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1.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 865-875, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909950

ABSTRACT

Traumatic rib fractures are the most common injury in thoracic trauma. Previously,the patients with traumatic rib fractures were mostly treated non-surgically,of which 50%,especially those combined with flail chest presented chronic pain or chest wall deformities and over 30% had long-term disabilities,being unable to retain a full-time job. In the past two decades,thanks to the development of internal fixation material technology,the surgical treatment of rib fractures has achieved good outcomes. However,there are still some problems in clinical treatment,including inconsistency in surgical treatment and quality control in medical services. The current consensuses on the management of regional traumatic rib fractures published at home and abroad mainly focus on the guidance of the overall treatment decisions and plans,and relevant clinical guidelines abroad lacks progress in surgical treatment of rib fractures in recent years. Therefore,the Chinese Society of Traumatology affiliated to Chinese Medical Association and Chinese College of Trauma Surgeons affiliated to Chinese Medical Doctor Association,in conjunction with national multidisciplinary experts,formulate the Chinese Consensus for Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Rib Fractures(2021)following the principle of evidence-based medicine,scientific nature and practicality. This expert consensus puts forward some clear,applicable,and graded recommendations from aspects of preoperative imaging evaluation,surgical indications,timing of surgery,surgical methods,rib fracture sites for surgical fixation,internal fixation methods and material selections,treatment of combined injuries in rib fractures,in order to provide references for surgical treatment of traumatic rib fractures.

2.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 1390-1394, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801025

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the early diagnosis, therapeutic methods and efficacy for blunt cardiac injury (BCI).@*Methods@#All BCI patients from September 2003 to August 2018 were studied retrospectively in respect of sex, age, cause of injury, diagnostic methods, therapeutic procedures, and outcome. The patients were divided into two groups: nonoperative group (n=305) and operative group (n=43). The two groups were compared and analyzed.@*Results@#Totally 348 BCI patients accounted for 18.3% of 1 903 patients with blunt thoracic injury (BTI), and the mortality rate was 10.1%. The main cause of injury was traffic accident with an incidence of 48.3%. The diagnostic methods included electrocardiogram (ECG), enzymes and troponin I, echocardiography, and CT scanning, or confirmed by emergency thoracatomy. In the nonoperative group, patients were mainly myocardial contusion, with a mortality rate of 6.9%. In the operative group, patients were mainly cardiac rupture and pericardial hernia, and the mortality was 32.6%. The incidence of negative ECG between the two groups was not significantly different (16.7% vs 11.6%, P>0.05). The incidence of shock and mortality in the operative group were significantly higher than those in the the nonoperative group (P<0.01). The number of death directly resulted from BCI in the operative group was greater than that in the nonoperative group (P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#For BTI patients, BCI must be highly suspected, and necessary examinations should be given. To manage myocardial contusion without surgery, it is necessary to protect the heart, alleviate edema of myocardium, and control arrhythmia with drugs. To deal with those patients requiring operation, early recognition and expeditious thoracotomy are essential.

3.
Chinese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 541-545, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756397

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore early diagnosis, surgical intervention and efficacy for blunt cardiac injury. Methods 43 patients with blunt cardiac injury treated operatively were studied retrospectively in respect of sex, age, cause of injury, pre-operative diagnosis, operative time from injury, surgical procedures, and therapeutic efficacy. The study lasted for 15 years be-tween September 2003 and August 2018. The main cause of injury is road traffic accident with a rate of 48. 8%(21/43);and steering wheel injury accounted for 71. 4%(15/21). Preoperative diagnosis was based on computer scaning, echocardiography in 26 cases. In remaining 17, initial judgement of cardiac wound was done because of obvious cardiac tamponade, or massive hemothorax with shock;and was proved during emergent thoracotomy. Surgical intervention was started within one hour in cases of 27. 9%(12/43). Main procedures included pericardial decompression, clear off hemopericardium, and cardiorrhaphy in 36 cases;relief of pericardial herniation with strangulation of the heart in 3 cases, and repair of diaphragmatic hernia involving pericardium in 4 cases. Of all 43 cases, 7 cases underwent Emergent Department Thoracotomy( EDT) with a resuscitative rate of 42. 9%(3/7). Results Overall mortality rate was 32. 6%(14/43);4 cases died at EDT, 5 cases intraoperatively, and 5 cases postoperatively. The cause of deaths was directly related to BCI in 9 cases( associated with transected aorta in 1 case);and associated injuries in 5 cases including liver trauma ( 3 cases ) , brain trauma ( 1 case ) , and cervical spinal trauma ( 1 case) . In 4 of 29 survivors, intracardiac injury was proved by echocardiography postoperatively, including mitral valve in 2 ca-ses, tricuspid in 1 case, and ventricular septum in 1 case. Of these 4 cases 2 received valvuloplasty 2 weeks and 3 months after initial operation respectively;and other 2 restored spontaneously which were ensured by echocardiography. Postoperative com-plications included atelectasis in 3 and infectious endocarditis in 1 respectively. They were cured . All survivors were followed up from 6 to 36 months, with a normal cardiac function and healthy condition. Conclusion Early diagnosis and emergent tho-racotomy in time are essential to improve survival rate. Preoperative massive transfusion and pericardiocentesis are not advoca-ted. If it is necessary, EDT should be exercised decidedly.

4.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 1390-1394, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823615

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the early diagnosis,therapeutic methods and efficacy for blunt cardiac injury (BCI).Methods All BCI patients from September 2003 t9 August 2018 were studied retrospectively in respect of sex,age,cause of injury,diagnostic methods,therapeutic procedures,and outcome.The patients were divided into two groups:nonoperative group (n=305) and operative group (n=43).The two groups were compared and analyzed.Results Totally 348 BCI patients accounted for 18.3% of 1 903 patients with blunt thoracic injury (BTI),and the mortality rate was 10.1%.The main cause of injury was traffic accident with an incidence of 48.3%.The diagnostic methods included electrocardiogram (ECG),enzymes and troponin I,echocardiography,and CT scanning,or confirmed by emergency thoracatomy.In the nonoperative group,patients were mainly myocardial contusion,with a mortality rate of 6.9%.In the operative group,patients were mainly cardiac rupture and pericardial hernia,and the mortality was 32.6%.The incidence of negative ECG between the two groups was not significantly different (16.7% vs 11.6%,P>0.05).The incidence of shock and mortality in the operative group were significantly higher than those in the the nonoperative group (P<0.01).The number of death directly resulted from BCI in the operative group was greater than that in the nonoperative group (P<0.05).Conclusions For BTI patients,BCI must be highly suspected,and necessary examinations should be given.To manage myocardial contusion without surgery,it is necessary to protect the heart,alleviate edema of myocardium,and control arrhythmia with drugs.To deal with those patients requiring operation,early recognition and expeditious thoracotomy are essential.

5.
Chinese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 541-545, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797973

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore early diagnosis, surgical intervention and efficacy for blunt cardiac injury.@*Methods@#43 patients with blunt cardiac injury treated operatively were studied retrospectively in respect of sex, age, cause of injury, preoperative diagnosis, operative time from injury, surgical procedures, and therapeutic efficacy. The study lasted for 15 years between September 2003 and August 2018. The main cause of injury is road traffic accident with a rate of 48.8%(21/43); and steering wheel injury accounted for 71.4%(15/21). Preoperative diagnosis was based on computer scaning, echocardiography in 26 cases. In remaining 17, initial judgement of cardiac wound was done because of obvious cardiac tamponade, or massive hemothorax with shock; and was proved during emergent thoracotomy. Surgical intervention was started within one hour in cases of 27.9%(12/43). Main procedures included pericardial decompression, clear off hemopericardium, and cardiorrhaphy in 36 cases; relief of pericardial herniation with strangulation of the heart in 3 cases, and repair of diaphragmatic hernia involving pericardium in 4 cases. Of all 43 cases, 7 cases underwent Emergent Department Thoracotomy(EDT) with a resuscitative rate of 42.9%(3/7).@*Results@#Overall mortality rate was 32.6%(14/43); 4 cases died at EDT, 5 cases intraoperatively, and 5 cases postoperatively. The cause of deaths was directly related to BCI in 9 cases(associated with transected aorta in 1 case); and associated injuries in 5 cases including liver trauma(3 cases), brain trauma(1 case), and cervical spinal trauma(1 case). In 4 of 29 survivors, intracardiac injury was proved by echocardiography postoperatively, including mitral valve in 2 cases, tricuspid in 1 case, and ventricular septum in 1 case. Of these 4 cases 2 received valvuloplasty 2 weeks and 3 months after initial operation respectively; and other 2 restored spontaneously which were ensured by echocardiography. Postoperative complications included atelectasis in 3 and infectious endocarditis in 1 respectively. They were cured . All survivors were followed up from 6 to 36 months, with a normal cardiac function and healthy condition.@*Conclusion@#Early diagnosis and emergent thoracotomy in time are essential to improve survival rate. Preoperative massive transfusion and pericardiocentesis are not advocated. If it is necessary, EDT should be exercised decidedly.

6.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 968-972, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456759

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a prevalent disease which is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and will be the major economic burden of diseases according to the World Bank /World Health Organization .However , the pathogenesis of COPD is inadequately understood , oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are considered to be two independent path -ogenetic factors , but the epigenetic put them together because of changes of the environment lead to gene abnormal expression .This ar-ticle summarizes the relationship between histone modifications of genes induced by oxidative stress and the inflammation , antioxidant response, apoptosis, autophagy and the differentiation of T cell subsets in the pathogenesis of COPD .The work will provide more choices for clinical treatment of COPD .

7.
Chongqing Medicine ; (36): 3022-3024, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-455963

ABSTRACT

Objective To sum up the experience on diagnosis and treatment of blunt bronchial injuries .Methods From January 2002 to December 2009 ,18 patients with blunt broncheal injuries were admitted .The definitive diagnosis was confirmed by fibro-bronchoscopy .Twelve patients suffered from main bronchial injuries and the remaining 6 patients from lobe bronchial injuries .All patients managed with surgical therapies .Emergent operation was performed in 15 patients and elective operation in 3 patients .End to end bronchial anastomosis was performed in 15 patients and primary repair in 3 patients .Results There was no death in this group .One patient after emergent primary repair developed ischic necrosis in the repair site on 3 the postoperative day and under-went resection of the necrotic tissue followed by end to end anastomsis .Thirteen patients had no complications and were able to take part in normal activities .Anastomotic stricture occurred in 5 patients and managed with granulation tissue resection and cryothera-py .Four patients were healed but one patient underwent lobectomy 6 months later as a result of recurrent stricture and severe dysp-nea .Conclusion Fibrobronchoscopy is able to define the blunt bronchial injuries immediately .Early surgery after trauma can im-prove the successful rate of treatment .

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 580-583, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-426801

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of ISS and new injury severity score (NISS) in evaluation of complications and treatment outcomes in the multiple trauma patients combined with severe chest trauma.Methods AIS-2005 was used to carry out retrospective analysis of the 1 377 multiple trauma patients combined with severe chest trauma (thoracic AIS≥3 points) treated at Chongqing Emergency Medical Center from January 2005 to January 2011.In the meantime,the related NISS and ISS were calculated and their relations with mortality were analyzed.Results The overall healing,mortality and complication rate were 93.2%,6.8% and 28.5% respectively.Both the ISSN and ISS had positive correlation with morbidity of complications ( r =0.569,P <0.01 ;r =0.442,P <0.01 ) and mortality (r =0.693,P < 0.01 ; r =0.774,P < 0.01 ),but a stronger relevance was demonstrated between NISS and morbidity of complications and between ISS and mortality rate.NISS showed a higher sensitivity but less specificity than ISS in prediction of morbidity of complications (P < 0.01 ),and NISS was not superior to ISS in prediction of mortality ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Both NISS and ISS work well in evaluating the complications and treatment outcomes in multiple trauma patients combined with severe chest trauma.Thus,NISS should be applied for prediction of complication occurrence and ISS for treatment outcomes to maximize the prediction accuracy.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 613-616, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-426736

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the standards for management of traumatic intrapulmonary hematoma and hematocele.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the data of 21 patients with traumatic pulmonary hematoma or hematocele (AIS≥4 points) treated at Chongqing Emergency Medical Center from August 1999 to August 2010.Results The overall mortality was 14% (3/21)and death causes were respiratory passage hemorrhea and asphyxia.About 67% of patients ( 14/21 ) were associated with hemoptysis,which lasted for 1-240 days (mean,15.8 days).The duration of hemoptysis due to traumatic intrapulmonary hematoma hematocele was about 3.4 times longer than that due to simple traumatic pneumatocele.The hematoma or cyst disappeared at average 61.6 days,with 3.4 times longer than the disappearance time of intrapulmonary hematoma or hematocele in comparison with that of simple pneumatocele.The size and position of traumatic pulmonary hematoma or pneumatocele influenced the treatment methods,outcomes and prognosis.Conclusions Standardized treatment for traumatic pulmonary hematoma or hematocele is key to improving the cure rate.Early emergency definitive surgery is required for patients with traumatic intrapulmonary hematoma or hematocele greater than 6.0 cm in diameter and for those with pneumatocele greater than 6.0 cm in diameter combined with incapability of keeping breathing due to severe air leakage.

10.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 529-532, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-426650

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors affecting the mortality in patients with severe chest trauma (SCT).Methods A total of 777 patients with SCT (AIS≥ 3) treated at Chongqing Emergency Medical Center from January 2006 to April 2009 were involved for retrospective study.Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to analyze 15 possible risk factors affecting their mortality.Results The factors affecting mortality in patients with SCT included hemorrhagic shock (X6,B =1.710,OR =1.291,P<0.01),multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (X7,B=3.453,OR =1.028,P<0.01 ),pulmonary infection ( X9,B =2.396,OR=10.941,P < 0.01 ),abdominal organ injury (X11,B=1.542,OR=1.210,P<0.01) and thoracic AIS ≥3 (X14,B =0.487,OR =1.622,P<0.01 ).While the protective factors affecting mortality in patients with SCT contained age ≤60 years old (X1,B =-0.035,OR =0.962,P<0.05) and GCS≥12 (X13,B=- 0.635,OR=0.530,P<0.05).Conclusions The age,posttraumatic complications (hemorrhagic shock,MODS,pulmonary infection)and accurate diagnosis and evaluation of trauma severity are the related factors to predict the prognosis.Development of effective treatment measures based on these risk factors plays a key role in the survival rate of patients with SCT.

11.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 107-111, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-396377

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of mobile intensive care and pre-hospital surgical service for patients with severe thoracic injuries so as to further improve success rate of treatment of severe thoracic trauma. Methods A retrospective study was done on the clinical data of 72 patients with severe thoracic injuries (AIS≥3) treated by surgeons from Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (CEMC) from April 1998 to August 2008. The patients were divided into pre-hospital group (n = 36) and in-hospital group (n = 36) according to the time that the definite surgery performed. Results (1) There was no significant statistical difference upon arrival time from scene to primary hospital between two groups (P > 0.05). For patients in pre-hospital group, the time to receive definite surgery was (3.9±4.1) hours, which was significant shorter than (9.6±8.2) hours in in-hospital group (P < 0.05). (2) There were no statistical significant differences upon blood loss volume and blood transfusion volume between two groups (P > 0.05). (3) There was no significant statistical difference upon ISS value between two groups (P > 0.05), but the RTS value of pre-hospital group was significantly lower than that of in-hospital group (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of shock in pre-hospital group was 86.1%, which was significantly higher than 41.7% in in-hospital group (P < 0.05). (4) The percentage of patients who received thoracic close drainage in pre-hospital group was 16.7%, which was significantly higher than 5.6% in in-hospital group. There was no significant statistical difference upon thoracic close drainage plus thoracotomy, thoracic close drainage plus laparotomy and thoracic close drainage plus other operations between two groups. However, the operative rate of thoracic close drainage plus thoracotomy for penetrating injury was 4.8 times higher than that for blunt injury in pre-hospital group, and 1.9 times higher than that for blunt injury in-hospitai group. The operative rate of thoracic close drainage plus laparotomy for blunt injury was 5 times higher than that for penetrating injury in prehospital group, and 4.5 times higher than that for penetrating injury in in-hospital group. The overall survival rate was 95.8% (69/72). Five of eight moribund patients were saved in pre-hospital group, the prevented death rate accounted for 13.9% (5/36) in this group. Conclusions It is flexible, safe and effective to implement mobile intensive care and definite lifesaving surgical interventions for patients with severe thoracic injuries in primary hospitals. After the condition of the patient is stabilized, a quick transportation of the patients to a higher level trauma centers (hospitals) for further treatment may reduce the pre-hospital death rate.

12.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 489-492, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-394389

ABSTRACT

Objective To further improve level of severe chest trauma care in the elderly pa-tients. Methods A retrospective study was done on data of 148 elderly patients (≥65 years with se-vere chest trauma (AIS≥3 points) (elderly group) treated in Chongqing Emergency Medical Center from June 1995 to May 2005. A total of 1669 patients at age less than 65 years and with AIS≥3 points were set as control group in the same research period (control group). Results The main injury mechanism was blunt trauma, which aceouted for 83.8% (124/148) in elderly group, higher than 69.3% (1 157/ 1 669) in control group (P < 0. 01). The injury causes were mainly traffic accidents, slip and fall from a height. Traffic accidents and slip accounted for 66.2% (98/148) and 14.9% (22/148) respectively, which was significantly higher than 50.6% (845/1 669) and 3.1% (52/1 669) respectively in control group (P < 0. 01). There was no statistical difference upon ISS, RTS, GCS and prehospital time between both groups (all P value > 0.05). The fatality rate and indicence rate of complication in the elerly group were 15.5% (23/148) and 25.7% (38/148), which was significantly higher than 6.5% (108/1 669) and 10.4% (174/1 669) respectively in control group (P <0.01). The fatality rate in elderly group with complications was significantly higher than that in control group (51.7% vs 26.7%) (P < 0.01), while those without complications showed no statistical difference between two groups (6.7% :3.5%) (P >0. 05). Conclusions The patient' s age and complications are relative independent factors to es-timate the trauma care outcome. To raise risk awareness and strengthen the management of complications and supportive treatments for organ function are key to improve survival rate of the elderly patients with se-vere chest trauma.

13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 167-172, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313270

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Most studies about FHIT protein expression were performed in normal tracheal epithelium, precancerous lesions and lung cancer tissues respectively, but not in the course of malignant transformation of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to detect the changes of FHIT protein expression during malignant transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK), and to explore its significance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>BEAS-2B cells were induced to malignantly transform (BEAS-2B NNK) by 500mg/L NNK, and FHIT protein expression was detected in the different passages of BEAS-2B NNK and BEAS-2B cells by SP immunocytochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Part 1: Model of malignant transformation of BEAS-2B cells induced by NNK was established. (1) The serum resistance was significantly increased in the 5th passage of BEAS-2B NNK cells. (2) The anchorage independent growth (soft agar colony formation) appeared in the 15th passage of BEAS-2B NNK cells. (3) The ultrastructure of the 20th passage of BEAS-2B NNK cells showed obvious heteromorphy characterization. (4) The 25th passage of BEAS-2B NNK cells developed into tumors in nude mice, which were well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: FHIT protein was steadily expressed in the different passages of BEAS-2B cells (P > 0.05). FHIT protein expression was obviously decreased from 5th to 15th passage of BEAS-2B NNK cells, but it was unexpectedly overexpressed in the 25th passage.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>(1) The model of malignant transformation of BEAS-2B cells induced by NNK (500mg/L) can be established successfully and may be used for investigation of molecular biological mechanisms of lung cancer, especially for smoking-related cases. (2) Decrease of FHIT protein expression might be an early event, however, its overexpression in the late passages should be further studied.</p>

14.
Journal of Chongqing Medical University ; (12)2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-574463

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate chromosome aberration during malignant transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells ( BEAS - 2B) induced by tobacco specific nitrosamine ( NNK) , and explore those significance of early - warning and mass screening of lung cancer in high - risk smoking population. Methods Immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells ( BEAS - 2B) were induced to malignant transformation cells ( BEAS - 2BNNK ) by NNK, and chromosome aberration were detected in the different passage of BEAS - 2BNNK and BEAS - 2B cells by analysis of metaphase chromosome. Results 1. Model of malignant transformation of BEAS -2B cells induced by NNK was created (1)The serum resistance was significantly increased in the 5th passage BEAS - 2BNNK cells.(2) The anchorage independent growth was appeared in the 15th passage. (3)The ultrastructure of the 20th passage BEAS - 2BNNK cells shown obvious heteromorphy characterization. (4)The 25th passage BEAS -2BNNK cells formed tumors in nude mice, and tumors were overdifferentiation squamous cell carcinoma confirmed by histopathological examination. 2. Chromosome aberration (1) BEAS -2B cells hold relatively stable diploid karyotype which ratio was 91%-97% up to the 25th passage. Different passage BEAS -2BNNK cells gradually lost the normal diploid karyotype and the ratio of diploid cells decreased from 83% to 54% , the proportion of polyploid and aneu-ploid cells increased in process of passing generation. (2)The ratio of structure aberration neared to 2% ~ 4% in BEAS - 2BNNK and BE-AS -2B cells but the 25th passage of BEAS -2BNNK cells was 11%. Conclusion The model of malignant transformation of BEAS - 2B cells induced by NNK could be created successfully and provided for investigating the molecular biological mechanism of lung cancer, especially smoking - related cases. The polyploid and aneuploid chromosomes could be the early event in the process of malignant transformation of BEAS - 2B cells induced by NNK. In a word, the chromosome aberration might be useful markers for the early warning and mass screening of lung cancer, especially in high - risk smoking population.

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