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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873235

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a molecular identification method for Bupleurum chinense seeds based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence, ensuring the species authenticity of the cultivated seeds of B. chinense. Method:A total of 59 seeds samples of B. chinense and its main cultivated species, marketed B. chinense were collected. The effect of different sampling amounts and different water bath conditions on DNA extraction quality of the seeds was investigated, a DNA extraction method for seeds of Bupleurum was established. Their ITS sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bidirectional sequencing. In addition, 34 ITS sequences of main cultivated Bupleurum species, such as B. chinense, B. scorzonerifolium, B. falcatum and B. smithii, were downloaded from GenBank to enrich identification database of B. chinense seeds. The neighbor-joining (NJ) dendrogram were constructed by MEGA-X 10.0.5 software to investigate the the species identification ability of ITS sequences for B. chinense seeds. And DNA barcoding identification of marketed B. chinense seeds was conducted based on BLAST method and NJ dendrogram method. Result:In total, 59 ITS sequences were obtained. ITS sequences of B. chinense could be divided into six haplotypes, including seven variable sites. The NJ dendrogram indicated that all the haplotypes of B. chinense could form independent branches, which could be distinguished from other cultivated species of Bupleurum in the collected samples, and possessed the ability to identify species of B. chinense seeds. Based on ITS sequence barcoding identification, 3 of the 19 marketed B. chinense seeds were B. falcatum with a counterfeit rate of 15.8%. Conclusion:DNA barcoding technology based on ITS sequence can accurately and reliably identify B. chinense seeds and its adulterants, providing reference for the standardization construction of Chinese medicinal materials seeds.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827209

ABSTRACT

To ensure the safety of medications, it is vital to accurately authenticate species of the Apocynaceae family, which is rich in poisonous medicinal plants. We identified Apocynaceae species by using nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and psbA-trnH based on experimental data. The identification ability of ITS2 and psbA-trnH was assessed using specific genetic divergence, BLAST1, and neighbor-joining trees. For DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions of 122 plant samples of 31 species from 19 genera in the Apocynaceae family were amplified. The PCR amplification for ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences was 100%. The sequencing success rates for ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences were 81% and 61%, respectively. Additional data involved 53 sequences of the ITS2 region and 38 sequences of the psbA-trnH region were downloaded from GenBank. Moreover, the analysis showed that the inter-specific divergence of Apocynaceae species was greater than its intra-specific variations. The results indicated that, using the BLAST1 method, ITS2 showed a high identification efficiency of 97% and 100% of the samples at the species and genus levels, respectively, via BLAST1, and psbA-trnH successfully identified 95% and 100% of the samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. The barcode combination of ITS2/psbA-trnH successfully identified 98% and 100% of samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. Subsequently, the neighbor joining tree method also showed that barcode ITS2 and psbA-trnH could distinguish among the species within the Apocynaceae family. ITS2 is a core barcode and psbA-trnH is a supplementary barcode for identifying species in the Apocynaceae family. These results will help to improve DNA barcoding reference databases for herbal drugs and other herbal raw materials.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 937-943, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780202

ABSTRACT

To accurately discriminate Stellariae Radix from its adulterants, four leading candidate DNA barcoding markers were evaluated. Sixty samples including Stellariae Radix and its adulterants have been newly collected and their total genomic DNA was extracted. Four DNA barcoding markers ITS, rbcL, psbA-trnH and matK were amplified and sequenced. Their sequence characteristic analyses, Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) distance calculation and Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree constructions were accomplished using the MEGA 7.0 software. DNA Barcoding gaps of the four DNA barcoding markers were estimated by the distributions of inter- and intra-sequence specific variations. Species identification efficiency was calculated using the BLAST method. The results showed that ITS had the highest (95.2%) while matK demonstrated the lowest (75%) PCR and sequencing efficiency. The length range of the four markers were in the ranger of 211-797 bp, and the G+C content of ITS was highest (54.35%). The identification efficiency of matK and ITS was 92% and 90% respectively. Barcoding gap could be found in ITS sequences. The NJ phylogenetic tree constructed using ITS sequences showed that samples of Stellariae Radix were separately formed into one clade, and samples of adulterants like Stellaria bistyla were clearly belong to different branches from Stellariae Radix, whereas NJ trees constructed using psbA-trnH, rbcL and matK could not differentiate Stellariae Radix from its adulterants. Therefore, ITS regions as DNA barcodes can stably and accurately distinguished Stellariae Radix from its adulterants, and provide a new technique for modern identification of Stellariae Radix.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 494-499, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779620

ABSTRACT

Bubali cornu (water buffalo horn) has been used as the substitute for Cornu rhinoceri asiatici (rhino horn) in clinical applications, and is the essential ingredient of Angong Niuhuang Wan. In recent years, there are a number of adulterants on the commercial herbal medicine markets. An efficient tool is required for species identification. In this study, 155 Bubali cornu samples have been taken from original animals and collected from commercial herbal medicine markets. 153 COI sequences have been successfully obtained from 155 samples through DNA extraction, PCR amplification, bidirectional sequencing and assembly. 93 COI sequences have been added to the DNA barcoding database of traditional Chinese animal medicine after validation using DNA barcoding GAP and tree-based methods. The species identification of the 62 commercial Bubali cornu medicines has been accomplished on the DNA barcoding system for identifying herbal medicine using the updated animal medicine database (www.tcmbarcode.cn). Except two samples failed to obtain COI sequences, 54.8% of the commercial Bubali cornu medicines were water buffalo horns and 29% were yak horns. Our results showed that yak horn was the major adulterant of Bubali cornu and the DNA barcoding method may accurately discriminate Bubali cornu and their adulterants. Therefore, we recommend that supervision on the herbal medicine markets should be strengthened with this new method to warren the effectiveness of herbal medicines.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1784-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779372

ABSTRACT

To identify the commercial medicinal materials of Bombyx Batryticatus, two-dimensional DNA barcode was used to construct the "Internet Plus" identification system for Chinese medicine, which should benefit the cross-platform communication of DNA barcode information. Bombyx Batryticatus contained Bombyx mori Linnaeus and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillant. Both COI and ITS sequences were obtained via PCR amplification for total genomic DNA extracted from raw materials using the animal genomic DNA kit, while only ITS but no COI sequences was obtained when using the plant genomic DNA kit. The ITS sequences obtained using the animal genomic DNA kit were consistent with those using plant genomic DNA kit. The medicinal materials yielded COI sequences and identified as B. mori. According to analysis of ITS sequences, the main species of the medicinal materials were identified as B. bassiana and few were identified as other fungi. NJ trees analysis based on ITS sequences suggests that it can be easily distinguished from other fungi. Our results showed that total genomic DNA of B. mori and B. bassiana was extracted simultaneously using the animal genomic DNA kit, which could effectively solve the problem in species identification of animal and fungi mixture materials. COI and ITS regions as DNA barcodes can stably and accurately identify Bombyx Batryticatus. The "Internet Plus" two-dimensional DNA barcode system will promote the standardization and normalization of Chinese medicinal materials market.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304804

ABSTRACT

In order to guarantee the species correction of Notopterygium seeds, a molecular identification method with ITS2 as DNA barcode has been verified. In this study, 27 samples of Notopterygium seeds were collected from the main producing area of Notopterygium. The morphological characteristics of the Notopterygium seeds were firstly surveyed. Then the DNA extraction, PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and DNA assembly were carried out. The species identification for a Notopterygium seed was implemented through distance method, NJ-tree method and the DNA barcoding system for traditional Chinese medicine (www.tcmbarcode.cn). The results showed that the seeds of N. incisum and N. franchetii had similar morphological characteristics and were difficult to distinguish clearly based on morphological descriptions. With the results of molecular identification, 24 samples were genuine including 13 N. incisum seeds samples and 11 N. franchetii genuine seeds samples. In conclusion, DNA barcode technology can accurately and efficiently identify the species of Notopterygium seeds. Furthermore, this study will provide a new method for germplasm resources identification of medicinal materials and supplies some guidelines for establishing Chinese herbal seeds and seedlings quality standards.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1356-1361, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320077

ABSTRACT

In order to authenticate the components of antler powder in the market, DNA barcoding technology coupled with cloning method were used. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences were obtained according to the DNA barcoding standard operation procedure (SOP). For antler powder with possible mixed components, the cloning method was used to get each COI sequence. 65 COI sequences were successfully obtained from commercial antler powders via sequencing PCR products. The results indicates that only 38% of these samples were derived from Cervus nippon Temminck or Cervus elaphus Linnaeus which is recorded in the 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia", while 62% of them were derived from other species. Rangifer tarandus Linnaeus was the most frequent species among the adulterants. Further analysis showed that some samples collected from different regions, companies and prices, contained adulterants. Analysis of 36 COI sequences obtained by the cloning method showed that C. elaphus and C. nippon were main components. In addition, some samples were marked clearly as antler powder on the label, however, C. elaphus or R. tarandus were their main components. In summary, DNA barcoding can accurately and efficiently distinguish the exact content in the commercial antler powder, which provides a new technique to ensure clinical safety and improve quality control of Chinese traditional medicine


Subject(s)
Animals , Antlers , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Deer , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Powders , Quality Control
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330330

ABSTRACT

In order to construct an integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine, the authors and their cooperators have completed a lot of researches for identifying Chinese animal medicines using DNA barcoding technology. Sequences from GenBank have been analyzed simultaneously. Three different methods, BLAST, barcoding gap and Tree building, have been used to confirm the reliabilities of barcode records in the database. The integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine has been constructed using three different parts: specimen, sequence and literature information. This database contained about 800 animal medicines and the adulterants and closely related species. Unknown specimens can be identified by pasting their sequence record into the window on the ID page of species identification system for traditional Chinese medicine (www. tcmbarcode. cn). The integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine is significantly important for animal species identification, rare and endangered species conservation and sustainable utilization of animal resources.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Eukaryota , Classification , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330326

ABSTRACT

Fifty-eight samples belonging to 7 species of Arisaematis Rhizoma and its adulterants were collected. The ITS2 locus was employed as a DNA barcode and amplified, sequenced and assembled for all of the collected samples. Then, ITS2 sequences have been annotated using HMM-based method. The intra- and inter-specific variations were calculated and NJ tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that inter-specific K2P distances were significantly larger than intra-specific distances for all of the three origin species of Arisaematis Rhizoma. Furthermore, three origin species, Arisaema amurense, A. erubescens and A. heterophyllum, can be respectively formed to be a single branch with high bootstrap values. It is concluded that ITS2 can be used to correctly identify Arisaematis Rhizoma from its adulterants and the application of ITS2 in the identification of traditional Chinese medicine has an important prospective.


Subject(s)
Arisaema , Classification , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Classification , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Quality Control , Rhizome , Classification , Genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330322

ABSTRACT

Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Atractylodis Rhizoma were widely used in strengthening spleen under different disease conditions, and were easily and often misused each other. Therefore, DNA barcode was used to distinguish Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Atractylodis Rhizoma from their adulterants to ensure the safe use. The sequence lengths of ITS2 of Atractylodes macrocephala, Atractylodis Rhizoma (A. lancea, A. japonica and A. coreana) were both 229 bp. Among the ITS2 sequences of A. macrocephala, only one G/C transversion was detected at site 98, and the average GC content was 69.42%. No variable site was detected in the ITS2 sequences of A. lancea. The maximum K2P intraspecific genetic distances of both A. japonica and A. coreana were 0.013. The maximum K2P intraspecific genetic distances of A. macrocephala, A. lancea, A. japonica and A. coreana were less than the minimum interspecific genetic distance of adulterants. The ITS2 sequences in each of these polytypic species were separated into pairs of divergent clusters in the NJ tree. DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma, from their adulterants to ensure its safe use.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Classification , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Classification , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Quality Control , Rhizome , Classification , Genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330320

ABSTRACT

In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , Drug Contamination , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Placenta , Chemistry , Pregnancy , Quality Control , Sheep , Swine
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330319

ABSTRACT

In this study, the COI barcode was used to identify the Scolopendra medicinal materials and its adulterants in order to provide a new method for the identification of Scolopendra. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence alignment and NJ tree construction was carried out by MEGA6.0 software. The results showed that the COI sequences can be obtained from all experimental samples. The average inter-specific K2P distance of Scolopendra was 0.222 and the minimum inter-specific distance was 0.190. All the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans medicinal samples clustered into a clade in the NJ tree and can be distinguished from its adulterants. In a conclusion, COI can be used to correctly identify Scolopendra medicinal materials, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying other animal medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Proteins , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , Drug Contamination , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Quality Control , Scorpions , Classification , Genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318703

ABSTRACT

Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , DNA , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Classification , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Materia Medica , Classification , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812683

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED@#The DNA barcoding method was used to accurately and rapidly identify Corni Fructus and its adulterants.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA extracted from Corni Fructus and its adulterants were used as templates. The ITS (internal trascribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. Genetic distances were computed using MEGA V 5.0. Species identification was conducted using neighbor-joining (NJ) trees.@*RESULTS@#The ITS sequence length of Corni Fructus was 659 bp. The average intra-specific genetic distance of Corni Fructus was 0.005, markedly lower than the inter-specific genetic distance between Corni Fructus and its adulterants (0.357). The ITS2 sequence length of Corni Fructus was 250 bp. No variation was found among the different samples. The interspecific genetic distance of ITS2 between Corni Fructus and its adulterants was 0.571. NJ trees and BLAST results indicated that Corni Fructus and its adulterants can be easily differentiated with monophyly.@*CONCLUSION@#ITS/ITS2 regions can accurately and efficiently distinguish Corni Fructus and its adulterants. In addition, the results not only established the foundation for the clinical safety in the utilization of Corni Fructus, but also provided reference for molecular identification of other Chinese herbal medicine and Chinese herbal pieces.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cornus , Classification , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Methods , Phylogeny , Species Specificity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287646

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the Cynomorii Herba and its analogues species using DNA barcoding technique.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Total genomic DNA extracted from all materials using the DNA extraction kit. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and purified PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner 3.7.1. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances and GC content were computed using MEGA 5. 0. Species identification analyses were conducted through the species identification system for traditional Chinese medicine and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The ITS2 sequence lengths of Cynomorii Herba were 229 bp. The average intra-specific genetic distances of Cynomorii Herba were 0.003. The average inter-specific genetic distances between Cynomorii Herba and its adulterants species were 0.760. The results showed that the minimum inter-specific divergence is larger than the maximum intra-specific divergence. The species identification system for traditional Chinese medicine and NJ trees results indicated that Cynomorii Herba and its adulterants species can be easily identification.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ITS2 region is an efficient barcode for identification of Cynomorii Herba, which provide a new technique to ensure clinical safety in utilization of traditional Chinese medicine.</p>


Subject(s)
Cynomorium , Classification , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 126-130, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250656

ABSTRACT

The dried succulent stems of Cistanche (Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma and Cistanche tubulosa Wight.) are one of the most widely used components of traditional Chinese medicines. However, it is often confused and substituted with the roots of Orobanche pycnostachya, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) Standl., Cistanche sinensis Beck, and Cistanche salsa (C. A. Mey.) Beck. In this study, we identified psbA-trnH regions from species and tested their suitable for the identification of the above mentioned taxa. The psbA-trnH sequences showed considerable variations between species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Cistanche species. Additionally, the average genetic distance of psbA-trnH ranging from 0.077% to 0.743%. In contrast, the intra-specific variation among Cistanche species was found to be significantly different from those of other species, with percentages of variation studied ranged from 0% to 0.007%. The sequence difference between the psbA-trnH sequences of Cistanche species and Orobanche pycnostachya ranged from 0.979% to 1.149%. The distance between the Cistanche species and Boschniakia rossica ranged from 1.066% to 1.224%. Our results suggest that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region represent a barcode that can be used to identify Cistanche species and other morphologically undistinguishable species.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cistanche , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Orobanche , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Stems , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Plastids , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Methods , Species Specificity
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