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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 596-607, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970528

ABSTRACT

The tight relationships between microbiome and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)have been widely recognized. New technologies, results, and theories are emerging in the field of microbiomics in recent years with the advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-omics technologies. Based on the previous research, the present study has proposed the concept of TCM microbiomics(TCMM), which is an interdisciplinary subject aiming at elucidating the functions and applications of microbiome in the areas of herb resources, herb processing, herb storage, and clinical effects by using modern technology of biology, ecology, and informatics. This subject essentially contains the structures, functions, interactions, molecular mechanisms, and application strategies of the microbiome associated with the quality, safety, and efficacy of TCM. Firstly, the development of the TCMM concept was summarized, with the profound understanding of TCMM on the complexity and entirety of microbiome being emphasized. Then, the research contents and applications of TCMM in promoting the sustainable development of herb resources, improving the standardization and diversification of herb fermentation, strengthening the safety of herb storage, and resolving the scientific connotation of theories and clinical efficacy of TCM are reviewed. Finally, the research strategies and methods of TCM microbiomics were elaborated from basic research, application research, and system research. TCMM is expected to promote the integrative development of TCM with frontier science and technology, thereby expanding the depth and scope of TCM study and facilitating TCM modernization.


Subject(s)
Ecology , Fermentation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2059-2067, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981337

ABSTRACT

Panax notoginseng contains triterpene saponins, flavonoids, amino acids, polysaccharides, volatile oil and other active components, which have the effects of promoting blood circulation, stopping bleeding, removing blood stasis, etc. This study summarized the herbal research, chemical constituents and main pharmacological activities of P. notoginseng, and based on the theory of Q-markers of traditional Chinese medicine, predicted and analyzed the Q-markers of P. notoginseng from the aspects of plant kinship, efficacy, drug properties, measurability of chemical components, etc. It was found that ginsenosides Rg_1, Re, and Rb_1 with specific content ratio, ginsenosides Rb_2, Rb_3, Rc, Rd, Rh_2, and Rg_3, notoginseng R_1, dencichine and quercetin could be used as potential Q-markers of P. notoginseng, which facilitated the formulation of quality standards reflecting the efficacy of P. notoginseng.


Subject(s)
Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Saponins/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3428-3438, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999073

ABSTRACT

The AP2/ERF gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in the plant kingdom, and plays an important role in response to biological and abiotic stresses, plant hormone responses, and plant growth and development. In this study, the AP2/ERF family of Panax notoginseng was identified by bioinformatics methods, and the physicochemical properties, structure, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern and function of PnDREB4 gene of the family were analyzed. The results showed that 140 AP2/ERF family members were identified in P. notoginseng, which were divided into DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Sololit subgroups. The physicochemical properties and motifs of proteins were similar among the subgroups. There were 34 differentially expressed genes in the AP2/ERF family of Fusarium oxysporum infected P. notoginseng plants, and 19 genes were up-regulated. The expression level of PnDREB84 was up-regulated with the extension of Fusarium oxysporum infection time in the range of 0-96 h. The content of ABA and SA in P. notoginseng plants overexpressing PnDREB84 gene increased after 4 ℃ stress. The results showed that PnDREB84 gene plays a dual regulatory role in the process of biological stress and abiotic stress. PnDREB84 gene can be used as a potential molecular marker for the breeding of new varieties of P. notoginseng. The identification of AP2/ERF transcription factor and function analysis of PnDREB84 gene of P. notoginseng provided data support for the analysis of stress resistance mechanism of P. notoginseng and the breeding of new varieties.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3130-3139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999062

ABSTRACT

Analyze the changes in gene expression profiles during the process of Panax ginseng seed dormancy release, and screen for differential genes, providing a basis for analyzing the mechanism of P. ginseng seed dormancy release. Comparative transcriptome analysis was conducted by using RNA-Seq sequencing technology in P. ginseng seeds stored at different low temperature. A total of 80.97 Gb of Raw reads and 80.19 Gb of Clean reads were obtained from the transcriptome. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that there were significant differences in gene expression patterns at different developmental stages. Upset results showed that 46 248 unigenes were co-expressed in four stages, and 414, 445, 400 and 389 unigenes were specifically expressed in 0, 8,14 and 28 days, respectively. Gene Ontology functional annotation showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic process, nuclear body and oxidoreductase activity. Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathway showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in peroxisome, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway-plant, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, circadian rhythm-plant and other metabolic pathways. In the process of P. ginseng seed dormancy release, multiple biological processes, such as unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction, are required to coordinate regulation, which constitutes a complex dormancy release regulation network. Transcriptome analysis and differential gene screening of P. ginseng seeds at different sand storage time laid a foundation for the analysis of P. ginseng seed dormancy release mechanism and molecular breeding.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2528-2542, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937053

ABSTRACT

The bZIP (basic leucine zipper) gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in eukaryotes, and its members play important roles in stress response, secondary metabolism, plant growth, seed development and other aspects. To investigate the biological functions of the bZIP (CsbZIP) gene in Cannabis sativa L., we systematically investigated the CsbZIP gene family using bioinformatics methods based on the whole-genome and transcriptome data. The results showed that 55 CsbZIP gene family members (CsbZIP1-CsbZIP55) were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes, belonging to 12 subfamilies. The gene structure and protein motif distribution of the same subfamily members were similar. Segment repeats were the main reasons for the expansion of CsbZIP gene family. Cis-elements analysis showed that the promoter regions of 73 lipid synthesis genes contained G-box or A-box element. qRT-PCR showed that the relative expression levels of 7 CsbZIP genes and 7 lipid synthesis genes were relatively high in hemp seed. 7 CsbZIP genes had a significant positive correlation with 7 lipid synthesis genes. This study revealed the structural features, evolutionary patterns and expression patterns of CsbZIP, providing important clues for further study on the regulation of CsbZIP on oil metabolism of hemp seed.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 182-190, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940602

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo develop safe and effective microbial agents against Panax ginseng root rot. MethodP. notoginseng endophytes were screened in plate confrontation tests, followed by morphological and molecular biological identification of antagonistic strains, optimization of strain fermentation conditions in a single factor test, and determination of optimal carriers and auxiliary agents of the microbial agent and their ratio using response surface methodology for formulating the production process. The prevention and control effects of the microbial agent were verified in the confrontation and pot culture experiments. ResultThe plate confrontation test yielded a strain named Fusarium pseudoanthophilum with significant resistance to root rot, and its antibacterial rate was 53.33%. According to the single factor test, the fermentation conditions of F. pseudoanthophilum were determined to be fermentation time 60 h, fermentation temperature 26 ℃, speed 120 r·min-1, and pH 6.5. The response surface optimization results showed that the number of viable bacteria reached the maximum (5.23×109 cfu·g-1) when the peat was 60.00 g, sodium carboxymethylcellulose 3.50 g, and sodium alginate 4.76 g. The influences of carriers and auxiliary agents on the number of viable bacteria were sorted by degree in a descending order as follows: peat>sodium carboxymethylcellulose >sodium alginate. The confrontation test results showed that when the microbial agent concentration was greater than 1.00 g·L-1, it had a significant inhibitory effect on the root rot pathogen F. oxysporum and the inhibitory rate was more than 42.3%. As demonstrated by the pot culture experiment, the inoculation of biocontrol agent for 28 d significantly reduced the incidence (66.99%) of root rot in P. ginseng seedlings and disease index (61.69%) and increased their leaf length (33.04%) and fresh weight (34.48%). ConclusionF. pseudoanthophilum inoculant is efficient in preventing and controlling the root rot, making it worthy of further development and utilization.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4307-4313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888129

ABSTRACT

The development of quality Chinese medicine is an important way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine, and ensure the safety and effectiveness of Chinese medicine. This article systematically elaborates the definition, classification, standard and mana-gement certification strategy of quality Chinese medicine. We present the quality Chinese medicine which is higher quality than that of eligible Chinese medicine based on quality control standards. Quality Chinese medicine is strictly in accordance with management procedures, likely GAP and GMP et al, during the productive process, which quality indicators is higher than that of the current relevant national quality standards, such as Chinese Pharmacopoeia(ChP) et al; its limited indicators such as exogenous pollutants and endogenous toxic substances are lower than that of the current relevant national quality standards, likely ChP et al; meanwhile these Chinese herbal medicine, medicinal pieces, patent medicines, and health products and foods with Chinese medicine raw materials are been certificated by quality Chinese medicine. At the same time, this article systematically expounds the five major management systems of quality Chinese medicine, including technical training management for practitioners, productive process management, standard mana-gement, quality inspection and certification management, and product traceability management. And we put forward strategies to improve the supervision and management system, and promote the standardization and development of quality Chinese medicine by improving the technical management system of quality Chinese medicine, strengthening the quality management system and six sigma(6σ) management in the company. These strategies will provide a reliable basis and effective way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Food , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Reference Standards
8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 228-240, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873304

ABSTRACT

Non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis is the cannabis that contain less than 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high content of cannabidiol (CBD) (more than 2.0% is reasonable), and mainly used for medicinal purpose. Cannabis have a long medical history, in this review, we retrospected the medicinal history of cannabis in China and the world. We summarized the cannabinoid especially CBD application of medicine in epilepsy, mental disease, tumor, analgesic and inflammatory, also the widely application in food, healthy products, cosmetics and other fields. Based on the problems like shortage of high CBD cultivars, weakness of fundamental research existed in non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis industry. We should fully utilize the genetic information of medicinal cannabis, establish the comprehensive identification system of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis varieties, accelerate the breeding process of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis cultivars, to ensure the safety and effectiveness of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis. Strengthen the basic research on CBD and other cannabinoids to promote the application of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis products and sustainable development of medical cannabis industry.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 212-218, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873207

ABSTRACT

The suitable production area can guarantee the quality of Dai medicine, but the research on the suitable ecological factors and suitable production area of plant Dai medicine is relatively scarce at present. In this study, gmpgis was used to analyze the ecological suitability of Dai medicine in China. For the first time, the range of ecological factors and main soil types in the main distribution areas of Dai medicine were extracted, such as annual average temperature of 8.6-23.7 ℃, annual average precipitation of 1212-1881 mm, annual average sunshine of 149.7-157.4 W·m-2, the main soil types are strong eluvial soil, alluvial soil, high activity strong acid soil, etc. Based on 179 sampling points, through the analysis of ecological similarity, the largest ecological similarity area of plant Dai medicine in the world was obtained, mainly including China, Brazil, the United States, Myanmar, Laos and other countries. In China, it is mainly concentrated in the West and south of Yunnan, including Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Pu'er City, Baoshan City and Lincang City, which are suitable for cultivation. In addition, by analyzing the current situation of Dai medicine industry, this paper summarizes the problems such as the lack of talents, the decreasing of Dai medicine resources, the limitation of cultural heritage, and the weakness of scientific research, and puts forward strategies such as training high-quality talents of Dai medicine, the investigation and protection of Dai medicine resources, promoting the collection and arrangement of Dai medicine data and ancient books, and strengthening the basic and applied research of Dai medicine Enter the development of Dai medicine. This study provides a basis for guiding the rational layout, introduction and breeding of plant Dai medicine production base, and lays a foundation for the scientific and standardized production of high-quality Dai medicine.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2708-2713, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828027

ABSTRACT

Appropriate producing areas can guarantee the quality of Tibetan medicine, but research on the suitable ecological factors and suitable producing areas of Tibetan medicinal plants is scarce. This paper used the Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants(GMPGIS) to analyze the ecological suitability of Tibetan medicinal plants nationwide. For the first time, the range of ecological factors and main soil types of Tibetan medicinal plants were extracted, such as the average annual temperature-19.4-24.2 ℃, annual average precipitation 17-4 088 mm, annual average sunshine 124.2-171.6 W·m~(-2). The main soil types were black calcareous soil, thin layer soil, chestnut soil and so on. Based on 337 sampling points, the largest ecological similarity area of Tibetan medicine across the country was obtained through ecological similarity analysis. In addition to Tibet and Qinghai provinces and Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures in Sichuan, Gansu, and Yunnan provinces, Jiuquan city and Linxia county in Gansu province, Panzhihua and Ya'an in Sichuan province, and Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Shanxi provinces also had larger suitable cultivation areas. In addition, by analyzing the current situation of Tibetan medicine industry, the research pointed out that there were some problems such as unreasonable development and utilization of resources, lack of standards and norms, weak basic research and imperfect industrial system, and made corresponding countermeasures for sustainable development of resources, formulation of standards and specifications, promotion of medicine through science and technology, expansion of domestic and foreign markets, etc. This study provided the basis for guiding the rational layout of production bases, introduction and breeding of plant Tibetan medicine nationwide, laying the foundation for the scientific and standardized production of high-quality Tibetan medicine, clarifying the development direction of Tibetan medicine industry, and providing ideas for the development strategy of Tibetan medicine and other national medicine industry.


Subject(s)
China , Industrial Development , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Soil , Tibet
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2714-2719, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828026

ABSTRACT

To breed new varieties of medicinal plants with high resistance is the premise to ensure the production of high-quality medicinal materials. Molecular breeding using modern molecular biology and genetic technology can save time and effort and realize rapid and accurate breeding. Here we are trying to summarize the difference of breeding characteristics between medicinal plants and crops such as genetic background and breeding purpose. The strategy of molecular breeding of medicinal plants was summarized, and the four-phases breeding based on high-throughput sequencing and target gene mining was emphasized. We put forward the current molecular breeding of medicinal plants in the condition of four phases breeding is the optimal technological way of breeding, and gene editing breeding is the direction of medicinal plants breeding.


Subject(s)
Breeding , DNA Shuffling , Gene Editing , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2197-2207, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773108

ABSTRACT

The excessive pesticide residues and heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine seriously endanger human health and the sustainable development of Chinese medicine industry. In order to improve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine and establish a general standard for maximum residue limits(MRL) of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces, and to ensure the safety of clinical medication from its origin, MRLs were calculated based on the formula(MRL=A×W/100M) from Chinese Pharmacopeia, comparing it with the current Chinese and international standards as well as literature review, the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method(RAM) was applied to determine the categories and MRLs of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. Two questionnaires were drafted for expert panel and appropriateness analysis was carried out with the 9-point Likert scale to determine the general standard for MRLs of pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. The results showed that a total of nine experts from different fields scored the necessity of standard-setting and 206 pesticide residue limits respectively. The appropriateness scores of 206 pesticides were greater than 7, and appropriateness rate was 100%, which signifies that the expert panel has reached consensus. In summary, based on the RAM, the general standard for maximum residue limits of pesticides in pollution-free Chinese medicines and decoction pieces has reached an expert consensus. Comparing with the MRLs of medicinal plants and plant-sourced food from CAC, Europe Union, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, 206 MRLs from this general standard share 88.8% in common, 4.4% of which is higher and 6.8% lower than those international standards. This has provided a basis for standardizing the use of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5124-5128, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008374

ABSTRACT

Cultivated ginseng in the farmland would become the mainly planting mode of Panax ginseng. However,there are relatively few cultivation ginseng varieties for farmland in China. Correlative analysis of qualitity and agronomic traits of P. ginseng cultivation in the farmland could provide a reference for the selection of excellent germplasm and new variety breeding of P. ginseng. In this study,the main index of saponin and agronomic traits of 4-6 years' samples were analyzed by UPLC and measured. The results show that there was significant difference in agronomic indexes of Damaya. The coefficient of variation of the root length( CV = 41. 97%) and fresh weight( CV = 31. 81%) were maximum,and the coefficient of variation of the stems thickness( 16. 72%) and root thickness were minimum. There was a significant correlation between yield and root thickness( P<0. 05). There was significant difference in drug yield of different harvest years( P<0. 05),and the yield of 6-years was 31. 52%-39. 69% higher than 4-years. However,there wasn't significant difference in total ginsenosides between 4 and 6 years old P. ginseng,but there was significant difference in ginseng Rg2,Rc and Rb2( P<0. 05),and the ginsenoside contents of different harvesting years were accorded with the criterion standards of 2015 Chinese Pharmacopoeia. There was no significant correlation between the saponin and the agronomic trait,while there was positive correlation with root thickness( P < 0. 05). Therefore,the stem diameter was positive correlation with yield of P. ginseng. Selection of the stem thickness of seedlings is beneficial to the increase of the yield and breeding of P. ginseng.


Subject(s)
China , Crop Production , Ginsenosides/analysis , Panax/chemistry , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Stems/growth & development
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4772-4780, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008258

ABSTRACT

The shortage of new cannabis varieties with low THC and high CBD content and irregular planting techniques have become the bottleneck for he development of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis industry. Based on the cannabis germplasm resources,this paper proposes strategies for breeding high CBD content,seed-type and high-efficiency,dwarf non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis varieties through molecular marker development,assisted breeding,genetic engineering breeding and traditional breeding. According to the suitable ecological factors of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis,the CBD content and grain yield of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis can be improved by regulating the nutritional structure and illumination properties of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis,scientific harvesting and storage. At the same time,in order to further accelerate the application of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis,we can accelerate the selection of new varieties of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis by mining genetic information of cannabis,and strengthen the application of information technology and automation of modern agriculture in the production of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis. Provide basis for the cultivation and wide application of new non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis varieties with high quality and high yield.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Cannabidiol/analysis , Cannabis , Medical Marijuana
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3070-3079, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687344

ABSTRACT

Aimed to solve the issues of pesticide residue, heavy metal contents and harmful elements in the productive process of Chinese herbal medicines, the research team built the technical regulations for production of pollution-free Chinese herbal medicines. This regulation included the environment of production area, the process of production, quality of products etc., which were the key steps controlled the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. The environment of production area was selected according to the ecological factors which were stipulated by Ecological Suitability Regionalization of Chinese herbal medicines (second edition). The quality of air should be attain the one or two levels of GB/T3095-2012 standard values. The cultivation soils should reach to the one or two levels of GB15618 and NY/T391 standard values. The quality of irrigation water should accord with the stipulation of GB5084-2005. Aimed to the production of Chinese herbal medicines, disease-resistant and superior varieties which were suitable to the local stations should be selected, and the breeding of superior seeds and seedlings should be strengthened. Additionally, rational fertilizer application of pollution-free Chinese herbal medicines should be conformed to the principles, requirements, and the kinds of fertilizers allowed or limited for use, which were stipulated by the standard of DB13/T454. Furthermore, the plant protection policy of priority to prevention and synthetical prevention should be followed; improving ecological environment and strengthening cultivation management should be served as the basics. Agricultural measures, and biological and physical control strategies should be preferred to use; and high toxicity, residue pesticide and its mixture should be inhibited; the use of chemical pesticides should be minimized and then to decrease contamination and residue. Additionally, the quality of products should be reached to the standard of pollution-free Chinese herbal medicines; high toxicity and detection rate of pesticide residues and the contents of heavy metal and harmful elements (e.g. plumbum, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and cuprum) should accord with the common criteria of pollution-free Chinese herbal medicines. Application of technical regulations for production of pollution-free Chinese herbal medicines guarantees significantly social, economic and ecological benefits.

16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1427-1433, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687281

ABSTRACT

Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days. During the cultivation, photosynthetic rate was measured four times. After 40 days cultivation, chlorophyll content, stem diameter and the spatiotemporal expression of saponin synthesis related genes PgHMGR and PgSQE were tested. The results showed that there were significant differences in the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content among different nitrogen concentrations. The relative expression level of PgHMGR gene and PgSQE gene in root, stem and leaves of ginseng were different. Ginseng seedlings cultivated by 20 mg·L⁻¹ nitrogen possess the highest photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, while PgHMGR and PgSE showed the highest gene expression level. The optimal nitrogen concentration for the growth of 2-years-old ginseng might be 20 mg·L⁻¹ with 57.14 g ammonium nitrate each plant or pure 20.00 mg nitrogen each plant. It is concluded that this concentration is the most suitable concentration for the ginsenoside synthesis. Pollution-free ginseng with fine nitrogen fertilizer cultivation is conducive to the production of high quality and efficient ginseng medicinal materials. It lays a theoretical foundation for the rational fertilization and environment-friendly sustainable ecological ginseng planting industry.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1517-1528, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687268

ABSTRACT

The issues of disordering production and non-standard pesticide application are common in the production of Chinese herbal medicines. Aimed to above problems, research groups built the pollution-free and precision cultivation system of medicinal plants. This system mainly included the precise site selection of medicinal plants based on the GIS technology, modern omics-assisted breeding, metagenomics guiding the soil complex improvement, and the precise field management based on rational application of fertilizer and comprehensive control of disease. At present, the production and distribution of medicinal plants were performed in the many poor counties of the whole nation. The breeding platform of resistant varieties was built, and certificates of new and well-bred varieties were received, in the base of genetic backgrounds of the original species of medicinal plants. The disease incidences were declined after application of these resistant varieties. Additionally, chemical pesticide consumption of medicinal plants (such as Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, P. quinquefolium, Schisandra chinensis, Platycodon grandiflorum and P. grandiflorus etc.) reduced by 20%-80% based on the genetic testing technologies of plant diseases and insect pests and safety evaluation of pollution-free pesticides. The application of pollution-free and precision cultivation system of Chinese herbal medicines achieve significantly social, economic and ecological benefits.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 313-320, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779879

ABSTRACT

Geographic information system for global medicinal plants (GMPGIS) and MaxEnt modeling are adopted to analyze the ecological suitability of the endangered plant Acanthopanax senticosus. Response curves were created by the raster data of 6 ecological factors, including mean annual temperature, mean temperature of warmest quarter, mean temperature of coldest quarter, mean annual precipitation, mean annual humidity, and mean annual radiation. The relationship between the syringin content of this plant and these ecological factors was analyzed using a redundancy analysis method (RDA), which could be used to predict the most relevant ecological factors influencing the active constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus plants. GMPGIS and MaxEnt results suggest that China, Russia, Japan, and North Korea, are the main producing areas in the world for Acanthopanax senticosus, while there are also other potential areas with maximum similarities of ecological distribution in the United States, Canada, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary, Germany and 22 other countries. In addition, the genuine producing areas in China mainly include Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning, while there are the maximum similarities of ecological distribution of Acanthopanax senticosus in Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Sichuan. RDA results suggest that the mean annual humidity, precipitation, temperature are the most important eco-factors positively affecting the content of syringin in Acanthopanax senticosus. Our research provides scientific support to the utilization of ecological suitability areas for endangered plant Acanthopanax senticosus and the resource regeneration.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 875-881, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275446

ABSTRACT

This study has revealed the change of the soil micro-ecology of farmlands, which used for ginseng cultivation, brought by comprehensive soil improvement. The process of soil improvement was described as follows: soil was sterilized using trichloronitromethane, and then perilla seeds were planted. After growing up, the perillas were turned over into the field and fermented, then organic fertilizer was added. Rotary tillages were carried out during the intervals. Physical and chemical properties of treated soil were measured, as well as microbial diversity, which was illustrated using 16s high through-put sequencing. The survival rate and growth data of ginseng seedlings were recorded. The analysis showed that after improvement, the soil organic matter content was increased and soil bulk density was decreased, compare to the controls, and the fertility in 0-20 cm of soil layer was increased in the treatment. Additionally, the soil microbial diversity was changed greatly. In detail, alpha diversity of the soil decreased after soil improvement while the beta diversity increased. In order to verify the achievement of soil improvement, ginseng seedlings were planted. Compared to the untreated land blocks, the survival rate of ginseng on improved blocks was increased up to 21.4%, and the ginseng physiological index were all better than the controls. Results showed that comprehensive soil improvements including soil sterilization, green manure planting and organic fertilization application effectively improved the soil micro-ecology in farmlands. This study will pave the way for the future standardization of ginseng cultivation on farmlands.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2046-2051, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275171

ABSTRACT

DNA marked-assisted selection of medicinal plants accelerated the breeding and promotion of new cultivars, and guaranteed the healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials industry. The first disease-resistant cultivar of notoginseng, namely "Miaoxiang Kangqi 1", served as the object of study. We evaluated the Kangqi's resistance of seeds, seedlings and root against the pathological bacteria (Fusarum oxysporum) of root rot. Compared to the traditional cultivars, the disease index of notoginseng seeds declined by 52.0% after inoculation for seven days; the death rate of seedlings and disease index of root respectively decreased by 72.1% and 62.4% after inoculation for 25 days. Additionally, the growth inhibition ratio of notoginseng seeds and seedlings declined after inoculation. The seeds, seedlings and roots of "Miaoxiang Kangqi 1" showed significantly resistant to root rot. The evaluation of disease-resistance of Kangqi provided the basis for the popularization of new cultivar and guaranteed the favoring conduct of notoginseng pollution-free cultivation.

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