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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 399-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970477

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix braised with mild fire and compare the effect of processing method on the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix. To be specific, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was used to screen the chemical constituents of Rehmanniae Radix. The chemical constituents were identified based on the relative molecular weight and fragment ions, literature information, and Human Metabolome Database(HMDB). The ion peak area ratio of each component before and after processing was used as the index for the variation. SIMCA was employed to establish principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) models of different processed products. According to the PCA plot, OPLS-DA plot, and VIP value, the differential components before and after the processing were screened out. The changes of the content of differential components with the processing method were analyzed. A total of 66 chemical components were identified: 57 of raw Rehmanniae Radix, 55 of steamed Rehmanniae Radix, 55 of wine-stewed Rehmanniae Radix, 51 of repeatedly steamed and sundried Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, 62 of traditional bran-braised Rehmanniae Radix, and 63 of electric pot-braised Rehmanniae Radix. Among them, the 9 flavonoids of braised Rehmanniae Radix were from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. PCA suggested significant differences in the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata prepared with different processing methods. OPLS-DA screened out 32 chemical components with VIP value >1 as the main differential components. Among the differential components, 9 were unique to braised Rehmanniae Radix(traditional bran-braised, electric pot-braised) and the degradation rate of the rest in braised(traditional bran-braised, electric pot-braised) or repeatedly steamed and sundried Rehmanniae Radix was higher than that in the steamed or wine-stewed products. The results indicated the chemical species and component content of Rehmanniae Radix changed significantly after the processing. The 32 components, such as rehmapicrogenin, martynoside, jionoside D, aeginetic acid, hesperidin, and naringin, were the most important compounds to distinguish different processed products of Rehmanniae Radix. The flavonoids introduced by Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium as excipient may be the important material basis for the effectiveness of braised Rehmanniae Radix compared with other processed products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rehmannia/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 273-282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940613

ABSTRACT

Rehmanniae Radix is a common medicine of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the function of nourishing Yin and tonifying the kidney, and has a long application history of processing. This medicine was first recorded in Synopsis of Golden Chamber (《金匮要略》), which was mainly produced by steaming and boiling. Its processing materials were diverse. In addition to rice wine, honey, Amomi Fructus, milk, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum, and Carthami Flos were also recorded in ancient books, but with the evolution of time, the characteristic excipients gradually disappeared. Based on this, starting with different excipients, the author consulted the classics of materia medica and processing specifications in various regions, sorted out the historical evolution of Rehmanniae Radix processing, and explored new methods and new ideas to exert the maximum efficacy on this basis. At the same time, the effects of different processing excipients on the chemical components and pharmacodynamic effects of Rehmanniae Radix were analyzed. After literature review, it was found that Rehmanniae Radix mainly had the effects of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing Yin and generating fluid. Its traditional processing excipients generally used rice wine, Carthami Flos and others. After processing with different excipients, there was different effects on the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Rehmanniae Radix. In summary, this paper can provide useful reference for standardized research on different processed products of Rehmanniae Radix.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2430-2439, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928122

ABSTRACT

A total of 15 batches of the substance reference of Guizhi Jia Gegen Decoction(GZGGD) were prepared and the characteristic fingerprints of them were established. Furthermore, the similarity of the fingerprints and peak attributes were explored. The extraction rate, and the content and the transfer rate ranges of the index components, puerarin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, and ammonium glycyrrhizate were determined for the analysis of the quality value transfer. The result demonstrated that the fingerprints of the 15 batches of the samples showed high similarity(>0.99). A total of 15 characteristic peaks were identified from the fingerprints, with 10 for Puerariae Lobatae Radix, 1 for Cinnamomi Ramulus, 2 for Paeoniae Radix Alba, and 2 for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The content of puerarin was 11.05-18.35 mg·g~(-1) and the average transfer rate was 21.27%-39.49%. The corresponding figures were 7.95-10.90 mg·g~(-1) and 23.28%-43.23% for paeoniflorin, 3.25-4.95 mg·g~(-1) and 32.31%-61.27% for ammonium glycyrrhizate, and 3.65-5.80 mg·g~(-1) and 14.57%-27.05% for liquiritin. The extraction rate of the 15 batches of samples was in the range of 16.85%-21.78%. In this paper, the quality value transfer of the substance reference of GZGGD was analyzed based on characteristic fingerprint, content of index components, and the extraction rate. This study is expected to lay a basis for the quality control and further development of GZGGD.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1871-1880, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928183

ABSTRACT

In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance(LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) were employed to analyze the water distribution, status, and migration in the moistening process of Arecae Semen. Peleg model was adopted to study the water absorption kinetics of Arecae Semen moistened at different water temperatures(10, 30, and 50 ℃). The Arecae Semen samples soaked at different water temperatures all contained four water states: binding water T_(21), non-flowing water T_(22), free water T_(23), and unbound water T_(24). Non-flowing water had the largest increase in peak area during the moistening process, followed by free water. The peak areas of non-flowing water, free water, and total water were correlated with the water content(P<0.01). Therefore, LF-NMR can quickly and non-destructively predict the water content of Arecae Semen during moistening. The peak area of non-flowing water and the content of free water were correlated with the content of arecoline in the soaking solution(P<0.01), which indicated that the faster flow of non-flowing water and more free water corresponded to more arecoline dissolved. The MRI images showed that the water migration pathway varied at different soaking temperatures, and the moistening degree obtained by this means was consistent with that obtained based on traditional experience. The rate constant K_1 fitted by Peleg model decreased with the increase in water temperature, while the capacity constant K_2 showed an opposite trend. The Arrhenius equation fitting of K_1 with temperature showed that the activation energy of Arecae Semen in the moistening process was 32.98 kJ·mol~(-1). LF-NMR/MRI can be used to analyze the water status and content and determine the end moisturing point of Arecae Semen. Peleg model can accurately describe the water absorption properties of Arecae Semen in the moistening process. The findings of this study can guide the moistening optimization and mechanism research of other seed Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Areca , Arecoline/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Kinetics , Seeds/chemistry , Water/analysis
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 487-495, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873772

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles have better applicability in the detection, treatment of cancer and various difficult diseases, but mononuclear phagocytosis system can seriously shorten the time of nanoparticles in vivo circulation, reduce the drug efficacy. The protein crown formed on the surface of the nanoparticle after entering the body can change its surface properties, interfere with the recognition of phagocytes, and thus affect its circulation time in vivo. This article outlines the general composition and formation process of protein crowns. It also summarizes the influence of the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as particle size, surface charge, hydrophilicity and surface materials on the formation of protein crowns. The protein crown affects the circulation of nanoparticles in vivo, mainly because the adsorbed opsonic protein promotes cell phagocytosis. Therefore, we also introduce the method of using protein crowns to promote the long circulation of nanoparticles in vivo. By designing appropriate physical and chemical properties, surface modification, and directed design of protein crowns, the adsorption of proteins on the surface of nanoparticles can be reduced. Therefore, it can reduce the clearance of nanoparticles in the mononuclear phagocytic system (mainly the phagocytes of the liver and spleen), and achieve the goal of long circulation of nanoparticles in the body.

6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4403-4409, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888139

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the pharmacodynamic differences of Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR), Puerariae Thomsonii Radix(PTR) and their different processed products and the influences of these medical materials on the diversity of intestinal flora. The Sennae Folium-induced diarrhea model, streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetes model and L-nitro-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME)-induced hypertension model were used to compare the pharmacodynamic differences in anti-diarrhea, blood glucose reduction and blood pressure lowering among raw, roasted and vinegar-processed PLR and PTR. The effects of raw and processed PLR and PTR on intestinal flora diversity of rats were evaluated by 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The roasted PLR and PTR performed better in anti-diarrhea, especially the former. PLR and its processed products all presented the efficacy of reducing blood glucose, and the vinegar-processed PLR was the most outstanding. The raw PTR was not that effective in reducing blood glucose, whereas its efficacy was improved after roasting and vinegar processing. Both PLR and PTR were capable of lowering blood pressure to a certain extent, and PLR is superior to PTR in this aspect. Further, the vinegar-processed PLR showed the best effect. The diversity of intestinal flora was different among rats to which different products of PLR and PTR were administered. The roasted PLR led to the highest abundance of Lactobacillus, which was closely related to its best antidiarrheal effect. The highest abilities of vinegar-processed PLR to lower blood glucose and blood pressure were associated with the high abundance of Blautia and Prevotella_9. This study lays a foundation for elucidating the processing mechanisms of PLR and PTR and provides a basis for their further development and application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots , Pueraria
7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 121-127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906028

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effects of different processing methods on the anti-gouty arthritis and cardiotoxicity of Aconiti Radix, and to explore the possible attenuation and synergism mechanism of these different processing methods. Method:The swelling degree of knee joint, levels of inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL) -1<italic>β</italic>, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-<italic>α</italic>] and the activities of liver energy metabolism-related enzymes [Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)] in rats with gouty arthritis were used as indicators to evaluate the effects of pharmacopoeia steaming Aconiti Radix, pharmacopoeia boiling Aconiti Radix, Jianchang faction processed Aconiti Radix, Zhang faction processed Aconiti Radix and raw Aconiti Radix. The activity of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the content of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were used as indexes to evaluate the cardiotoxicity of Aconiti Radix and its different processed products. Result:In the anti-gouty arthritis test, compared with the blank group, the knee joint of the model group was significantly swollen (<italic>P</italic><0.01), the levels of IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-18, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> in serum were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase activity was significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, raw Aconiti Radix and the four processed products could reduce knee joint swelling and decrease IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-18, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> levels in serum of rats. The activity of Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase in the liver of rats from the pharmacopoeia steaming Aconiti Radix group was significantly higher than that in the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and there was no statistical difference in other groups. In the cardiotoxicity test, compared with the blank group, the activities of CK and LDH were significantly increased and the level of BNP was significantly increased in the raw Aconiti Radix group and the pharmacopoeia steaming/boiling Aconiti Radix groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01). In terms of LDH activity and BNP content, the Zhang faction and Jianchang faction processed Aconiti Radix groups were significantly lower than those in the raw Aconiti Radix group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). In the CK activity, the Zhang faction processed Aconiti Radix group was significantly lower than that in the raw Aconiti Radix group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Raw Aconiti Radix and the four processed products have certain anti-inflammatory effects, but there are some differences among different indicators. There are significant differences in cardiotoxicity between the raw products and processed products of Aconiti Radix, and the cardiotoxicity of Jianchang faction and Zhang faction processed products was the weakest.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 180-185, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873266

ABSTRACT

As an important part of clinical medication, the main function of processing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is to reduce toxicity and increase efficiency. The key to the best clinical efficacy of TCM after processing lies in three aspects of moderation, adaptation and timeliness, namely " three suitability" theory. In recent years, scholars have done a lot of research under the guide of " three suitability" theory, fully explaining the scientific connotation of the theory, which greatly promoted the inheritance and innovation of TCM processing. In this paper, the basic connotation of " three suitability" theory was summarized, combining with a large number of modern research reports, the pharmacodynamics and composition changes of processed drugs were analyzed and discussed under the guide of " three suitability" theory. At the end of the paper, the authors proposed that we should not only systematize the traditional processing theories, but also use modern advanced technologies to explain the essence of traditional processing theories, and to innovate and develop new processing theories, promote the development of TCM processing discipline and the progress of TCM processing industry.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 72-77, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873220

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT), cells, proteins and corresponding genes in Yang deficiency model mice induced by Rhei Radix et Rhizoma suspension, and to explore the thermogenesis of processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata with Jianchang faction characteristics. Method:Twenty mice, half male and half female, were randomly selected as the normal female and male groups. And the other 80 mice were administrated with Rhei Radix et Rhizoma suspension (the content of 0.25 g·mL-1) to establish Yang deficiency model, after the model was established, they were randomly divided into the model female and male groups, female and male groups of Shengfupian, female and male groups of Yinfupian, female and male groups of Yangfupian, 10 mice in each group. Mice were intragastric administrated with corresponding medical solution for two weeks (1.54 g·kg-1·d-1) according to groups. Normal group and model group were given equal volume distilled water. After administration, BAT of scapular region of mice was collected and the changes of BAT cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and its mRNA were detected by Western blot and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). Result:Compared with the normal group of the same sex, the proportion of BAT in the model group decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the model group of the same sex, the proportion of BAT in female mice from Shengfupian and Yinfupian groups increased significantly (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between each administration group and model group in the male mice. Compared with normal mice of the same sex, there were many scattered vacuoles in BAT cells of the model group, and fewer cells could be observed due to larger vacuoles. Compared with the model group of the same sex, BAT cells in mice from the Shengfupian group showed fewer vacuoles, smaller cells and tight arrangement, the density of BAT cells in mice from the Yangfupian group also increased significantly, while the vacuoles in BAT cells of mice from the Yinfupian group decreased relatively and the cells did not increase significantly. Compared with the same sex mice, the expression level of UCP1 in the model group and the normal group was statistically significant (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the female mice, the expression level of UCP1 in Yangfupian group was significantly higher than that in the model group (P<0.05), each administration group of male mice was significantly different from that of the model group of the same sex (P<0.05), of which Yangfupian was the most significant. The relative expression of UCP1 mRNA in the model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group of the same sex (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the female mice, compared with the model group, the relative expression levels of UCP1 mRNA in Yangfupian group, Shengfupian group and Yinfupian group increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), compared with Yangfupian group, the relative expression levels of UCP1 mRNA in Shengfupian and Yinfupian were also significantly different (P<0.05). In the male mice, compared with the model group, the relative expression of UCP1 mRNA in Yangfupian group was significantly increased (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in Shengfupian group and Yinfupian group, in addition, compared with Yangfupian group, the relative expression of UCP1 mRNA in Shengfupian group and Yinfupian group had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion:Shengfupian, Yinfupian and Yangfupian all have obvious improvement on Yang deficiency syndrome induced by Rhei Radix et Rhizoma suspension. The mechanism may be to promote the expression of UCP1 protein and its mRNA and enhance the activity of BAT. And the effect of Yangfupian is the best.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 142-153, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873066

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effects of different processing techniques on the chemical constituents of Aurantii Fructus for screening the dominant decoction pieces. Method:UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was used to detect the chemical constituents of Aurantii Fructus, chromatography separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), and gradient elution was performed with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) as mobile phase (0-10 min, 5%-35%B; 10-18 min, 35%-75%B; 18-21 min, 75%-100%B; 21-24 min, 100%B; 24-24.1 min, 100%-5%B; 24.1-28 min, 5%B). Data acquisition was carried out in electrospray ionization (ESI) under the positive ion mode, the scanning range was m/z 50-1 200. The chemical constituents in methanol extract of Aurantii Fructus were identified according to reference substance, relative molecular weight, mass spectrometric cleavage rule and literature information. SIMCA-P 13.0 software was used to establish principal component analysis (PCA) model and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model of Aurantii Fructus processed products, PCA score plot, PLS-DA loading plot and variable importance in the protection (VIP) values were obtained to screen the material basis for the main differences before and after processing of Aurantii Fructus. Result:A total of 54 chemical components were identified by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. PCA indicated that there were significant differences among different groups of Aurantii Fructus processed by different methods. A total of 14 chemical components with VIP value >1 were screened by PLS-DA as the main chemical markers for the differences before and after processing, including hesperidin, poncirin, narirutin, etc. The comprehensive weighted score showed that the content of effective components in Aurantii Fructus processed with honey bran was the highest. Conclusion:The contents of chemical constituents in Aurantii Fructus before and after processing are significantly changed. Flavonoids are the most important compounds to distinguish different processed products of Aurantii Fructus. Aurantii Fructus processed with honey bran is the dominant variety.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 202-209, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872909

ABSTRACT

Aconiti Radix is a kind of medicinal material with great toxicity, which has more than 2 000 years of clinical application history, in the folk, there are often poisoning accidents caused by improper processing. The main processing purpose of Aconiti Radix in the early period was to reduce the toxicity with simple procedure and single excipient. Since the Song dynasty, with the deepening of physicians' cognition of processing and the theory of medicinal properties, the application of procedures and materials in the processing of Aconiti Radix began to become complicated, and the scope of clinical application was further expanded. In modern times, the processing technology of Aconiti Radix is mainly based on steaming and boiling, which is quite different from the traditional processing method with multiple materials and multiple processes. Based on the characteristics of many kinds of materials and processes, this paper discusses the change in processing methods of Aconiti Radix from the perspective of excipients and processes, as well as modern processing research, in order to lay a scientific foundation for exploring the effects of many kinds of materials and processes on the quality of Aconiti Radix and revealing its processing mechanism, and provide basis and reference for establishing a more reasonable and scientific processing method for Aconiti Radix in the future.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 124-131, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872835

ABSTRACT

Objective:To optimize the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen with the specific process parameters, and verify the obtained processing technology by pharmacodynamic research, so as to provide experimental basis for the standardized production and quality control of this decoction pieces. Method:Taking composite score of appearance character score, dry extract yield and contents of three components (geniposidic acid, acteoside and isoacteoside) as index, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-criteria importance through intercrieria correlation (CRITIC) mixed weighting method was used to determine the weight coefficient of each index. Based on single factor tests, the response surface method was used to investigate the effects of frying time, frying temperature, salt amount and water amount on the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen, and the processing technology was verified by diuretic experiment with furosemide tablets as the positive drug (administration dose of 0.01 g·kg-1). Result:The weight coefficients of geniposidic acid content, acteoside content, appearance character score, isoacteoside content and dry extract yield were 0.319, 0.193, 0.207, 0.273 and 0.008, respectively. The optimal process parameters were as following:fried at 150-180 ℃ for 10 min (obtained from the single factor tests), 100 g of Plantaginis Semen sprayed evenly with 2 g of salt (2 g of salt dissolved in 20 mL of water), and fried at 150-180 ℃ for 15 min. Compared with the blank group, both of the raw products group and the salt-processed products group could significantly increase the secretion of urine volume (P<0.01), but the excretion of Na+ in the urine of rats in the salt-processed products group was significantly higher than that in the raw products group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The optimized processing technology is simple and feasible, which can provide reference for standardizing the industrial production of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen. At the same time, combined with inherent quality and appearance of the salt-processed products, and verified by pharmacodynamic test, the obtained results are reasonable and reliable, which can be used for quality control of this decoction pieces.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 162-167, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802315

ABSTRACT

Objective:To optimize the processing technology of Moslae Herba processed with ginger juice, and to explore the changes of its volatile components in processing process. Method:The volatile components in Moslae Herba, ginger juice and Moslae Herba processed with ginger juice were extracted by steam distillation. Volatile components in these products were analyzed by HS-GC-MS and identified by NIST 11 standard mass spectra library. Gas chromatographic conditions were as following:HP-5MS elastic quartz capillary column(0.25 mm×30 m, 0.25 μm), helium as the carrier gas, flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1, injector temperature at 250℃, sample quantity of 0.2 μL, split ratio of 50:1, temperature program for initial temperature at 40℃, up to 60℃ with the heating rate at 5℃·min-1, keep 2 min, up to 160℃ with the heating rate at 5℃·min-1, keep 3 min, finally rise to 250℃ with the heating rate at 25℃·min-1, keep it for 2 min and finish, mass spectrometry conditions were as following:electron impact ionization(EI), electron collision energy of 70 eV, ion source temperature at 230℃, the interface temperature at 280℃, quadrupole temperature at 150℃, no delay of solvent, electronic multiplier voltage at 2.188 kV, taking full scan mode, scanning range of m/z 35-550.Taking frying time, solid-liquid ratio and moistening time as factors, orthogonal test was adopted to optimize the processing technology with the comprehensive score of relative contents of thymol and carvacrol, number of volatile components and extracting amount of volatile oil as index. Result:A total of 27 volatile components were detected in Moslae Herba. There were 81 volatile components in Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens. The processed products of orthogonal test(No. 1-9) had 31, 38, 29, 35, 38, 33, 34, 22 and 26 volatile components, respectively. Extracting amount of volatile oil was in the order of Moslae Herba processed with ginger juice > Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens > Moslae Herba. The best processing technology was as following:moistening Moslae Herba with equal volume of ginger juice for 6 h, stir-frying for 8 min. Conclusion:Processing has certain impact on the extracting amount of volatile oil in Moslae Herba and the types of volatile components. This optimized technology is stable and feasible, which can provide experimental data for the quality evaluation of processed products of Moslae Herba, and lay a foundation for clarifying its processing mechanism.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 191-199, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801886

ABSTRACT

The processing of Aurantii Fructus has a long history and many methods. In addition to the current mainstream varieties of raw products and stir-fried products with bran of Aurantii Fructus, other 17 processing methods, such as stir-fried with rice, processed with salt, honey and medicinal juice, are recorded in the literature of past dynasties. Through a comprehensive review and sorting out of ancient and modern literature, this paper clarifies the historical evolution of the processing of Aurantii Fructus, through clarifying the historical evolution of processing and analyzing the present situation of modern research on Aurantii Fructus, summarizes the modern research progress on processing in production place, processing technology, chemical compositions and pharmacological effects before and after being processed, and puts forward some ideas for the follow-up research on processing of Aurantii Fructus, in order to provide reference for screening the dominant varieties, standardizing the processing technology, explaining the scientific connotation of processing, and improving the utilization ratio of medicinal resources of Aurantii Fructus.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 95-105, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801838

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the effect of honey bran stir-frying method in Zhang faction and honey chaff stir-frying method in Jianchang faction on the composition and relative content of volatile components in Cimicifugae Rhizoma. Method: The volatile oil in different processed products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The inlet temperature was 260℃, the transmission line temperature was 250℃, the carrier gas was helium, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the split ratio was 10:1, the injection volume was 1 μL. The column temperature was set at 70℃ by programmed heating, rising to 150℃ by 2℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 2 min, rising to 240℃ by 6℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 3 min, rising to 300℃ by 25℃·min-1 and keeping it there for 2 min. The relative content of each component in volatile oil was calculated by peak area normalization method. Result: A total of 73 components were identified from raw products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma, 37 components were identified from honey bran stir-frying products, 93 components were identified from honey chaff stir-frying products, and 71 components were identified from honey stir-frying products. The relative content of n-hexadecanoic acid was the highest among all components in different processed products, accounting for 30.38%-46.47% of the total volatile components. In addition to fatty acids, volatile oils also contained alkanes, esters, alcohols, etc. There were 8 common components with relative content ≥ 1.0% in raw and processed products of Cimicifugae Rhizoma, after stir-frying with honey bran, the relative contents of these 8 components showed an upward trend, but showed a decreasing trend after stir-frying with honey chaff. Conclusion: After processing with Zhang faction method or Jianchang faction method, the composition and relative content of volatile components in Cimicifugae Rhizoma were significantly changed. This study can provide a scientific basis for explaining the processing mechanism of Jiangxi characteristic Cimicifugae Rhizoma decoction pieces.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 114-119, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798361

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the protective effect of Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan on residual renal function in patients with maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) and investigate its effect on peritoneal fibrosis and microinflammation.Method: The 65 patients with PD who were admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled in the study, and divided into control group (32 cases) and study group (33 cases) according to the random number table. The control group received routine treatment. The study group received routine treatment+Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan. The fasting venous blood was taken before treatment and 3 months after treatment to measure serum creatinine (SCr) and urea nitrogen (BUN). Urine was collected; 24 hour urine volume was recorded; 24 h urine protein (24 h UP) was measured by colorimetry; glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated; residual renal function (RRF) was expressed with residual renal creatinine clearance. Inflammatory factors were detected by using chemiluminescence, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Serum Janus Kinase (JAK) 2 as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 levels were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were determined by Western blot.Result: Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the residual renal function between two groups. After treatment, the residual renal function of the study group was significantly better than that of control group (PPα in study group were lower than those in control group (PPPα-SMA protein was significantly increased after treatment (Pα-SMA protein after treatment.Conclusion: Xiao Chaihutang and Wulingsan can protect the residual renal function of PD patients, and the mechanism may be related to the improvement of peritoneal fibrosis and the reduction of micro-inflammation of the body, showing a high application value.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 357-361, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304808

ABSTRACT

To discuss the inheritance and innovation study of Chinese medicine processing technology from three aspects: inheritance, standardization and industrial innovation development, propose "three lacks" in inheritance, "six lacks of standardization, and one lack of unity" in standardization, and "three emphasizing and three despising aspects" in industrial innovation, and propose feasible solutions for the above mentioned problems, providing a good foundation for inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing.

18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2712-2719, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275180

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of two different ginger juices on the medicinal properties of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) by using UPLC-MS-TOF. The rats were fed with decoction of raw CR (RCR), CR processed with ginger juice from fresh ginger(CRGJFG), CR processed with ginger juice from Zinger (CRGJZ), ginger juice from fresh ginger (GJFG) and ginger juice from Zinger (GJZ), and then their urine was collected at different time points for metabolomics analysis. PeakviewTM 1.7 software was applied to analyze the total ion current under positive ion mode; MarkerviewTM 2.0 software was applied for principal component analysis (PCA). The possible biomarkers were screened and their content changes were described according to the searching results in Scifinder and Chemspider databases and related literature reports. The results showed that CR processed with different ginger juice would produce different effects on energy metabolism. Nine possible biomarkers relating to medicinal properties were found as sarcosine, hippuric acid, creatinine, kynurenine, tyrosine, L-tryptophan, nicotinic acid, arachidonic acid and L-proline. L-tryptophan, kynurenine and nicotinic acid were involved in the metabolism of tryptophan; sarcosine, creatinine, L-proline and tyrosine were involved in arginine and proline metabolism; the content of arachidonic acid in urine, precursor of leukotrienes B4, from high to low were CRGJZ, CRGJFG and RCR. The contents of all biomarkers in GJZ group were higher than those in GJFG group, indicating the cold nature of CR was gradually decreased in the following order: RCR, CRGJZ and CRGJFG, and resulting in different anti-inflammatory effects of samples. The results were in consistent with the conclusion that GJFG had hot nature and GJZ had warm nature. The study provided the scientific basis for proper use of different ginger juice as processing assistants.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3405-3408, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238583

ABSTRACT

Processing of Chinese materia medica is one of the important part of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Drugs in small pieces or slices are special for China and the whole world. Processing technic of Chinses materia medica existed for thousands of years and presented the essence of TCM. The purpose of analyzing the feature and development of traditional processing culture branches was to make a better understanding of traditional processing technic, and further the development of special processing culture branches.


Subject(s)
Materia Medica , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods
20.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; (24): 3177-3181, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-855043

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the difference of hot and cold property of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) before and after being processed with ginger juice. Methods: To feed rats for 29 d with the decoction of un-processed CR (UPCR) and ginger juice-processed CR (GPCR), the rats' blood was collected at different administration time, the data by HPLC-MS/MS analysis were processed with PCA to determine the metabolites difference between the treatment groups. Results: On the day 29, the metabolic status of endogenous substances in rats' blood showed the biggest difference between the UPCR and GPCR groups. Through checking the endogenous biomarkers of the rats in each group, the content of markers related to amino acid energy metabolism of rats in the GPCR group was higher than that in the UPCR group, indicating the energy metabolism of the GPCR was stronger than that of the UPCR, which showed the differences in cold and hot property between the two drugs. Conclusion: The results show that the differences in potency of the UPCR and GPCR can be reflected by rats' different biological effects. The results are consistent with the traditional processing theory in Chinese materia medica that the cold property of CR could be moderated to be colder by processing with assistant materials with hot property (ginger juice). The work indicates that the metabonomic method is a valuable tool in the research of processing effect on properties of Chinese medicinal substances. The results are helpful to clarify the mechanism of processing CR with ginger juice in the future.

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