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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781224

ABSTRACT

Diterpenoid lactones (DLs), a group of furan-containing compounds found in Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), have been reported to be associated with hepatotoxicity. Different hepatotoxicities of these DLs have been observed in vitro, but reasonable explanations for the differential hepatotoxicity have not been provided. Herein, the present study aimed to confirm the potential factors that contribute to varied hepatotoxicity of four representative DLs (diosbulbins A, B, C, F). In vitro toxic effects were evaluated in various cell models and the interactions between DLs and CYP3A4 at the atomic level were simulated by molecular docking. Results showed that DLs exhibited varied cytotoxicities, and that CYP3A4 played a modulatory role in this process. Moreover, structural variation may cause different affinities between DLs and CYP3A4, which was positively correlated with the observation of cytotoxicity. In addition, analysis of the glutathione (GSH) conjugates indicated that reactive intermediates were formed by metabolic oxidation that occurred on the furan moiety of DLs, whereas, GSH consumption analysis reflected the consistency between the reactive metabolites and the hepatotoxicity. Collectively, our findings illustrated that the metabolic regulation played a crucial role in generating the varied hepatotoxicity of DLs.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878783

ABSTRACT

A split-plot experiment was conducted to study the optimum planting density of Nuomi yam in directional groove shallow cultivation. Nuomi yam was the main local cultivar of Dioscorea. The study of this paper may help to give valuable instructions of local production. Three different planting densities and shallow groove diameter were designed in the experiment. The results showed that the fresh weight of aerial part per plant, yield and planting benefit of Nuomi yam tuber were the highest when the planting density was 12 000 plants/hm~2 and the diameter of shallow growth groove was 11.0 cm, while they were the lowest when the planting density was 22 500 plants/hm~2 and the diameter of shallow growth groove was 7.5 cm. Along with the increase of planting density, the fresh weight of aerial part, tuber, fresh yield, benefit and commercial tuber rate of Nuomi yam also decreased. The commercial tuber rate of Nuomi yam of 11.0 cm diameter in shallow growing pot was the highest, while it was the lowest with no shallow growing pot. On the contrary, the content of amylopectin and mucin was the highest when there was no shallow groove, and was the lowest when the diameter of shallow groove was 7.5 cm, although there was no significant difference between the two treatments. Therefore, Nuomi yam with the directional cultivation combination of planting density of 12 000 plants/hm~2 and shallow groove diameter of 11.0 cm showed high yield, good appearance quality, high planting benefit and no obvious adverse effect on internal quality.


Subject(s)
Dioscorea
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739102

ABSTRACT

Clinical interpretation of the test results for cortisol based on continuous reference intervals with appropriate partitions improves pediatric diagnosis; however, these values are available only for Caucasians. To develop the pediatric reference intervals for Chinese population, we examined the serum cortisol levels in 1,143 healthy Chinese children aged 4–18 years (566 boys and 577 girls), using an IMMULITE 2000 Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare GmbH). Phlebotomy was performed at 7–9 a.m. for 284 boys and 287 girls and at 1–3 p.m. for the others. They were divided into four age groups according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline EP28-A3c, with the last group further stratified according to sampling time. Separate reference intervals of 49.6–323.7, 70.9–395.3, and 90.1–448.7 nmol/L were established for children aged 4–8, 9–12, and 13–15 years, respectively. Further, reference intervals of 118.2–464.7 and 71.4–446.7 nmol/L were established for morning and afternoon cortisol levels, respectively, in children aged 16–18 years. Further studies are necessary to transfer and validate these reference intervals in other analytical systems and pediatric populations, and to allow for broader applications.


Subject(s)
Asians , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Immunoassay , Pediatrics , Phlebotomy
4.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1221-1225, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792464

ABSTRACT

Objective To learn the dietary nutrition status among residents in Hangzhou. Methods A cross - sectional study was conducted among 1 744 subjects of 495 families to collect food consumption data through both food - weighting and food - recording method covering 3 consecutive days. The intake of nutrients was calculated using data derived from China Food Composition and further was compared to the dietary reference intakes( DRIs). Results The medians of dietary intake for vegetable,fruit,aquatic product,egg,soy product & nut and milk(269. 4,86. 2,40. 0,22. 3,14. 9 and 0 g/ standard - person(sp)/ d,respectively)were below recommendations,while that of poultry & meat,total salt equivalent and oil(105. 6,10. 4 and 28. 7 g/ sp/ d,respectively)exceeded the recommendations. The medians of energy, protein,carbohydrate and fat intake(2 143. 8 kcal/ sp/ d,74. 5,282. 1and 78. 5 g/ sp/ d,respectively)were either in the recommended ranges or approach to them. The medians of vitamin A,E,B1,B2 and C intake(431. 8 μgRAE/ sp/ d, 11. 2 mgα - TE/ sp/ d,0. 9,0. 9 and 70. 2 mg/ sp/ d,respectively)were not meet corresponding recommended nutrient intakes / adequate intakes(RNIs/ AIs)among all analyzed vitamins. The median of sodium intake(5 217. 9 mg/ sp/ d)was above the proposed intake(PI)for NCD prevention while the medians of calcium,potassium and selenium intake(520. 7, 1 877. 6 mg/ sp/ d and 46. 4 μg/ sp/ d,respectively)were below corresponding RNI/ PI among all analyzed minerals. Conclusion The dietary pattern of residents in Hangzhou was not well - balanced,and that led to inadequate intake of multiple micronutrients though the macronutrients were barely affected.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287620

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the absolute bioavailability of caffeic acid in rats and its intestinal absorption properties.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The absolute bioavailability (Fabs) of caffeic acid was obtained after iv (2 mg x kg(-1)) or ig (10 mg x kg(-1)) administration to rats. The intestinal absorption of caffeic acid was explored by the recirculating vascularly perfused rat intestinal preparation. Caco-2 cell model was applied to measure the permeability of caffeic acid from apical to basolateral said (A-B) and from basolateral to apical said (B-A).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was best to describe the pharmacokinetics of caffeic acid following iv or ig administration. The Fabs of caffeic acid was 14. 7% , and its intestinal absorption was 12.4%. The values of Papp A-->B and Papp B-->A of caffeic acid were retained stable while its concentration was changed. The efflux ratio values in this study surveyed were above 2.0, and suggesting caffeic acid was active transport.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Caffeic acid was shown to have poor permeability across the Caco-2 cells, low intestinal absorption and low oral bioavailability in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Caffeic Acids , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-635851

ABSTRACT

Background Oxygen-induced retinal neovascularization is the main pathological basis for many retinal vascular diseases.Research showed that light exposure at night can suppress retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy(OIR),but there were few reports discussing its effect on ROP.Objective This study aimed to observe the effect of light exposure at night on retinal neovascularization in an OIR mouse model.Methods Sixty-four newborn C57 BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups,with 16 mice for each group.OIR models were established by rearing the newborn C57BL/6J mice with their mothers in a(75±2)% oxygen environment from postnatal day 7(P7)to Pl2,and then transferred to room air.In the OIR model group,the environmental illumination level was the same as the normal control group,and the model mice were exposed to 100 lx light at night in the OIR+ light exposure group.In the simple light exposure group,normal mice were reared in room air and were exposed to light at night from P12 to P17.All the mice were sacrificed on P17,and retinal flat mounts were prepared to assess the oxygen-induced changes of retinal vessels using the adenosine diphosphatase(ADPase)histochemical technique.The amount of proliferative neovascularization was quantified by counting the number of endotheliocyte nuclei in new vessels extending from the retinal inner limiting membrane into the vitreous in ocular cross-sections.The expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)protein was detected by immunohistochemistry.Real-time PCR analysis was performed to examine the expression of VEGF mRNA.The rearing and usage of the animals complied with the Statement of ARVO.Results Less free-vascular areas and new blood vessels were seen in the OIR+light exposure group compared with the OIR model group.On day 17 of the mouse life,the number of the endotheliocyte nuclei in new vessels extending from retinal inner limiting membrane were 0.97±0.83,1.00±0.72,38.57±5.01 and 16.92±3.39 in the normal group,simple light exposure group,OIR model group and OIR+light exposure group,respectively,showing significant differences among them(F =78.767,P =0.000).The number of nuclei in the OIR+light exposure group were less than that of the OIR model group(t=20.446,P<0.01).Immunochemistry showed that the expression of VEGF in retina was weaker in the OIR+light exposure group than the OIR model group.The relative expression values of VEGF mRNA were 1.00±0.00,0.94±0.07,2.08±0.50 and 1.43±0.21 in the normal group,simple light exposure group,OIR model group and OIR+light exposure group,respectively,showing a significant difference (F=11.268,P =0.003),where the VEGF mRNA level in the OIR+light exposure group was lower than that of the OIR model group(t =20.163,P<0.05).Conclusions Light exposure at night can weaken retinal neovascularization in OIR mice

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272956

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on apoptosis of lung tissue cells and its mechanism in acute lung injury following blunt chest trauma in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n equal to 54) weighing (250+/-5) g were divided equally and randomly into three groups: normal control group (C group, n equal to 18), trauma model group (T group, n equal to 18) and penehyclidine hydrochloride treatment group (P group, n equal to 18). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the time points of 3, 12 and 24 hours after experiment (at each time point, n equal to 6 for each subgroup). Rats of P group were intraperitoneally injected with penehyclidine hydrochloride for 2 mg/kg immediately after blunt chest trauma and rats in its 24 hours subgroup were once again injected with penehyclidine hydrochloride in the same dose 12 hours after injury. Lung tissue samples were collected at every time point and cell apoptosis in lung tissues were measured by TUNEL. Apoptotic index (AI) was calculated, expressions of bax and bcl-2 were detected by immunohistochemical staining of SABC, and lung tissue sections were taken for light and electron microscopic observation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>As compared with C group, at every time point, AI and expressions of bax and bcl-2 in T group were higher (P less than 0.05), and the ratio of bcl-2/bax markedly decreased (P less than 0.05), especially in the 24 hours subgroup. The ratio in T group (0.468+/-0.007) was lower than that in C group (1.382+/-0.058, t equal to 12.5, P less than 0.01). Lung tissue injuries were significant under a light microscope, and the number of apoptotic cells increased obviously under a transmission electron microscope. As compared with T group at the same phase, AI and expression of bax decreased in P group (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01), while the expression of bcl-2 increased significantly (P less than 0.01), and the ratio of bcl-2/bax markedly increased (P less than 0.05), especially in the 24 hours subgroup. The ratio in P group (1.012+/-0.070) was much higher than that in T group (0.468+/-0.007, t equal to 8.3, P less than 0.01). The injury of lung tissues was relieved, and apoptosis of cells decreased obviously under a transmission electron microscopic observation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Apoptosis and expressions of bax and bcl-2 in lung tissues might be involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by blunt chest trauma. Penehyclidine hydrochloride can alleviate lung injuries by inhibiting apoptosis of lung tissue cells, during which effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on regulating expressions of bax and bcl-2 may play an important role.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Lung , Pathology , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Quinuclidines , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thoracic Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282294

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) can change the gene expression profile in MCF-7 cells and to screen RF EMF responsive genes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Subcultured MCF-7 cells were intermittently (5-minute fields on/10-minute fields off) exposed or sham-exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF EMF, which was modulated by 217 Hz EMF, for 24 hours at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.0 W/kg or 3.5 W/kg. Immediately after RF EMF exposure or sham-exposure, total RNA was isolated from MCF-7 cells and then purified. Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Genechip was applied to examine the change of gene expression profile according to the manufacturer's instruction. Data was analyzed by Affymetrix Microarray Suite 5.0 (MAS 5.0) and Affymetrix Data Mining Tool 3.0 (DMT 3.0). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate the differentially expressed genes identified by Genechip analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A small number of differential expression genes were found in each comparison after RF EMF exposure. Through reproducible and consistent analysis, no gene or five up-regulated genes were screened out after exposure to RF EMF at SAR of 2.0 W/kg or 3.5 W/kg, respectively. However, these five genes could not be further confirmed by RT-PCR.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The present study did not provide clear evidence that RF EMF exposure might distinctly change the gene expression profile in MCF-7 cells under current experimental conditions, implying that the exposure might not affect the MCF-7 cell physiology, or this cell line might be less sensitive to the RF EMF exposure.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Radiation Effects , Electromagnetic Fields , Female , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Radiation Dosage , Radio Waves , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280667

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the value of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) in therapy of T lymphoid leukemia and role of cytometric bead array (CBA) method in detection of Th1/Th2 cytokines expression, the Jurkat cells were cultured for 48 hours in different concentration of IFN-gamma, the expressions of IL-2, IL-6, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha in culture supernatants were assayed by CBA method; CD25 expression was assayed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the expressions of IL-2, TNF-alpha were enhanced in INF-gamma dose-dependent way, and the expression of CD25 was also enhanced, but there was no expression of IL-6. It is concluded that Jurkat cells induced by IFN-gamma were able to express high-level of Th1 cytokine and IL-2 membrane receptor (CD25), and the CBA method can be used to exactly evaluate the dynamic change of Th1/Th2 cytokines.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Methods , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Pharmacology , Interleukin-2 , Jurkat Cells , Microspheres , Sensitivity and Specificity , Th1 Cells , Metabolism , Th2 Cells , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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