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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 52-62, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964307


Bile acids (BAs) are a group of endogenous steroid molecules that regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. They play an important role in maintaining body homeostasis and physiological functions as key signaling molecules for host and gut microbial metabolism. The accurate characterization and quantification of BAs in vivo is of great importance in basic and clinical research. Over the past decades, enzymatic assay, enzyme-linked immunoassay, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chromatography, and other related techniques have been developed and applied to the detection of BAs. The diverse structures of BAs, the existence of isomers and the complex matrix of biological samples pose great challenges for the detection of endogenous BAs. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is a robust analytical technique that combines the rapid separation capacities of UPLC with the powerful structural identification capabilities of MS/MS, facilitating the more rapid separation, characterization and accurate quantitative of target analytes in biological samples. UPLC-MS/MS has been widely used in the quantitative analysis of BAs in recent years for its high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high accuracy. This paper summarized the biosynthetic pathways of BAs, sample pretreatment methods, common analytical detection techniques, and highlights the current status of the application of UPLC-MS/MS technology in the analysis of endogenous BAs over the past five years, to provide a reference for the accurate detection of endogenous BAs and further research development and application.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1566-1576, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978715


Chirality is one of the fundamental properties of nature, and most of the important molecules in living organisms contain chiral structures. The efficacy and safety of drugs are often closely related to the chiral structure of compounds, however, there are relatively more studies on synthetic characterization, pharmacology, and toxicology of chiral small molecule chemical drugs, but relatively less studies on chiral compounds contained in natural drugs such as traditional Chinese medicines. Chiral separation, as the basis of chiral research, has a pivotal position in the study of chiral compounds. In this paper, we systematically describe the separation methods of chiral compounds from the classification of chiral splitting methods based on chromatographic and non-chromatographic methods, as well as chromatographic packing materials, chiral additives and chiral derivatization, and review the chiral compounds in natural drugs such as traditional Chinese medicines reported in the past ten years, in order to provide references for the splitting and evaluating the activity of chiral compounds, and the improvement of quality standards of traditional Chinese medicines.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1868-1873, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929434


Saponins and sterones are two main characteristic components in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix. In order to control the quality of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix more effectively, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established by using double external standards calibration method (DESCM) for simultaneous determination of the contents of achyranthoside C, achyranthoside D, β-ecdysterone, 25R-inokosterone and 25S-inokosterone in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm) using 0.1% phosphoric acid in water and 0.1% phosphoric acid in acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was set as 35 ℃, the injection volume was 5 μL and the total analytical time was 30 min. β-Ecdysterone was used as the reference to calculate the relative correction factors (RCF) and relative retention time (RRT) of 25R-inokosterone and 25S-inokosterone, achyranthoside D was used for achyranthoside C. The RCFs of 25R-inokosterone, 25S-inokosterone, and achyranthoside C were 1.116, 1.056, and 0.888 1, respectively. The double external standards calibration method (DESCM) and external standard method (ESM) were used to calculate the contents of five ingredients in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix samples from different sources and the variation between the results was within acceptable limits (RE ≤ 5%). The results showed that the contents of two saponins and three sterones of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix were 0.597%-1.916% and 0.044%-0.150% respectively. The total content of saponins was about 10 times that of sterones. In conclusion, the established DESCM allowed simultaneous determination of five ingredients (achyranthoside C, achyranthoside D, β-ecdysterone, 25R-inokosterone, and 25S-inokosterone) in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, providing a scientific and feasible overall quality evaluation method for Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2204-2216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887043


Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a newly emerging in-situ ionization mass spectrometry analysis technology. The ionization process occurs in an open ambient environment at atmospheric pressure, and has the characteristics of simple sample pretreatment, quick and sensitive analysis, and is widely used in biomedicine, pharmaceutical analysis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and material characterization. Natural medicines, such as Chinese herbal medicines, contain a variety of chemical components. Extraction, separation, identification, and in vitro and in vivo efficacy evaluation of natural medicines, especially research on active ingredients with significant efficacy, have received long-term attention. The development of DESI-MS technology provides many new opportunities for direct and rapid analysis of active ingredients in natural medicines. This article briefly introduces the principles, characteristics, influencing factors, and technical progress of DESI-MS technology, and systematically summarizes progress in the research and application of this technology to natural medicines such as Chinese herbal medicines and other plant samples with pharmacological activity. The future application prospects in this field are further presented.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 123-130, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780563


Notoginseng (Sanqi), the root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). It has been widely used in China with a long history for treatment of haemorrhage, edema, and cardiovascular disorders. Steamed P. notoginseng has been considered to have stronger therapeutic functions than raw P. notoginseng in the treatment of tumors, cardiovascular diseases, etc. Saponins are the principal chemical and pharmacological constituents in P. notoginseng. Thus, it is of great importance to determine the constituent saponins and determine any differences between fresh P. notoginseng and steamed P. notoginseng. We used a rapid and direct analytical method based on liquid extraction surface analysis combined with mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) to identify saponins in the xylem, phloem and cambium of fresh and steamed P. notoginseng root slices. The results revealed that ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re, Rd, notoginsenoside R1 and their malonyl group versions were most abundant in fresh root slices, while in steamed slices ginsenosides Rg5, Rk1 and other minor polar components could be detected, and the relative content of large polar components was lower. The described method is fast, robust and sensitive and the process does not need traditional and cumbersome pretreatment such as crushing, extraction and separation. It is the first non-destructive study on the differences in saponins between fresh and steamed P. notoginseng root slices.

Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 526-535, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827216


Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been paid much attentions due to the prevention and treatment of steroid hormone disorders. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is one of the most valuable herbs in complementary and alternative medicines around the world. A series of dammarane triterpenoid saponins, also known as phytosteroids, were reported as the primary ingredients of Ginseng, and indicated broad spectral pharmacological actions, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and anti-fatigue. The skeletons of the dammarane triterpenoid aglycone are structurally similar to the steroid hormones. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that Ginseng and its active ingredients have beneficial hormone-like role in hormonal disorders. This review thus summarizes the structural similarities between hormones and dammarane ginsenosides and integrates the analogous effect of Ginseng and ginsenosides on prevention and treatment of hormonal disorders published in recent twenty years (1998-2018). The review may provide convenience for anticipate structure-function relationship between saponins structure and hormone-like effect.