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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921355

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to present a major challenge to public health. Vaccine development requires an understanding of the kinetics of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).@*Methods@#In total, 605 serum samples from 125 COVID-19 patients (from January 1 to March 14, 2020) varying in age, sex, severity of symptoms, and presence of underlying diseases were collected, and antibody titers were measured using a micro-neutralization assay with wild-type SARS-CoV-2.@*Results@#NAbs were detectable approximately 10 days post-onset (dpo) of symptoms and peaked at approximately 20 dpo. The NAb levels were slightly higher in young males and severe cases, while no significant difference was observed for the other classifications. In follow-up cases, the NAb titer had increased or stabilized in 18 cases, whereas it had decreased in 26 cases, and in one case NAbs were undetectable at the end of our observation. Although a decreasing trend in NAb titer was observed in many cases, the NAb level was generally still protective.@*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that NAb levels vary among all categories of COVID-19 patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine the longevity and protective efficiency of NAbs induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2919-2927, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Albuvirtide is a once-weekly injectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 fusion inhibitor. We present interim data for a phase 3 trial assessing the safety and efficacy of albuvirtide plus lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-1-infected adults already treated with antiretroviral drugs.@*METHODS@#We carried out a 48-week, randomized, controlled, open-label non-inferiority trial at 12 sites in China. Adults on the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended first-line treatment for >6 months with a plasma viral load >1000 copies/mL were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive albuvirtide (once weekly) plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ABT group) or the WHO-recommended second-line treatment (NRTI group). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma viral load below 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Non-inferiority was prespecified with a margin of 12%.@*RESULTS@#At the time of analysis, week 24 data were available for 83 and 92 patients, and week 48 data were available for 46 and 50 patients in the albuvirtide and NRTI groups, respectively. At 48 weeks, 80.4% of patients in the ABT group and 66.0% of those in the NRTI group had HIV-1 RNA levels below 50 copies/mL, meeting the criteria for non-inferiority. For the per-protocol population, the superiority of albuvirtide over NRTI was demonstrated. The frequency of grade 3 to 4 adverse events was similar in the two groups; the most common adverse events were diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infections, and grade 3 to 4 increases in triglyceride concentration. Renal function was significantly more impaired at 12 weeks in the patients of the NRTI group who received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate than in those of the ABT group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The TALENT study is the first phase 3 trial of an injectable long-acting HIV drug. This interim analysis indicates that once-weekly albuvirtide in combination with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is well tolerated and non-inferior to the WHO-recommended second-line regimen in patients with first-line treatment failure.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02369965; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry No. ChiCTR-TRC-14004276; http://www.chictr.org.cn/enindex.aspx.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , China , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Maleimides , Peptides , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779551

ABSTRACT

Objective We aimed to elucidate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance spectrum of nasal coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) colonization among HIV infectors in Guangzhou. Method After isolation and identification, all CoNS isolates were tested for the antibiotic susceptibility, and the antibiotic resistance genes. Result Among the 1 001 HIV infectors, the prevalence of CoNS and MRCoNS were 57.44% and 48.15%, respectively. The three predominant resistant antibiotics of MRCoNS isolates were penicillin, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfame thoxazole, while predominant detection rates of genes were Aac(6’)-aph(2’)、ermC and linA genes. The multidrug resistance rate of MRCoNS isolates were significantly higher than methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS) isolates (80.69% versus 39.66%, P<0.001, OR=6.36). Conclusions The prevalence and multidrug resistant rates of nasal colonization CoNS and MRCoNS are high among HIV infectors in Guangzhou. MRCoNS isolates were 6.36 times more likely to be of multidrug resistance than MSCoNS isolates.

4.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 414-418, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689741

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To evaluate the semen quality of the HIV/AIDS male patients after treated by the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and their potential of transmitting HIV/AIDS and provide some evidence for this cohort of males who wish for parenthood.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We collected semen samples from 20 HIV/AIDS male patients who had been treated by HAART for over 6 months and wished for parenthood. We examined sperm concentration, viability and total motility and the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (MNS) using the computer-assisted semen analysis system, measured the HIV-1 RNA loads in the semen by the Cobas Amplicor Monitor test, and counted CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patients were aged 25-40 (30.7 ± 5.05) years. After treated by HAART for 6-26 (14.24 ± 12.26) months, the count of blood CD4+ T cells was significantly increased (341-1 058 [535.76 ± 212.021] /μl) in comparison with the baseline (226-965 [422.38 ± 200.86] /μl). Compared with the normal value, the semen volume was increased except in 1 case (≥2 ml) while total sperm motility was decreased in 13 cases (≥40%), and so were sperm concentration in 2 cases (≥15 × 106 / ml), sperm viability in 5 (58%), the percentage of progressively motile sperm in 18 (≥32%), and the percentage of MNS in 6 (≤4%). HIV-1 RNA in the peripheral blood was <20 copies/mL in all the cases and that in the seminal plasma was also <20 copies/ml in 18 cases but >20 copies/mL in the other 2 ([4.70 × 101] and [2.2 × 102] copies/ml, respectively). Of the 4 couples that had sex without protective measures for over 6 months, all the 4 female partners exhibited negative HIV antibodies in regular follow-up examinations and 1 achieved spontaneous pregnancy and healthy birth, with negative HIV-1 RNA in both the mother and the baby.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The HIV RNA level is higher in the semen than in the blood of the HIV/AIDS male patients after HAART, which indicates the potential risk of their semen transmitting HIV/AIDS to their female partners. Their sperm concentration and total sperm motility are lower than the normal value, which suggests a decreased fertility.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Female , Flow Cytometry , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Young Adult
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 823-827, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262519

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is an emerging pathogenic fungus that can cause invasive mycosis in patients with AIDS. The epidemiological features of P. marneffei infection in AIDS patients in Guangdong province remain unclear so far. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity within a population of 163 P. marneffei isolates obtained from AIDS patients and search for the dominant clinical strains in Guangdong province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and sixty-three P. marneffei isolates obtained from AIDS patients in Guangdong province during January 2004 and December 2009 were studied by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using two random primers (H2 and H22). The degree of similarity between samples was calculated through similarity coefficients from RAPD fragment data and the dendrogram was assessed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two primers showed a high degree of discrimination and good stability. Primer H2 yielded eight different patterns (H2-1 to H2-8) among 163 isolates with the discriminatory power being 0.413. Primer H22 identified seven types (H22-1 to H22-7) among 163 isolates with the discriminatory power being 0.467. Genetic similarity coefficients based on RAPD data among 163 P. marneffei isolates ranged from 0.681 to 0.957, 61.96% of which were no less than 0.83. The discriminatory power of the two primers was 0.524. One hundred and sixty-three P. marneffei isolates were clustered into nine distinct groups (groups I to IX) at the similarity coefficient value of 0.83 and group I was the most common, including 101 strains (61.96%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The RAPD analyses could provide important information as to the degree of genetic diversity and the relationship among clinical P. marneffei isolates, revealing genetic polymorphism and dominant strains.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Genetics , Humans , Penicillium , Classification , Genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Methods
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-334999

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the diagnostic value of serum islet autoantibody-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) and islet cell antibody (ICA) in patients with hepatogenic diabetes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Serum GADA and ICA were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 217 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH) or liver cirrhosis (LC). The positivity rate of GADA and ICA in different phases of CH and LC and their relations with diabetes mellitus were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The positivity rate of the islet autoantibody in the circulation was 72% in CH and LC patients with diabetes mellitus and 30% in patients with normal glucose level, showing significant difference between the two patient groups (Chi2=36.620, P=0.000). CH patients with diabetes had much higher positivity rate for the antibody [52% than type 2 diabetic patients with liver dysfunction [8%, P<0.05]. The positivity rate was also much higher in CH and LC patients with lowered C peptide level [70%] than in those with normal C peptide level [40%, P<0.005].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both GADA and ICA have important value in the diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetes and may serve as indexed in laboratory test for distinguishing hepatogenic diabetes from type 2 diabetes.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Autoantibodies , Blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Islets of Langerhans , Allergy and Immunology , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests
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