical distribution of the project area.The first principal component corresponds to the latitude of different areas,and the second principal component corresponds to the longitude of different areas.The generated simulation data showed high false positive rate (λ =1.16),even if the principal components of the genetic structure was adjusted or the area specific subgroup analysis was performed,λ could not be effectively controlled (λ > 1.05);while,by using a mixed linear model adjusting for the kinship matrix,λ was effectively controlled regardless of whether the genetic structure principal component was further adjusted (λ =0.99).Conclusions There were large differences in genetic structure among populations in different areas of China.In molecular epidemiology studies,bias caused by population genetic structure needs to be carefully treated.For large cohort data with complex genetic structure and extensive kinship,it is necessary to use a mixed linear model for association analysis.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738208

ABSTRACT

Precision medicine became the key strategy in development priority of science and technology in China.The large population-based cohorts become valuable resources in preventing and treating major diseases in the population,which can contribute scientific evidence for personalized treatment and precise prevention.The fundamental question of the achievements above,therefore,is how to construct a large population-based cohort in a standardized way.The Chinese Preventive Medicine Association co-ordinated experienced researchers from Peking University and other well-known institutes to write up two group standards Technical specification of data processing for large population-based cohort study (T/CPMA 001-2018) and Technical specification of data security for large population-based cohort study (T/CPMA 002-2018),on data management.The standards are drafted with principles of emphasizing their scientific,normative,feasible,and generalizable nature.In these two standards,the key principles are proposed,and technical specifications are recommended in data standardization,cleansing,quality control,data integration,data privacy protection,and database security and stability management in large cohort studies.The standards aim to guide the large population-based cohorts that have been or intended to be established in China,including national cohorts,regional population cohorts,and special population cohorts,hence,to improve domestic scientific research level and the international influence,and to support decision-making and practice of disease prevention and control.

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